Ribonuclease inhibitor 1 regulates erythropoiesis by controlling GATA1 translation.
ABSTRACT: Ribosomal proteins (RP) regulate specific gene expression by selectively translating subsets of mRNAs. Indeed, in Diamond-Blackfan anemia and 5q- syndrome, mutations in RP genes lead to a specific defect in erythroid gene translation and cause anemia. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of selective mRNA translation and involvement of ribosomal-associated factors in this process. Ribonuclease inhibitor 1 (RNH1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that binds to and inhibits pancreatic-type ribonucleases. Here, we report that RNH1 binds to ribosomes and regulates erythropoiesis by controlling translation of the erythroid transcription factor GATA1. Rnh1-deficient mice die between embryonic days E8.5 and E10 due to impaired production of mature erythroid cells from progenitor cells. In Rnh1-deficient embryos, mRNA levels of Gata1 are normal, but GATA1 protein levels are decreased. At the molecular level, we found that RNH1 binds to the 40S subunit of ribosomes and facilitates polysome formation on Gata1 mRNA to confer transcript-specific translation. Further, RNH1 knockdown in human CD34+ progenitor cells decreased erythroid differentiation without affecting myelopoiesis. Our results reveal an unsuspected role for RNH1 in the control of GATA1 mRNA translation and erythropoiesis.
Project description:Erythropoiesis is the complex, dynamic, and tightly regulated process that generates all mature red blood cells. To understand this process, we mapped the developmental trajectories of progenitors from wild-type, erythropoietin-treated, and Flvcr1-deleted mice at single-cell resolution. Importantly, we linked the quantity of each cell's surface proteins to its total transcriptome, which is a novel method. Deletion of Flvcr1 results in high levels of intracellular heme, allowing us to identify heme-regulated circuitry. Our studies demonstrate that in early erythroid cells (CD71+Ter119neg-lo), heme increases ribosomal protein transcripts, suggesting that heme, in addition to upregulating globin transcription and translation, guarantees ample ribosomes for globin synthesis. In later erythroid cells (CD71+Ter119lo-hi), heme decreases GATA1, GATA1-target gene, and mitotic spindle gene expression. These changes occur quickly. For example, in confirmatory studies using human marrow erythroid cells, ribosomal protein transcripts and proteins increase, and GATA1 transcript and protein decrease, within 15 to 30 minutes of amplifying endogenous heme synthesis with aminolevulinic acid. Because GATA1 initiates heme synthesis, GATA1 and heme together direct red cell maturation, and heme stops GATA1 synthesis, our observations reveal a GATA1-heme autoregulatory loop and implicate GATA1 and heme as the comaster regulators of the normal erythroid differentiation program. In addition, as excessive heme could amplify ribosomal protein imbalance, prematurely lower GATA1, and impede mitosis, these data may help explain the ineffective (early termination of) erythropoiesis in Diamond Blackfan anemia and del(5q) myelodysplasia, disorders with excessive heme in colony-forming unit-erythroid/proerythroblasts, explain why these anemias are macrocytic, and show why children with GATA1 mutations have DBA-like clinical phenotypes.
Project description:Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by erythroid hypoplasia, usually without perturbation of other hematopoietic lineages. Approximately 65% of DBA patients with autosomal dominant inheritance have heterozygous mutations or deletions in ribosomal protein (RP) genes while <1% of patients with X-linked inheritance have been identified with mutations in the transcription factor <i>GATA1</i> Erythroid cells from patients with DBA have not been well characterized, and the mechanisms underlying the erythroid specific effects of either RP or <i>GATA1</i> associated DBA remain unclear. We have developed an ex vivo culture system to expand peripheral blood CD34<sup>+</sup> progenitor cells from patients with DBA and differentiate them into erythroid cells. Cells from patients with RP or <i>GATA1</i> mutations showed decreased proliferation and delayed erythroid differentiation in comparison with controls. RNA transcript analyses of erythroid cells from controls and patients with RP or <i>GATA1</i> mutations showed distinctive differences, with upregulation of heme biosynthesis genes prominently in RP-mediated DBA and failure to upregulate components of the translational apparatus in <i>GATA1</i>-mediated DBA. Our data show that dysregulation of translation is a common feature of DBA caused by both RP and <i>GATA1</i> mutations. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00106015.
