Randomised controlled trial of rhinothermy for treatment of the common cold: a feasibility study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of rhinothermy for the common cold. DESIGN:Open label, randomised, controlled feasibility study. SETTING:Single-centre research institute in New Zealand recruiting participants from the community. PARTICIPANTS:30 adult participants with symptoms of a common cold, presenting within 48?hours of the onset of symptoms. INTERVENTIONS:Participants were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive either 35?L/min of 100% humidified air at 41°C via high flow nasal cannulae, 2?hours per day for up to 5?days (rhinothermy), or vitamin C 250?mg daily for 5?days (control). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was the proportion of screened candidates who were randomised. Secondary outcomes included: proportion of randomised participants who completed the study; modified Jackson scores from randomisation to 10 days after initiation of randomised regimen; time until feeling 'a lot better' compared with study entry; time until resolution of symptoms or symptom score at 10 days postrandomisation; proportion of organisms identified by PCR analysis of nasal swabs taken at baseline; the patterns of use of the rhinothermy device; estimated adherence of the control group; and rhinothermy device tolerability. RESULTS:In all 30/79 (38%, 95%?CI 27% to 50%) of potential participants screened for eligibility were randomised. Rhinothermy was well tolerated, and all randomised participants completed the study (100%, 95%?CI 88% to 100%). The reduction from baseline in the modified Jackson score was greater with rhinothermy compared with control at days 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, with the maximum difference at day 4 (-6.4, 95%?CI -9.4 to -3.3). The substantial clinical benefit threshold for modified Jackson score was a 5-unit change. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that an RCT of rhinothermy compared with low-dose vitamin C in the treatment of the common cold is feasible. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN12616000470493; Results.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The common cold is the most common infectious disease affecting humans. It is usually a self-limiting disease; however, the common cold can cause significant morbidity and has a substantial economic impact on society. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), which cause up to two-thirds of colds, have temperature-dependent replication and most HRV strains replicate optimally at 33°C. Delivery of heated, humidified air to the upper airways has the potential to reduce viral replication, but evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment of the common cold is inconclusive. We plan to test the hypothesis that delivery of humidified air heated to 41°C at high flow, nasal high flow rhinothermy (rNHF), for 2 hours daily for five days is more effective in reducing common cold symptom severity and duration than five days of 'sham' rhinothermy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a randomised, single-blind, parallel-group trial comparing rNHF to 'sham' rhinothermy in the treatment of common cold. We plan to recruit 170 participants within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms of common cold and randomise them 1:1 to receive one of the two treatments for five days. The study duration is 14 days, which includes clinic visits on the first day of randomisation and four days post-randomisation, and a phone call on the 14th day. Participants will complete daily symptom diaries which include a symptom score, the Modified Jackson Score (MJS). The primary outcome is the MJS after four days. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:New Zealand Ethics Registration: 17/STH/174. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, presented at academic meetings, and reported to participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:U1111-1194-4345 and ACTRN12617001340325; Pre-results.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine a commercially available zinc acetate lozenge for treating the common cold. DESIGN:Randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING:Working population in Finland. PARTICIPANTS:We included men and women aged ?18 years who usually had ?1?cold per winter. Exclusions were pregnancy, lactation, chronic runny nose or chronic cough. INTERVENTION:We randomised 253 participants to receive a package of lozenges to be taken if they caught the common cold. Of the 253 participants, 88 contracted the common cold and 87 were included in our primary analysis. Zinc acetate lozenges contained 13?mg elemental zinc and placebo lozenges contained sucrose octa-acetate to camouflage the taste of zinc. Instruction to use was six times per day for the maximum of 5 days. PRIMARY OUTCOME:Rate of recovery from the common cold analysed by Cox regression. RESULTS:There was no difference in the recovery rate between zinc and placebo participants during the 10-day follow-up (rate ratio for zinc vs placebo=0.68, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.08; p=0.10). The recovery rate for the two groups was similar during the 5-day intervention, but for 2 days after the end of zinc/placebo use, the zinc participants recovered significantly slower compared with the placebo participants (p=0.003). In the zinc group, 37% did not report adverse effects, the corresponding proportion being 69% in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS:A commercially available zinc acetate lozenge was not effective in treating the common cold when instructed to be used for 5 days after the first symptoms. Taste has been a common problem in previous zinc lozenge trials, but a third of zinc participants did not complain of any adverse effects. More research is needed to evaluate the characteristics of zinc lozenges that may be clinically efficacious before zinc lozenges can be widely promoted for common cold treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03309995.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Worldwide, about 90% of people are infected with the herpes simplex virus, 30% of whom will experience recurrent herpes simplex labialis, commonly referred to as 'cold sores', which can last up to 10 days. The most common treatment is aciclovir cream which reduces healing time by just half a day compared with no specific treatment. This is a protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine the efficacy of medical grade kanuka honey-based topical treatment (Honevo) in reducing the healing time and pain of cold sores, compared with topical aciclovir treatment (Viraban). METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This open-label, parallel-group, active comparator superiority RCT will compare the efficacy of medical grade kanuka honey with 5% aciclovir cream in the treatment of cold sores in the setting of a pharmacy research network of 60 sites throughout New Zealand. Adults presenting with a cold sore (N=950) will be randomised by pharmacy-based investigators. The pharmacy-based investigators will dispense the investigational product to randomised participants and both study groups apply the treatment five times daily until their skin returns to normal or for 14 days, whichever occurs first. In response to a daily SMS message, participants complete an assessment of their cold sore healing, with reference to a visual guide, and transmit it to the investigators by a smartphone eDiary in real time. The primary outcome variable is time (in days) from randomisation to return to normal skin. Secondary endpoints include total healing time stratified by stage of the lesion at onset of treatment, highest pain severity and time to pain resolution. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:New Zealand Ethics Registration 15/NTB/93. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, presented at academic meetings and reported to participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615000648527, pre-results.SCOTT Registration: 15/SCOTT/14 PROTOCOL VERSION: 4.0 (12 June 2017).
