Time From Imaging to Endovascular Reperfusion Predicts Outcome in Acute Stroke.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:This study aims to describe the relationship between computed tomographic (CT) perfusion (CTP)-to-reperfusion time and clinical and radiological outcomes, in a cohort of patients who achieve successful reperfusion for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS:We included data from the CRISP (Computed Tomographic Perfusion to Predict Response in Ischemic Stroke Project) in which all patients underwent a baseline CTP scan before endovascular therapy. Patients were included if they had a mismatch on their baseline CTP scan and achieved successful endovascular reperfusion. Patients with mismatch were categorized into target mismatch and malignant mismatch profiles, according to the volume of their Tmax >10s lesion volume (target mismatch, <100 mL; malignant mismatch, >100 mL). We investigated the impact of CTP-to-reperfusion times on probability of achieving functional independence (modified Rankin Scale, 0-2) at day 90 and radiographic outcomes at day 5. RESULTS:Of 156 included patients, 108 (59%) had the target mismatch profile, and 48 (26%) had the malignant mismatch profile. In patients with the target mismatch profile, CTP-to-reperfusion time showed no association with functional independence (P=0.84), whereas in patients with malignant mismatch profile, CTP-to-reperfusion time was strongly associated with lower probability of functional independence (odds ratio, 0.08; P=0.003). Compared with patients with target mismatch, those with the malignant mismatch profile had significantly more infarct growth (90 [49-166] versus 43 [18-81] mL; P=0.006) and larger final infarct volumes (110 [61-155] versus 48 [21-99] mL; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with target mismatch patients, those with the malignant profile experience faster infarct growth and a steeper decline in the odds of functional independence, with longer delays between baseline imaging and reperfusion. However, this does not exclude the possibility of treatment benefit in patients with a malignant profile.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine if automated MRI analysis software (RAPID) can be used to identify patients with stroke in whom reperfusion is associated with an increased chance of good outcome.Baseline diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI scans from the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution study (DEFUSE; n=74) and the Echoplanar Imaging Thrombolytic Evaluation Trial (EPITHET; n=100) were reprocessed with RAPID. Based on RAPID-generated diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-weighted imaging lesion volumes, patients were categorized according to 3 prespecified MRI profiles that were hypothesized to predict benefit (Target Mismatch), harm (Malignant), and no effect (No Mismatch) from reperfusion. Favorable clinical response was defined as a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 0 to 1 or a ? 8-point improvement on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at Day 90.In Target Mismatch patients, reperfusion was strongly associated with a favorable clinical response (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.1 to 15.3) and attenuation of infarct growth (10 ± 23 mL with reperfusion versus 40 ± 44 mL without reperfusion; P<0.001). In Malignant profile patients, reperfusion was not associated with a favorable clinical response (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.1 to 5.8) or attenuation of infarct growth (85 ± 74 mL with reperfusion versus 95 ± 79 mL without reperfusion; P=0.7). Reperfusion was also not associated with a favorable clinical response (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.1 to 9.4) or attenuation of lesion growth (10 ± 15 mL with reperfusion versus 17 ± 30 mL without reperfusion; P=0.9) in No Mismatch patients.MRI profiles that are associated with a differential response to reperfusion can be identified with RAPID. This supports the use of automated image analysis software such as RAPID for patient selection in acute stroke trials.
