Susceptible and Prognostic Genetic Factors Associated with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Comprehensive Literature Review.
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a disorder of glucose metabolism. It is a complex process involving the regulation of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, gluconeogenesis, and glucose uptake at the cellular level. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the debilitating complications that is present in approximately 50% of diabetic patients. It is the primary cause of diabetes-related hospital admissions and nontraumatic foot amputations. The pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy is a complex process that involves hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and altered polyol metabolism that changes the nerve microvasculature, altered growth factor support, and deregulated lipid metabolism. Recent literature has reported that there are several heterogeneous groups of susceptible genetic loci which clearly contribute to the development of DPN. Several studies have reported that some patients with prediabetes develop neuropathic complications, whereas others demonstrated little evidence of neuropathy even after long-standing diabetes. There is emerging evidence that genetic factors may contribute to the development of DPN. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the susceptible and prognostic genetic factors associated with DPN. An extensive survey of the scientific literature published in PubMed using the search terms "Diabetic peripheral neuropathy/genetics" and "genome-wide association study" was carried out, and the most recent and relevant literature were included in this review.
Project description:OBJECTIVE To describe the development and progression of neuropathy and related findings among patients with type 1 diabetes who participated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The main diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) outcome was assessed using clinical symptoms, signs, and nerve conduction study results during DCCT and repeated in EDIC year 13/14. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) was assessed by R-R response to paced breathing, Valsalva ratio, and blood pressure response to standing during DCCT and in EDIC years 13/14 and 16/17. Additionally, symptoms reflecting neuropathic pain and autonomic function (including hypoglycemia awareness) were collected yearly in EDIC using standardized questionnaires; peripheral neuropathy was also assessed annually using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. Assessments of genitourinary function were collected at EDIC year 10. RESULTS Intensive therapy during the DCCT significantly reduced the risk of DPN and CAN at DCCT closeout (64% and 45%, respectively, P < 0.01). The prevalence and incidence of DPN and CAN remained significantly lower in the DCCT intensive therapy group compared with the DCCT conventional therapy group through EDIC year 13/14. CONCLUSIONS The persistent effects of prior intensive therapy on neuropathy measures through 14 years of EDIC largely mirror those observed for other diabetes complications. DCCT/EDIC provides important information on the influence of glycemic control, and the clinical course of diabetic neuropathy, and, most important, on how to prevent neuropathy in type 1 diabetes.
Project description:DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism important for the regulation of gene expression, which plays a vital role in the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Aberrant epigenetic changes are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetic complications, but the role of DNA methylation in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is not well understood. Therefore, our aim in this study was to explore the role of DNA methylation in the progression of DPN in type 2 diabetes. We compared genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of human sural nerve biopsies from subjects with stable or improving nerve fibre counts to biopsies from subjects with progressive loss of nerve fibres. Nerve fibre counts were determined by comparing myelinated nerve fibre densities between an initial and repeat biopsy separated by 52 weeks. Subjects with significant nerve regeneration (regenerators) and subjects with significant nerve degeneration (degenerators) represent the two extreme DPN phenotypes. Using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, we identified 3,460 differentially methylated CpG dinucleotides between the two groups. The genes associated with differentially methylated CpGs were highly enriched in biological processes that have previously been implicated in DPN such as nervous system development, neuron development, and axon guidance, as well as glycerophospholipid metabolism and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling. These findings are the first to provide a comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation profiling in human sural nerves of subjects with DPN and suggest that epigenetic regulation has an important role in the progression of this prevalent diabetic complication.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This study is to elucidate the relationship between a 936C/T mutation at the 3'-untranslated region of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). MATERIAL AND METHODS:All subjects recruited in this study were divided into DM (diabetes without neuropathy, retinopathy or nephropathy), DPN (diabetes with peripheral neuropathy only) and healthy control groups. The gene polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, as well as other clinical methods including serum VEGF by ELISA. RESULTS:The C allele frequency and CC genotype frequency in the DPN group were higher than those in the NC group and DM group. The T allele frequency and CT+TT genotype (carrying the T allele) frequency in the DPN group were lower than those in the NC group (?(2) = 19.051 and 18.533, both p < 0.001) and DM group (?(2) = 11.117 and 11.156, both p = 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the three genotype (CC/CT+TT) frequencies and allele (C/T) frequencies between the DM group and the NC group. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and plasma VEGF positively correlated with DPN, while the 936C/T gene polymorphism of VEGF negatively correlated with DPN. CONCLUSIONS:Allele 936C of VEGF may serve as a genetic marker susceptible to DPN, while allele 936T may be a protective genetic marker of DPN.