Project description:BACKGROUND: The common cold is the most widespread viral infection in humans. Iota-carrageenan has previously shown antiviral effectiveness against cold viruses in clinical trials. This study investigated the efficacy of a carrageenan-containing nasal spray on the duration of the common cold and nasal fluid viral load in adult patients. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 211 patients suffering from early symptoms of the common cold were treated for seven days. Application was performed three times daily with either a carrageenan-supplemented nasal spray or saline solution as placebo with an overall observation period of 21 days. The primary endpoint was the duration of disease defined as the time until the last day with symptoms followed by all other days in the study period without symptoms. During the study, but prior unblinding, the definition of disease duration was adapted from the original protocol that defines disease duration as the time period of symptoms followed by 48 hours without symptoms. RESULTS: In patients showing a laboratory-confirmed cold virus infection and adherence to the protocol, alleviation of symptoms was 2.1 days faster in the carrageenan group in comparison to placebo (p?=?0.037). The primary endpoint that had been prespecified but was changed before unblinding was not met. Viral titers in nasal fluids showed a significantly greater decrease in carrageenan patients in the intention-to-treat population (p?=?0.024) and in the per protocol population (p?=?0.018) between days 1 and 3/4. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with common cold virus infections, direct local administration of carrageenan with nasal sprays reduced the duration of cold symptoms. A significant reduction of viral load in the nasal wash fluids of patients confirmed similar findings from earlier trials in children and adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN80148028.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. METHODS: We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1-18 years (mean age 5 years), displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12%) as verum or 0.9% sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. RESULTS: The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2-7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p?=?0.038), reduction of viral load (p?=?0.026), and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p?=?0.046) indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo. CONCLUSION: In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/
Project description:Dietary supplements have been suggested in the prevention of the common cold, but previous investigations have been inconsistent. The present study was designed to determine the preventive effect of a dietary supplement from fruits and vegetables on common cold symptoms. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthcare professionals (mainly nursing staff aged 18-65 years) from a university hospital in Berlin, Germany, were randomised to four capsules of dietary supplement (Juice Plus+®) or matching placebo daily for 8 months, including a 2-month run-in period. The number of days with moderate or severe common cold symptoms within 6 months (primary outcome) was assessed by diary self-reports. We determined means and 95 % CI, and differences between the two groups were analysed by ANOVA. A total of 529 subjects were included into the primary analysis (Juice Plus+®: 263, placebo: 266). The mean age of the participants was 39·9 (sd 10·3) years, and 80 % of the participants were female. The mean number of days with moderate or severe common cold symptoms was 7·6 (95 % CI 6·5, 8·8) in the Juice Plus+® group and 9·5 (8·4, 10·6) in the placebo group (P = 0·023). The mean number of total days with any common cold symptoms was similar in the Juice Plus+® and in the placebo groups (29·4 (25·8, 33·0) v. 30·7 (27·1, 34·3), P = 0·616). Intake of a dietary supplement from fruits and vegetables was associated with a 20 % reduction of moderate or severe common cold symptom days in healthcare professionals particularly exposed to patient contact.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The common cold, the most prevalent contagious viral disease in humans still lacks a safe and effective antiviral treatment. Iota-Carrageenan is broadly active against respiratory viruses in-vitro and has an excellent safety profile. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray in patients with common cold symptoms. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory trial, 35 human subjects suffering from early symptoms of common cold received Iota-Carrageenan (0.12%) in a saline solution three times daily for 4 days, compared to placebo. RESULTS: Administration of Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray reduced the symptoms of common cold (p = 0.046) and the viral load in nasal lavages (p = 0.009) in patients with early symptoms of common cold. Pro-inflammatory mediators FGF-2, Fractalkine, GRO, G-CSF, IL-8, IL-1alpha, IP-10, IL-10, and IFN-alpha2 were reduced in the Iota-Carrageenan group. CONCLUSIONS: Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray appears to be a promising treatment for safe and effective treatment of early symptoms of common cold. Larger trials are indicated to confirm the results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) has become a popular mode of non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) in critically ill children, there are