Differential Distribution of Salmonella Serovars and Campylobacter spp. Isolates in Free-Living Crows and Broiler Chickens in Aomori, Japan.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella and Campylobacter cause foodborne enteritis mainly via the consumption of raw/undercooked contaminated poultry meat and products. Broiler flocks are primarily colonized with these bacteria; however, the underlying etiology remains unclear. The present study was conducted in order to obtain further information on the prevalence and genotypic distribution of Salmonella and Campylobacter in free-living crows and broiler flocks in a region for 2 years, thereby facilitating estimations of the potential risk of transmission of C. jejuni from crows to broiler flocks. Salmonella serovars Bredeney and Derby were isolated from 8 and 3 out of 123 captured crows, respectively, both of which are not common in broiler chickens. Campylobacter were isolated from all 89 crows tested and C. jejuni was prevalent (85 crows). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed broad diversity in the crow isolates of C. jejuni. However, 3 crow isolates and 2 broiler isolates showing similar banding patterns were assigned to different sequence types in multi-locus sequence typing. These results indicate that crows do not share Salmonella serovars with broilers, and harbor various genotypes of C. jejuni that differ from those of broiler flocks. Thus, our results indicate that crows are not a potential vector of these bacteria to broiler flocks in this region.
Project description:The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coliisolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645C. jejuniand 106C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuniisolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. ForC. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms forC. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% forC. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacterin broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical.
Project description:Colonization of broiler chickens by the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is widespread and difficult to prevent. Bacteriophage therapy is one possible means by which this colonization could be controlled, thus limiting the entry of campylobacters into the human food chain. Prior to evaluating the efficacy of phage therapy, experimental models of Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens were established by using low-passage C. jejuni isolates HPC5 and GIIC8 from United Kingdom broiler flocks. The screening of 53 lytic bacteriophage isolates against a panel of 50 Campylobacter isolates from broiler chickens and 80 strains isolated after human infection identified two phage candidates with broad host lysis. These phages, CP8 and CP34, were orally administered in antacid suspension, at different dosages, to 25-day-old broiler chickens experimentally colonized with the C. jejuni broiler isolates. Phage treatment of C. jejuni-colonized birds resulted in Campylobacter counts falling between 0.5 and 5 log10 CFU/g of cecal contents compared to untreated controls over a 5-day period postadministration. These reductions were dependent on the phage-Campylobacter combination, the dose of phage applied, and the time elapsed after administration. Campylobacters resistant to bacteriophage infection were recovered from phage-treated chickens at a frequency of <4%. These resistant types were compromised in their ability to colonize experimental chickens and rapidly reverted to a phage-sensitive phenotype in vivo. The selection of appropriate phage and their dose optimization are key elements for the success of phage therapy to reduce campylobacters in broiler chickens.
Project description:Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.
Project description:Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses.
Project description:Campylobacter spp. are major causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. The virulence potential of Campylobacter shed in crow feces obtained from a roost area in Bothell, Washington, was studied and compared with that from isolates from other parts of Washington and from a different crow species 7,000 miles away in Kolkata, India. Campylobacter organisms were isolated from 61% and 69% of the fecal samples obtained from Washington and Kolkata, respectively, and were confirmed to be C. jejuni The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene cluster from these isolates revealed a truncated sequence of approximately 1,350 bp. Sequencing of the gene cluster revealed two types of mutations: a 668-bp deletion across cdtA and cdtB and a 51-bp deletion within cdtB Some strains had additional 20-bp deletions in cdtB In either case, a functional toxin is not expected; a functional toxin is produced by the expression of three tandem genes, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC Reverse transcriptase PCR with total RNA extracted from the isolates showed no expression of cdtB A toxin assay performed with these isolates on HeLa cells failed to show cytotoxic effects on the cells. However, the isolates were able to colonize the chicken ceca for a period of at least 4 weeks, similar to that of a clinical isolate. Other virulence gene markers, flagellin A and CadF, were present in 100% of the isolates. Our study suggests that crows carry the bacterium C. jejuni but with a dysfunctional toxin protein that is expected to drastically reduce its potential to cause diarrhea.IMPORTANCE Campylobacters are a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Since outbreaks have most often been correlated with poultry or unpasteurized dairy products, contact with farm animals, or contaminated water, historically, the majority of the studies have been with campylobacter isolates from poultry, domestic animals, and human patients. However, the bacterium has a broad host range that includes birds. These reservoirs need to be investigated, because the identification of the source and a determination of the transmission routes for a pathogen are important for the development of evidence-based disease control programs. In this study, two species of the human-commensal crow, from two different geographical regions separated by 7,000 miles of land and water, have been examined for their ability to cause disease by shedding campylobacters. Our results show that the crow may not play a significant role in campylobacteriosis, because the campylobacter organisms they shed produce a nonfunctional toxin.