Project description:Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes. In this study, we employed a systems biology approach to identify DPN-related transcriptional pathways conserved across human and various murine models. Eight microarray datasets on peripheral nerve samples from murine models of type 1 (streptozotocin-treated) and type 2 (db/db and ob/ob) diabetes of various ages and human subjects with non-progressive and progressive DPN were collected. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between non-diabetic and diabetic samples in murine models, and non-progressive and progressive human samples using a unified analysis pipeline. A transcriptional network for each DEG set was constructed based on literature-derived gene-gene interaction information. Seven pairwise human-vs-murine comparisons using a network-comparison program resulted in shared sub-networks including 46 to 396 genes, which were further merged into a single network of 688 genes. Pathway and centrality analyses revealed highly connected genes and pathways including LXR/RXR activation, adipogenesis, glucocorticoid receptor signalling, and multiple cytokine and chemokine pathways. Our systems biology approach identified highly conserved pathways across human and murine models that are likely to play a role in DPN pathogenesis and provide new possible mechanism-based targets for DPN therapy.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases around the world, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of DM. We used microarrays to identify the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) tissues from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, taking normal SD rats as controls, and tried to find out the related genes which may be involved in the development of DPN. Overall design: We collected bilateral L3-6 DRG tissues from three STZ-induced diabetic rats and three normal SD rats. By using Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Transcriptome Array 1.0, we tried to find out the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases around the world, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of DM. We used microarrays to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) tissues from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, taking normal SD rats as controls, and tried to find out the related genes which may be involved in the development of DPN. Overall design: We collected bilateral L3-6 DRG tissues from three STZ-induced diabetic rats and three normal SD rats. By using Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 4.0 Array, we tried to find out the differentially expressed miRNAs in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Project description:Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and diabetic retinopathy (DR) contribute to significant morbidity and mortality in diabetes patients. The incidence of these complications is increasing with the diabetes epidemic, and current therapies minimally impact their pathogenesis in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Improved mechanistic understanding of each of the diabetic complications is needed in order to develop disease-modifying treatments for patients. We recently identified fundamental differences in mitochondrial responses of peripheral nerve, kidney, and retinal tissues to T2D in BKS-db/db mice. However, whether these mitochondrial adaptations are the cause or consequence of tissue dysfunction remains unclear. In the current study BKS-db/db mice were treated with the mitochondrial uncoupler, niclosamide ethanolamine (NEN), to determine the effects of mitochondrial uncoupling therapy on T2D, and the pathogenesis of DPN, DKD and DR. Here we report that NEN treatment from 6-24 wk of age had little effect on the development of T2D and diabetic complications. Our data suggest that globally targeting mitochondria with an uncoupling agent is unlikely to provide therapeutic benefit for DPN, DKD, or DR in T2D. These data also highlight the need for further insights into the role of tissue-specific metabolic reprogramming in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.