Project description:A nonagenarian patient developed a right middle cerebral artery syndrome during recovery after a right internal carotid artery (ICA) balloon angioplasty. Emergent head computed tomography (CT) revealed no acute ischemic changes; CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) demonstrated a right ICA occlusion with a large right hemispheric predicted core infarct by cerebral blood flow thresholds and minimal mismatch volume. She underwent complete reperfusion in <45 min from symptom onset. Magnetic resonance imaging brain obtained within 48 h showed a decreased infarct volume as that estimated by CTP. This case emphasizes the limitations of estimating the ischemic core with CTP in the golden hour with ultra-early reperfusion and suggests that CTP thresholds should not be used to exclude patients from treatment in the very early time window.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Multiphase computed tomographic angiography (mCTA) provides time variant images of pial vasculature supplying brain in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). To develop a machine learning (ML) technique to predict tissue perfusion and infarction from mCTA source images.<h4>Methods</h4>284 patients with AIS were included from the Precise and Rapid assessment of collaterals using multi-phase CTA in the triage of patients with acute ischemic stroke for Intra-artery Therapy (Prove-IT) study. All patients had non-contrast computed tomography, mCTA, and computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) at baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging/non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Of the 284 patient images, 140 patient images were randomly selected to train and validate three ML models to predict a pre-defined Tmax thresholded perfusion abnormality, core and penumbra on CTP. The remaining 144 patient images were used to test the ML models. The predicted perfusion, core and penumbra lesions from ML models were compared to CTP perfusion lesion and to follow-up infarct using Bland-Altman plots, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and Dice similarity coefficient.<h4>Results</h4>Mean difference between the mCTA predicted perfusion volume and CTP perfusion volume was 4.6 mL (limit of agreement [LoA], -53 to 62.1 mL; P=0.56; CCC 0.63 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.71; P<0.01], ICC 0.68 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.78; P<0.001]). Mean difference between the mCTA predicted infarct and follow-up infarct in the 100 patients with acute reperfusion (modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction [mTICI] 2b/2c/3) was 21.7 mL, while it was 3.4 mL in the 44 patients not achieving reperfusion (mTICI 0/1). Amongst reperfused subjects, CCC was 0.4 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.55; P<0.01) and ICC was 0.42 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.50; P<0.01); in non-reperfused subjects CCC was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.20 to 0.60; P<0.001) and ICC was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). No difference was observed between the mCTA and CTP predicted infarct volume in the test cohort (P=0.67).<h4>Conclusions</h4>A ML based mCTA model is able to predict brain tissue perfusion abnormality and follow-up infarction, comparable to CTP.
Project description:<b>Introduction:</b> The goal of this study is to explore the impact of reperfusion and collateral status on infarct growth in the early and late time windows. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Seventy patients from the DEFUSE 3 trial (Endovascular Therapy Following Imaging Evaluation for Ischemic Stroke) with baseline, 24-h, and late follow-up scans were evaluated. Scans were taken with DWI or CTP at time of enrollment (Baseline), with DWI or CT 24-h after enrollment (24-h), and with DWI or CT 5 days after enrollment (Late). Early infarct growth (between baseline and 24-h scans) and late infarct growth (between 24-h and late scans) was assessed for each patient. The impact of collateral and reperfusion status on infarct growth was assessed in univariate and multivariate regression. <b>Results:</b> The median early infarct growth was 30.3 ml (IQR 16.4-74.5) and the median late infarct growth was 6.7 ml (IQR -3.5-21.6) in the overall sample. Patients with poor collaterals showed greater early infarct growth (Median 58.5 ml; IQR 18.6-125.6) compared to patients with good collaterals (Median 28.4 ml; IQR 15.8-49.3, unadjusted <i>p</i> = 0.04, adjusted <i>p</i> = 0.06) but showed no difference in late infarct growth. In contrast, patients who reperfused showed no reduction in early infarct growth but showed reduced late infarct growth (Median 1.9 ml; IQR -6.1-8.5) compared to patients without reperfusion (Median 11.2 ml; IQR -1.1-27.2, unadjusted <i>p</i> < 0.01, adjusted <i>p</i> = 0.04). <b>Discussion:</b> In the DEFUSE 3 population, poor collaterals predict early infarct growth and absence of reperfusion predicts late infarct growth. These results highlight the need for timely reperfusion therapy, particularly in patients with poor collaterals and indicate that the 24-h timepoint is too early to assess the full impact of reperfusion therapy on infarct growth. <b>Clinical Trial Registration:</b> http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, Unique identifier [NCT02586415].
