Association of Vitamin A Supplementation With Disease Course in Children With Retinitis Pigmentosa.
ABSTRACT: While oral vitamin A supplementation is considered to potentially slow loss of retinal function in adults with retinitis pigmentosa and normal liver function, little data from children with this disease are available.To compare disease courses in children with retinitis pigmentosa taking or not taking vitamin A supplementation.Retrospective, nonrandomized comparison of vitamin A and control cohorts followed up for a mean of 4 to 5 years by the Electroretinography Service of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. The study included children with different genetic types of typical retinitis pigmentosa: 55 taking vitamin A and 25 not taking vitamin A. The dates for patient evaluations ranged from June 1976 to July 2016, and the data analysis occurred in October 2016.Age-adjusted dose of oral vitamin A palmitate (≤15 000 IU/d).Mean exponential rates of change of full-field cone electroretinogram amplitude to 30-Hz flashes estimated by repeated-measures longitudinal regression without and with adjusting for potential confounders.Of the 55 children in the vitamin A cohort, 38 (69%) were male; the mean [SD] age was 9.1 [1.9] years; and 48 (87%) were white , 6 (11%) were Asian, and 1 (2%) was black. Of the 25 members of the control cohort, 19 (76%) were male; the mean [SD] age was 9.2 [1.7] years; and 25 (100%) were white. The estimated mean rates of change with the unadjusted model were -0.0713 loge unit/y (-6.9% per year) for the vitamin A cohort and -0.1419 loge unit per year (-13.2% per year) for the control cohort (difference, 0.0706 loge unit per year; 95% CI for the difference, 0.0149-0.1263 loge unit per year; P = .01). The adjusted model confirmed a slower mean rate of decline in the vitamin A cohort (difference, 0.0771 loge-unit per year; 95% CI for the difference, 0.0191-0.1350 loge-unit per year; P = .009). With respect to ocular safety, the mean exponential rates of change of visual field area and visual acuity and the incidences of falling to a visual field diameter of 20° or less or a visual acuity of 20/200 or less in at least 1 eye did not differ by cohort.A vitamin A palmitate supplement was associated with a slower loss of cone electroretinogram amplitude in children with retinitis pigmentosa. Although the relatively small-sample, retrospective, nonrandomized design does not allow a test of causation and is subject to possible biases, these findings support consideration of an age-adjusted dose of vitamin A in the management of most children with the common forms of retinitis pigmentosa.
Project description:To determine whether lutein supplementation will slow visual function decline in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A.Randomized, controlled, double-masked trial of 225 nonsmoking patients, aged 18 to 60 years, evaluated over a 4-year interval. Patients received 12 mg of lutein or a control tablet daily. All were given 15,000 IU/d of vitamin A palmitate. Randomization took into account genetic type and baseline serum lutein level.The primary outcome was the total point score for the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) 30-2 program; prespecified secondary outcomes were the total point scores for the 60-4 program and for the 30-2 and 60-4 programs combined, 30-Hz electroretinogram amplitude, and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study acuity.No significant difference in rate of decline was found between the lutein plus vitamin A and control plus vitamin A groups over a 4-year interval for the HFA 30-2 program. For the HFA 60-4 program, a decrease in mean rate of sensitivity loss was observed in the lutein plus vitamin A group (P = .05). Mean decline with the 60-4 program was slower among those with the highest serum lutein level or with the highest increase in macular pigment optical density at follow-up (P = .01 and P = .006, respectively). Those with the highest increase in macular pigment optical density also had the slowest decline in HFA 30-2 and 60-4 combined field sensitivity (P = .005). No significant toxic effects of lutein supplementation were observed.Lutein supplementation of 12 mg/d slowed loss of midperipheral visual field on average among nonsmoking adults with retinitis pigmentosa taking vitamin A. Application to Clinical Practice Data are presented that support use of 12 mg/d of lutein to slow visual field loss among nonsmoking adults with retinitis pigmentosa taking vitamin A.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00346333.
Project description:PURPOSE:Variants in PRPF31, a splicing factor, are a common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Deleterious variants are thought to cause disease by haploinsufficiency. In anticipation of upcoming replacement gene therapy trials, we present the phenotype and clinical progression of a large cohort of patients with PRPF31-mediated RP. DESIGN:Cross-sectional with retrospective review. METHODS:A total of 26 patients with RP and 5 asymptomatic individuals, all with deleterious variants in PRPF31 (from 13 families), were selected from our database of patients followed longitudinally. Ages ranged from 9 to 77 years (mean 47 years), with an average follow-up time of 16 years. All patients underwent ophthalmic examination including psychophysical tests, electrophysiology, and imaging. All available records were reviewed retrospectively. Additionally, all patients were contacted, and all available patients (n = 7) were examined in an additional prospective follow-up visit. RESULTS:Age of onset ranged from 6 to 71 years, without apparent relationship to specific variant. Two adults (aged 42 and 77 years) and 3 teenaged children were found to harbor a mutation with no evidence of RP. In those with RP, visual field area (spot size III) declined exponentially at a rate of 8.1% per year of disease duration (P < .001, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.6-10.6), cone electroretinogram amplitude declined exponentially at a rate of 7.3% per year of disease duration (P < .001, 95% CI 5.4-9.1), and ellipsoid zone area declined exponentially at a rate of 5.4% per year of disease duration (P < .001, 95% CI 3.7-7.1). CONCLUSIONS:PRPF31-mediated retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by a variable age of onset. Once disease develops, it follows a predictable exponential time course.