Project description:Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common chronic complications of diabetes. It has become an essential public health crisis, especially for care in the home. Synchronized electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals were obtained from healthy non-diabetic (n = 37) and diabetic (n = 85) subjects without peripheral neuropathy, recruited from the diabetic outpatient clinic. The conventional parameters, including low-/high-frequency power ratio (LHR), small-scale multiscale entropy index (MEISS), large-scale multiscale entropy index (MEILS), electrocardiogram-based pulse wave velocity (PWVmean), and percussion entropy index (PEI), were computed as baseline and were then followed for six years after the initial PEI measurement. Three new diabetic subgroups with different PEI values were identified for the goodness-of-fit test and Cox proportional Hazards model for relative risks analysis. Finally, Cox regression analysis showed that the PEI value was significantly and independently associated with the risk of developing DPN after adjustment for some traditional risk factors for diabetes (relative risks = 4.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.87 to 6.31, p = 0.015). These findings suggest that the PEI is an important risk parameter for new-onset DPN as a result of a chronic complication of diabetes and, thus, a smaller PEI value can provide valid information that may help identify type 2 diabetic patients at a greater risk of future DPN.
Project description:Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes and has been associated with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in diabetes. As asymptomatic myocardial ischemia (MI) is frequent in diabetes, we hypothesized that DPN may be associated with MI in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and no history of cardiovascular events.Eighty-two patients with DPN (n = 41) or without DPN (n = 41) were included. Among the DPN group, 15 had active foot ulcers. All subjects underwent Technetium-99 m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging for the estimation of myocardial ischemia, expressed as Summed Stress Score (SSS). The Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS) was used to quantify DPN and abnormal ratio of the longest electrocardiographic RR interval between the 28th and 32nd beats, after standing to the shortest interval between the 13th and 17th beats (RR ratio) was used as an index of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN).Abnormal SSS was observed in 9.8% of patients without DPN and in 46.3% of patients with DPN (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, NDS was the strongest predictor for SSS (? = 0.32, p = 0.003). When excluding patients with abnormal RR ratio (? = 0.32, p = 0.003) or with foot ulcers (? = 0.24, p = 0.04), this association remained significant. The RR ratio was also significantly associated with SSS in univariate (? = -0.30, p = 0.005) and multiple regressions (? = 0.24, p = 0.02).MI was strongly associated with DPN, and this association remained significant in patients with normal RR ratio. These results suggest that DPN assessment could help in identifying patients at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Project description:Diabetic neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most severe and yet most poorly understood complications of diabetes mellitus. In vivo imaging of dorsal root ganglia (DRG), a key structure for the understanding of DPN, has been restricted to animal studies. These have shown a correlation of decreased DRG volume with neuropathic symptom severity. Our objective was to investigate correlations of DRG morphology and signal characteristics at 3 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) with clinical and serological data in diabetic patients with and without DPN. In this cross-sectional study, participants underwent 3T MRN of both L5 DRG using an isotropic 3D T2-weighted, fat-suppressed sequence with subsequent segmentation of DRG volume and analysis of normalized signal properties. Overall, 55 diabetes patients (66 ± 9 years; 32 men; 30 with DPN) took part in this study. DRG volume was smaller in patients with severe DPN when compared to patients with mild or moderate DPN (134.7 ± 21.86 vs 170.1 ± 49.22; p = 0.040). In DPN patients, DRG volume was negatively correlated with the neuropathy disability score (r = -0.43; 95%CI = -0.66 to -0.14; p = 0.02), a measure of neuropathy severity. DRG volume showed negative correlations with triglycerides (r = -0.40; 95%CI = -0.57 to -0.19; p = 0.006), and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.33; 95%CI = -0.51 to -0.11; p = 0.04). There was a strong positive correlation of normalized MR signal intensity (SI) with the neuropathy symptom score in the subgroup of patients with painful DPN (r = 0.80; 95%CI = 0.46 to 0.93; p = 0.005). DRG SI was positively correlated with HbA1c levels (r = 0.30; 95%CI = 0.09 to 0.50; p = 0.03) and the triglyceride/HDL ratio (r = 0.40; 95%CI = 0.19 to 0.57; p = 0.007). In this first in vivo study, we found DRG morphological degeneration and signal increase in correlation with neuropathy severity. This elucidates the potential importance of MR-based DRG assessments in studying structural and functional changes in DPN.