Project description:Whole brain computed tomography perfusion (CTP) has the potential to select eligible patients for reperfusion therapy. We aimed to find the optimal thresholds on baseline CTP for ischemic core and penumbra in acute ischemic stroke. We reviewed patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation, who underwent baseline whole brain CTP, followed by intravenous thrombolysis and perfusion imaging at 24 hours. Patients were divided into those with major reperfusion (to define the ischemic core) and minimal reperfusion (to define the extent of penumbra). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and volumetric consistency analysis were performed separately to determine the optimal threshold by Youden's Index and mean magnitude of volume difference, respectively. From a series of 103 patients, 22 patients with minimal-reperfusion and 47 with major reperfusion were included. Analysis revealed delay time ? 3 s most accurately defined penumbra (AUC = 0.813; 95% CI, 0.812-0.814, mean magnitude of volume difference = 29.1 ml). The optimal threshold for ischemic core was rCBF ? 30% within delay time ? 3 s (AUC = 0.758; 95% CI, 0.757-0.760, mean magnitude of volume difference = 10.8 ml). In conclusion, delay time ? 3 s and rCBF ? 30% within delay time ? 3 s are the optimal thresholds for penumbra and core, respectively. These results may allow the application of the mismatch on CTP to reperfusion therapy.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is used to diagnose ischemic strokes through contralateral hemisphere comparisons of various perfusion parameters. Various perfusion parameter thresholds have been utilized to segment infarct tissue due to differences in CTP software and patient baseline hemodynamics. This study utilized a convolutional neural network (CNN) to eliminate the need for non-universal parameter thresholds to segment infarct tissue.<h4>Methods</h4>CTP data from 63 ischemic stroke patients was retrospectively collected and perfusion parameter maps were generated using Vitrea CTP software. Infarct ground truth labels were segmented from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and CTP and DWI volumes were registered. A U-net based CNN was trained and tested five separate times using each CTP parameter (cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time-to-peak (TTP), mean-transit-time (MTT), delay time). 8,352 infarct slices were utilized with a 60:30:10 training:testing:validation split and Monte Carlo cross-validation was conducted using 20 iterations. Infarct volumes were reconstructed following segmentation from each CTP slice. Infarct spatial and volumetric agreement was compared between each CTP parameter and DWI.<h4>Results</h4>Spatial agreement metrics (Dice coefficient, positive predictive value) for each CTP parameter in predicting infarct volumes are: CBF=(0.67, 0.76), CBV=(0.44, 0.62), TTP=(0.60, 0.67), MTT=(0.58, 0.62), delay time=(0.57, 0.60). 95% confidence intervals for volume differences with DWI infarct are: CBF=14.3±11.5 mL, CBV=29.6±21.2 mL, TTP=7.7±15.2 mL, MTT=-10.7±18.6 mL, delay time=-5.7±23.6 mL.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CBF is the most accurate CTP parameter in segmenting infarct tissue. Segmentation of infarct using a CNN has the potential to eliminate non-universal CTP contralateral hemisphere comparison thresholds.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Perfusion-diffusion mismatch has been evaluated to determine whether the presence of a target mismatch helps to identify patients who respond favorably to recanalization therapies. We compared the impact on infarct growth of collateral status and the presence of a penumbra, using magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) techniques. METHODS:Consecutive patients who were candidates for recanalization therapy and underwent serial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MRP were enrolled. A collateral flow map derived from MRP source data was generated by automatic post-processing. The impact of a target mismatch (Tmax>6 s/apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volume?1.8, ADC volume<70 mL; and Tmax>10 s for ADC volume<100 mL) on infarct growth was compared with MR-based collateral grading on day 7 DWI, using multivariate linear regression analysis. RESULTS:Among 73 patients, 55 (75%) showed a target mismatch, whereas collaterals were poor in 14 (19.2%), intermediate in 36 (49.3%), and good in 23 (31.5%) patients. After adjusting for initial severity of stroke, early recanalization (P<0.001) and the MR-based collateral grading (P=0.001), but not the presence of a target mismatch, were independently associated with infarct growth. Even in patients with a target mismatch and successful recanalization, the degree of infarct growth depended on the collateral status. Perfusion status at later Tmax time points (beyond the arterial phase) was more closely correlated with collateral status. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with good collaterals show a favorable outcome in terms of infarct growth, regardless of the presence of a target mismatch pattern. The presence of slow blood filling predicts collateral status and infarct growth.