Project description:GATA1 is a master transcriptional regulator of the differentiation of several related myeloid blood cell types, including erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. Germ-line mutations that cause loss of full length GATA1, but allow for expression of the short isoform (GATA1s), are associated with defective erythropoiesis in a subset of patients with Diamond Blackfan Anemia. Despite extensive studies of GATA1s in megakaryopoiesis, the mechanism by which GATA1s fails to support normal erythropoiesis is not understood. In this study, we used global gene expression and chromatin occupancy analysis to compare the transcriptional activity of GATA1s to GATA1. We discovered that compared to GATA1, GATA1s is less able to activate the erythroid gene expression program and terminal differentiation in cells with dual erythroid-megakaryocytic differentiation potential. Moreover, we found that GATA1s bound to many of its erythroid-specific target genes less efficiently than full length GATA1. These results suggest that the impaired ability of GATA1s to promote erythropoiesis in DBA may be caused by failure to occupy erythroid-specific gene regulatory elements.
Project description:Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (?-globin, ?-globin, ALAS2) were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR) and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1) were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-? mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-? inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by cytokine-mediated apoptosis of erythroblasts.
Project description:GATA1 is essential for the differentiation of erythroid cells and megakaryocytes. The Gata1 gene is composed of multiple untranslated first exons and five common coding exons. The erythroid first exon (IE exon) is important for Gata1 gene expression in hematopoietic lineages. Because previous IE exon knockdown analyses resulted in embryonic lethality, less is understood about the contribution of the IE exon to adult hematopoiesis. Here, we achieved specific deletion of the floxed IE exon in adulthood using an inducible Cre expression system. In this conditional knock-out mouse line, the Gata1 mRNA level was significantly down-regulated in the megakaryocyte lineage, resulting in thrombocytopenia with a marked proliferation of megakaryocytes. By contrast, in the erythroid lineage, Gata1 mRNA was expressed abundantly utilizing alternative first exons. Especially, the IEb/c and newly identified IEd exons were transcribed at a level comparable with that of the IE exon in control mice. Surprisingly, in the IE-null mouse, these transcripts failed to produce full-length GATA1 protein, but instead yielded GATA1 lacking the N-terminal domain inefficiently. With low level expression of the short form of GATA1, IE-null mice showed severe anemia with skewed erythroid maturation. Notably, the hematological phenotypes of adult IE-null mice substantially differ from those observed in mice harboring conditional ablation of the entire Gata1 gene. The present study demonstrates that the IE exon is instrumental to adult erythropoiesis by regulating the proper level of transcription and selecting the correct transcription start site of the Gata1 gene.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible factor promotes erythropoiesis through coordinated cell type-specific hypoxia responses. GATA1 is essential to normal erythropoiesis and plays a crucial role in erythroid differentiation. In this study, we show that hypoxia-induced GATA1 expression is mediated by HIF1 in erythroid cells. Under hypoxic conditions, significantly increased GATA1 mRNA and protein levels were detected in K562 cells and erythroid induction cultures of CD34(+) haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Enforced HIF1? expression increased GATA1 expression, while HIF1? knockdown by RNA interference decreased GATA1 expression. In silico analysis revealed one potential hypoxia response element (HRE). The results from reporter gene and mutation analysis suggested that this element is necessary for hypoxic response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR showed that the putative HRE was recognized and bound by HIF1 in vivo. These results demonstrate that the up-regulation of GATA1 during hypoxia is directly mediated by HIF1.The mRNA expression of some erythroid differentiation markers was increased under hypoxic conditions, but decreased with RNA interference of HIF1? or GATA1. Flow cytometry analysis also indicated that hypoxia, desferrioxamine or CoCl(2) induced expression of erythroid surface markers CD71 and CD235a, while expression repression of HIF1? or GATA1 by RNA interference led to a decreased expression of CD235a. These results suggested that HIF1-mediated GATA1 up-regulation promotes erythropoiesis in order to satisfy the needs of an organism under hypoxic conditions.