no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing it with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We performed a pilot RCT to explore the feasibility, and inform the design and conduct, of a future large pragmatic RCT comparing HFNC and CPAP in paediatric critical care. METHODS:In this multi-centre pilot RCT, eligible patients were recruited to either Group A (step-up NRS) or Group B (step-down NRS). Participants were randomised (1:1) using sealed opaque envelopes to either CPAP or HFNC as their first-line mode of NRS. Consent was sought after randomisation in emergency situations. The primary study outcomes were related to feasibility (number of eligible patients in each group, proportion of eligible patients randomised, consent rate, and measures of adherence to study algorithms). Data were collected on safety and a range of patient outcomes in order to inform the choice of a primary outcome measure for the future RCT. RESULTS:Overall, 121/254 eligible patients (47.6%) were randomised (Group A 60%, Group B 44.2%) over a 10-month period (recruitment rate for Group A, 1 patient/site/month; Group B, 2.8 patients/site/month). In Group A, consent was obtained in 29/33 parents/guardians approached (87.9%), while in Group B 84/118 consented (71.2%). Intention-to-treat analysis included 113 patients (HFNC 59, CPAP 54). Most reported adverse events were mild/moderate (HFNC 8/59, CPAP 9/54). More patients switched treatment from HFNC to CPAP (Group A: 7/16, 44%; Group B: 9/43, 21%) than from CPAP to HFNC (Group A: 3/13, 23%; Group B: 5/41, 12%). Intubation occurred within 72 h in 15/59 (25.4%) of HFNC patients and 10/54 (18.5%) of CPAP patients (p?=?0.38). HFNC patients experienced fewer ventilator-free days at day 28 (Group A: 19.6 vs. 23.5; Group B: 21.8 vs. 22.2). CONCLUSIONS:Our pilot trial confirms that, following minor changes to consent procedures and treatment algorithms, it is feasible to conduct a large national RCT of non-invasive respiratory support in the paediatric critical care setting in both step-up and step-down NRS patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02612415 . Registered on 23 November 2015.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Two studies of intranasal 0.5% carbomer 980 gel were conducted evaluating nasal tolerability in healthy volunteers and safety and efficacy in adults with common cold symptoms. METHODS:Study 1 randomly assigned healthy adults to 0.5% carbomer 980 gel (n?=?20) or placebo (n?=?10) administered intranasally four times daily for 7 days. Nasal examinations were conducted at baseline and daily throughout the study. The primary endpoint was local nasal tolerability. Study 2 randomly assigned adults with an investigator-confirmed diagnosis of symptomatic common cold to 0.5% carbomer 980 gel (n?=?87) or placebo (n?=?81), administered intranasally four times daily for 7 days (except for day 1, where subjects who received their first dose mid-day administered only three doses). The primary efficacy endpoint was the average nasal symptom score over days 1?4 (ANSS1-4). Secondary efficacy endpoints included ANSS over days 1?7 and average total symptom score (ATSS). Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. RESULTS:In study 1, subjects assigned to 0.5% carbomer 980 gel had no mucosal grading higher than grade 1B (superficial nasal mucosal erosion) and low incidences of mucosal bleeding and crusting. In study 2, there were no statistically significant differences between treatments for any efficacy endpoints. Active treatment was well-tolerated; the most commonly reported AEs were headache, myalgia, and cough. CONCLUSION:While 0.5% carbomer 980 gel nasal spray demonstrated good local nasal tolerability in healthy volunteers, the spray did not significantly impact the course of infection or resolution of cold symptoms in subjects with common cold.
Project description:The impact of proper aspiration of nasal secretions during upper respiratory infection on the frequency and severity of symptoms of lower airways has never been investigated. The study was aimed at testing if cleaning the nasal cavities of children with recurrent wheezing using an automatic nasal aspirator improves the upper and lower respiratory symptoms during the cold season.Parents of wheezing children (age 3-72?mo.) answered questionnaires and learned using a nebulizer equipped (cases) or not equipped (controls) with an automatic nasal aspirator (DuoBaby, OMRON, Japan). During a 90-days monitoring period parents filled an electronic diary (BreathMonitor, TPS, Rome, Italy) on their child's symptoms of the upper and lower airways.Eighty-nine/91 patients (43 cases, 46 controls) completed the study. Less days with upper (25.0% vs 46.4%, p?=?0.004) or lower (21.8% vs 32.8%, p?=?0.022) airways symptoms and less days with salbutamol inhalation (12.2% vs 16.9%, p?<?0.001) were reported by cases than by controls. The episodes of upper respiratory symptoms were shorter [4.3 days (95%CI:3.8-4.9) vs 5.7 days (95%CI:5.0-6.4), p?=?0.007] but not less frequent [2.3 (95%CI: 1.8-2.8) vs 2.6 (95%CI:2.2-3.0), p?=?0.122] among cases than among controls. Similarly, the episodes of lower respiratory symptoms tended to be shorter [3.8 days, (95%CI: 3.4-4.2) vs 4.4 days, (95%CI: 4.4-6.0), p?=?0.067] but not less frequent [1.9 (95%CI:1.5-2.3) vs 2.1 (95%CI:1.7-2.4), p?=?0.240] among the group using the nasal aspirator.In our pilot study, the use of an automatic nasal aspirator in children with a history of recurrent wheezing was associated with an improved respiratory health during the cold season.