Project description:Imaging protocols for acute ischemic stroke varies significantly from center to center leading to challenges in research translation. We aimed to assess the inter-rater reliability of collateral grading systems derived from dynamic computed tomography angiography (CTA) and an optimized multiphase CTA and, to analyze the association of the two CTA modalities with CT perfusion (CTP) compartments by comparing the accuracy of dynamic CTA (dCTA) and optimized multiphase CTA (omCTA) in identifying CT perfusion (CTP) target mismatch patients. Acute ischemic stroke patients with a proximal large vessel occlusion who underwent whole brain CTP were included in the study. Collateral status were assessed using ASPECTS collaterals (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score on Collaterals) and ASITN/SIR collateral system (the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology) on dCTA and omCTA. Eighty-one patients were assessed, with a median ischemic core volume of 29 mL. The collateral assessment with ASPECTS collaterals using dCTA have a similar inter-rater agreement (K-alpha: 0.71) compared to omCTA (K-alpha: 0.69). However, the agreement between dCTA and CTP in classifying patients with target mismatch was higher compared to omCTA (Kappa, dCTA: 0.81; omCTA: 0.64). We found dCTA was more accurate than omCTA in identifying target mismatch patients with proximal large vessel occlusion.
Project description:We aimed to evaluate how predefined candidate cerebral perfusion parameters correlate with collateral circulation status and to assess their capacity to predict infarct growth in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) eligible for endovascular therapy. Patients enrolled in the SWIFT PRIME trial with baseline computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans were included. RAPID software was used to calculate mean relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in hypoperfused regions, and hypoperfusion index ratio (HIR). Blind assessments of collaterals were performed using CT angiography in the whole sample and cerebral angiogram in the endovascular group. Reperfusion was assessed on 27-h CTP; infarct volume was assessed on 27-h magnetic resonance imaging/CT scans. Logistic and rank linear regression models were conducted. We included 158 patients. High rCBV ( p = 0.03) and low HIR ( p = 0.03) were associated with good collaterals. A positive association was found between rCBV and better collateral grades on cerebral angiography ( p = 0.01). Baseline and 27-h follow-up CTP were available for 115 patients, of whom 74 (64%) achieved successful reperfusion. Lower rCBV predicted a higher infarct growth in successfully reperfused patients ( p = 0.038) and in the endovascular treatment group ( p = 0.049). Finally, rCBV and HIR may serve as markers of collateral circulation in AIS patients prior to endovascular therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:Unique identifier: NCT0165746.
Project description:To refine the definition of the malignant magnetic resonance imaging profile in acute stroke patients using baseline diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PWI) findings from the pooled DEFUSE/EPITHET database.Patients presenting with acute stroke within 3 to 6 hours from symptom onset were treated with tissue plasminogen activator or placebo. Baseline and follow-up DWI and PWI images from both studies were reprocessed using the same software program. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify Tmax and DWI volumes that optimally predicted poor outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 5-6) at 90 days in patients who achieved reperfusion.Sixty-five patients achieved reperfusion and 46 did not reperfuse. Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified a PWI (Tmax>8 s) volume of >85 mL as the optimal definition of the malignant profile. Eighty-nine percent of malignant profile patients had poor outcome with reperfusion versus 39% of patients without reperfusion (P=0.02). Parenchymal hematomas occurred more frequently in malignant profile patients who experienced reperfusion versus no reperfusion (67% versus 11%, P<0.01). DWI analysis identified a volume of 80 mL as the best DWI threshold, but this definition was less sensitive than were PWI-based definitions.Stroke patients likely to suffer parenchymal hemorrhages and poor outcomes following reperfusion can be identified from baseline magnetic resonance imaging findings. The current analysis demonstrates that a PWI threshold (Tmax>8 s) of approximately 100 mL is appropriate for identifying these patients. Exclusion of malignant profile patients from reperfusion therapies may substantially improve the efficacy and safety of reperfusion therapies. Clinical Trial Registration Information- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00238537.