Project description:While we have considerable understanding of the transcriptional networks controlling mammalian cell differentiation, our knowledge of posttranscriptional regulatory events is very limited. Using differentiation of primary erythroid cells as a model, we show that the sequence-specific mRNA-binding protein Cpeb4 is strongly induced by the erythroid-important transcription factors Gata1 and Tal1 and is essential for terminal erythropoiesis. By interacting with the translation initiation factor eIF3, Cpeb4 represses the translation of a large set of mRNAs, including its own mRNA. Thus, transcriptional induction and translational repression combine to form a negative feedback loop to control Cpeb4 protein levels within a specific range that is required for terminal erythropoiesis. Our study provides an example of how translational control is integrated with transcriptional regulation to precisely control gene expression during mammalian cell differentiation.
Project description:Erythroid maturation requires the concerted action of a core set of transcription factors. We previously identified the Krüppel-type zinc finger transcription factor Zfp148 (also called ZBP-89) as an interacting partner of the master erythroid transcription factor GATA1. Here we report the conditional knockout of Zfp148 in mice. Global loss of Zfp148 results in perinatal lethality from nonhematologic causes. Selective Zfp148 loss within the hematopoietic system results in a mild microcytic and hypochromic anemia, mildly impaired erythroid maturation, and delayed recovery from phenylhydrazine-induced hemolysis. Based on the mild erythroid phenotype of these mice compared with GATA1-deficient mice, we hypothesized that additional factor(s) may complement Zfp148 function during erythropoiesis. We show that Zfp281 (also called ZBP-99), another member of the Zfp148 transcription factor family, is highly expressed in murine and human erythroid cells. Zfp281 knockdown by itself results in partial erythroid defects. However, combined deficiency of Zfp148 and Zfp281 causes a marked erythroid maturation block. Zfp281 physically associates with GATA1, occupies many common chromatin sites with GATA1 and Zfp148, and regulates a common set of genes required for erythroid cell differentiation. These findings uncover a previously unknown role for Zfp281 in erythroid development and suggest that it functionally overlaps with that of Zfp148 during erythropoiesis.
Project description:Mutations in GATA1, which lead to expression of the GATA1s isoform that lacks the GATA1 N terminus, are seen in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA). In our efforts to better understand the connection between GATA1s and DBA, we comprehensively studied erythropoiesis in Gata1s mice. Defects in yolks sac and fetal liver hematopoiesis included impaired terminal maturation and reduced numbers of erythroid progenitors. RNA-sequencing revealed that both erythroid and megakaryocytic gene expression patterns were altered by the loss of the N terminus, including aberrant upregulation of Gata2 and Runx1. Dysregulation of global H3K27 methylation was found in the erythroid progenitors upon loss of N terminus of GATA1. Chromatin-binding assays revealed that, despite similar occupancy of GATA1 and GATA1s, there was a striking reduction of H3K27me3 at regulatory elements of the Gata2 and Runx1 genes. Consistent with the observation that overexpression of GATA2 has been reported to impair erythropoiesis, we found that haploinsufficiency of Gata2 rescued the erythroid defects of Gata1s fetuses. Together, our integrated genomic analysis of transcriptomic and epigenetic signatures reveals that, Gata1 mice provide novel insights into the role of the N terminus of GATA1 in transcriptional regulation and red blood cell maturation which may potentially be useful for DBA patients.
Project description:The clear connection between ribosome biogenesis dysfunction and specific hematopoiesis-related disorders prompted us to examine the role of critical lineage-specific transcription factors in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes during terminal erythroid differentiation. By applying EMSA and ChIP methodologies in mouse erythroleukemia cells we show that GATA1 and PU.1 bind in vitro and in vivo the proximal promoter region of the RPS19 gene which is frequently mutated in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. Moreover, ChIPseq data analysis also demonstrates that several RP genes are enriched as potential GATA1 and PU.1 gene targets in mouse and human erythroid cells, with GATA1 binding showing an association with higher ribosomal protein gene expression levels during terminal erythroid differentiation in human and mouse. Our results suggest that RP gene expression and hence balanced ribosome biosynthesis may be specifically and selectively regulated by lineage specific transcription factors during hematopoiesis, a finding which may be clinically relevant to ribosomopathies.