Project description:Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of genetic disorders that involves the breakdown and loss of photoreceptors in the retina, resulting in progressive retinal degeneration and eventual blindness. The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System is the only currently available surgical implantable device approved by Health Canada. It has been shown to improve visual function in patients with severe visual loss from advanced retinitis pigmentosa. The objective of this analysis was to examine the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, budget impact, and safety of the Argus II system in improving visual function, as well as exploring patient experiences with the system.We performed a systematic search of the literature for studies examining the effects of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system in patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa, and appraised the evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, focusing on visual function, functional outcomes, quality of life, and adverse events. We developed a Markov decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of the Argus II system compared with standard care over a 10-year time horizon. We also conducted a 5-year budget impact analysis. We used a qualitative design and an interview methodology to examine patients' lived experience, and we used a modified grounded theory methodology to analyze information from interviews. Transcripts were coded, and themes were compared against one another.One multicentre international study and one single-centre study were included in the clinical review. In both studies, patients showed improved visual function with the Argus II system. However, the sight-threatening surgical complication rate was substantial. In the base-case analysis, the Argus II system was cost-effective compared with standard care only if willingness-to-pay was more than $207,616 per quality-adjusted life-year. The 5-year budget impact of funding the Argus II system ranged from $800,404 to $837,596. Retinitis pigmentosa significantly affects people's ability to navigate physical and virtual environments. Argus II was described as enabling the fundamental elements of sight. As such, it had a positive impact on quality of life for people with retinitis pigmentosa.Based on evidence of moderate quality, patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa who were implanted with the Argus II retinal prosthesis system showed significant improvement in visual function, real-life functional outcomes, and quality of life, but there were complications associated with the surgery that could be managed through standard ophthalmologic treatments. The costs for the technology are high.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To provide clinical data on a cohort of 6 patients with massive expansion (>200 CAG repeats) of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and investigate possible pathways of pathogenesis using bioinformatics analysis of ATXN2 networks.<h4>Methods</h4>We present data on 6 patients with massive expansion of SCA2 who presented in infancy with variable combinations of hypotonia, global developmental delay, infantile spasms, and retinitis pigmentosa. ATXN2 is known to interact with a network of synaptic proteins. To investigate pathways of pathogenesis, we performed bioinformatics analysis on ATXN2 combined with known genes associated with infantile spasms, retinitis pigmentosa, and synaptic function.<h4>Results</h4>All patients had a progressive encephalopathy with autonomic dysfunction, 4 had retinitis pigmentosa, and 3 had infantile spasms. The bioinformatics analysis led to several interesting findings. First, an interaction between ATXN2 and SYNJ1 may account for the development of retinitis pigmentosa. Second, dysfunction of postsynaptic vesicle endocytosis may be important in children with this progressive encephalopathy. Infantile spasms may be associated with interactions between ATXN2 and the postsynaptic structural proteins MAGI2 and SPTAN1.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Severe phenotype in children with massive expansion of SCA2 may be due to a functional deficit in protein networks in the postsynapse, specifically involving vesicle endocytosis.
Project description:Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) continues to be evaluated and recommended as treatment and prophylaxis for various diseases. We recently assessed efficacy of high-dose DHA supplementation to slow vision loss in patients with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) in a randomized clinical trial. Because DHA is a highly unsaturated fatty acid, it could serve as a target for free-radical induced oxidation, resulting in increased oxidative stress. Biosafety was monitored during the 4-year trial to determine whether DHA supplementation was associated with identifiable risks.Males (n = 78; 7-31 years) meeting entry criteria were enrolled. The modified intent-to-treat cohort (DHA = 33; placebo = 27) adhered to the protocol ? 1 year. Participants were randomized to an oral dose of 30 mg/kg/d DHA or placebo plus a daily multivitamin. Comprehensive metabolic analyses were assessed for group differences. Treatment-emergent adverse events including blood chemistry metabolites were recorded.By year 4, supplementation elevated plasma and red blood cell-DHA 4.4- and 3.6-fold, respectively, compared with the placebo group (P < 0.00001). Over the trial duration, no significant differences between DHA and placebo groups were found for vitamin A, vitamin E, platelet aggregation, antioxidant activity, lipoprotein cholesterol, or oxidized LDL levels (all P > 0.14). Adverse events were transient and not considered severe (e.g., gastrointestinal [GI] irritability, blood chemistry alterations). One participant was unable to tolerate persistent GI discomfort.Long-term, high-dose DHA supplementation to patients with XLRP was associated with limited safety risks in this 4-year trial. Nevertheless, GI symptoms should be monitored in all patients taking high dose DHA especially those with personal or family history of GI disturbances. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00100230.).
Project description:Mutations in the gene SCAPER (S-phase CyclinA Associated Protein residing in the Endoplasmic Reticulum) have recently been identified as causing syndromic autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa with the extraocular manifestations of intellectual disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We present the case of an 11-year-old boy that presented to our clinic with the complaint of decreased night vision. Clinical presentation, family history, and diagnostic imaging were congruent with the diagnosis of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Genetic testing of the patient and both parents via whole-exome sequencing revealed the homozygous mutation c.2023-2A>G in SCAPER. Unique to our patient's presentation is the absence of intellectual disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, suggesting that SCAPER-associated retinitis pigmentosa can also present without systemic manifestations.
Project description:Variants in the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene are a major cause of X-linked inherited retinal disorder (IRD). We herein describe the clinical and genetic features of 14 patients from 13 Japanese families harboring RPGR variants in a nationwide cohort. Comprehensive ophthalmological examinations were performed to classify the patients into one of the phenotype subgroups: retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and cone rod dystrophy (CORD). The mean age of onset/at examination was 13.8/38.1 years (range, 0-50/11-72), respectively. The mean visual acuity in the right/left eye was 0.43/0.43 (range, 0.1-1.7/-0.08-1.52) LogMAR unit. Eight patients had RP, and six had CORD. Whole-exome sequencing with target analyses identified 13 RPGR variants in 730 families with IRD, including 8 novel variants. An association between the phenotype subgroup and the position of variants (cutoff of amino acid 950) was revealed. To conclude, the clinical and genetic spectrum of RPGR-associated retinal disorder was first illustrated in a Japanese population, with a high proportion of novel variants. These results suggest the distinct genetic background of RPGR in the Japanese population, in which the genotype-phenotype association was affirmed. This evidence should be helpful monitoring and counseling patients and in selecting patients for future therapeutic trials.
Project description:To determine the effects of maternal vitamin A supplementation from preconception through postpartum on cognitive and motor development of children at 10-13 years of age in rural Nepal.Follow-up assessment of children born to women randomly assigned by a village to receive either supplemental vitamin A (7000 µg retinol equivalents) or placebo weekly during a continuous 3.5-year period from 1994-1997. The participants came from 12 wards, a subset of 270 wards in the original trial. Trained staff tested children for cognition by the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) and motor ability using four subtests from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Data on schooling, home environment and nutritional and socioeconomic status were also collected.Southern plains district of Sarlahi, Nepal.390 Nepalese children 10-13 years of age.Raw scores on UNIT and square-root transformed scores on an abridged version of the MABC tests, expressed as cluster-summarised (mean±SD) values to account for the design of the original trial.There were no differences in UNIT (79.61±5.99 vs 80.69±6.71) or MABC (2.64±0.07 vs 2.49±0.09) test scores in children whose mothers were exposed to vitamin A vs placebo (mean differences: -1.07, 95% CI -7.10 to 9.26, p=0.78; 0.15, 95% CI 0.43 to -0.08, p=0.15), respectively. More children in the placebo group had repeated a grade in school (28% of placebo vs 16.7% of vitamin A, p=0.01).Preconceptional to postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation, in an undernourished setting, does not improve cognition or motor development at ages 10-13 years.
Project description:Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a common form of retinal degeneration characterized by photoreceptor degeneration and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy causing loss of visual field and acuities. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous splice site variant (c.111+1G>A) in the gene encoding retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4). This change segregated with early onset, progressive, and severe autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in an eight member consanguineous pedigree of European ancestry. Additionally, one patient exhibited developmental abnormalities including patent ductus arteriosus and chorioretinal and iris colobomas. The second patient developed acne from young age and extending into the 5(th) decade. Both patients had undetectable levels of RBP4 in the serum suggesting that this mutation led to either mRNA or protein instability resulting in a null phenotype. In addition, the patients exhibited severe vitamin A deficiency, and diminished serum retinol levels. Circulating transthyretin levels were normal. This study identifies the RBP4 splice site change as the cause of RP in this pedigree. The presence of developmental abnormalities and severe acne in patients with retinal degeneration may indicate the involvement of genes that regulate vitamin A absorption, transport and metabolism.
Project description:Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a severe hereditary eye disease characterized by progressive degeneration of photoreceptors and subsequent loss of vision. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of retinal diseases. Germline mutations of CNGB1 is associated with retinitis pigmentosa. We have identified and investigated a 34-year-old Chinese man with markedly have night vision blindness and loss of midperipheral visual field. The proband also lose his far peripheral visual field and also central vision. Proband's retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination and primary loss of rod photoreceptor cells followed by secondary loss of cone photoreceptors. Target exome capture based next generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing identified novel nonsense mutation, c.1917G>A and a reported mutation, c.2361C>A, in the CNGB1 gene. Both the nonsense mutations are predicted to lead to the formation of a premature stop codon which finally results into formation of truncated CNGB1 protein product which finally predicted to be disease causing. According to the variant classification guidelines of ACMG, these two variants are categorized as "likely pathogenic" variants. Our findings expand the mutational spectra of CNGB1 and are valuable in the mutation-based pre- and post-natal screening and genetic diagnosis for retinitis pigmentosa.