Project description:Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health.
Project description:Campylobacter is one of the most important foodborne pathogens worldwide, and poultry is regarded as the main reservoir of Campylobacter. The contamination of Campylobacter in broiler chickens at the farm level is closely related to the transmission of Campylobacter in the poultry production chain. This study identified 464 Campylobacter isolates from 1,534 samples from broiler rearing period and slaughtering process including 233 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 231 Campylobacter coli isolates. We have observed a dynamic distribution of Campylobacter during broiler chicken production, that 66.3% of Campylobacter isolates were C. jejuni during broiler rearing period, while C. coli occupied 60.4% of Campylobacter isolates during the broiler slaughtering process. A tag-label method allowed us to track the dynamic of Campylobacter in each broiler chicken from 31-day age at rearing to the partition step in the slaughterhouse. At the 31-day during rearing, 150 broiler chicken were labeled, and was tracked for Campylobacter positive from rearing period to slaughtering process. Among the labeled broiler, 11 of the tracking broiler samples were able to detect Campylobacter from rearing period to slaughtering. All Campylobacter isolates from the 11 tracking samples were sequenced and analyzed. C. jejuni isolates were divided into four STs and C. coli isolates were divided into six STs. Isolates with identical core genome were observed from the same tag-labeled samples at different stages indicating a vertical transmission of Campylobacter in the early broiler meat production. Meanwhile, the core genome analysis elucidated the cross-contamination of Campylobacter during the rearing period and the slaughtering process. The virulotyping analysis revealed that all C. jejuni isolates shared the same virulotypes, while C. coli isolates were divided into three different virulotypes. The antimicrobial resistance gene analysis demonstrated that all Campylobacter isolates contained at least two antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and the ARG profiles were well-corresponding to each ST type. Our study observed a high prevalence of Campylobacter during the early chicken meat production, and further studies will be needed to investigate the diversity and transmission of Campylobacter in the poultry production chain.
Project description:Since meat from poultry colonized with Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, human exposure should be reduced by, among other things, prevention of colonization of broiler flocks. To obtain more insight into possible sources of introduction of Campylobacter into broiler flocks, it is essential to estimate the moment that the first bird in a flock is colonized. If the rate of transmission within a flock were known, such an estimate could be determined from the change in the prevalence of colonized birds in a flock over time. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of transmission of Campylobacter using field data gathered for 5 years for Australian broiler flocks. We used unique sampling data for 42 Campylobacter jejuni-colonized flocks and estimated the transmission rate, which is defined as the number of secondary infections caused by one colonized bird per day. The estimate was 2.37 +/- 0.295 infections per infectious bird per day, which implies that in our study population colonized flocks consisting of 20,000 broilers would have an increase in within-flock prevalence to 95% within 4.4 to 7.2 days after colonization of the first broiler. Using Bayesian analysis, the moment of colonization of the first bird in a flock was estimated to be from 21 days of age onward in all flocks in the study. This study provides an important quantitative estimate of the rate of transmission of Campylobacter in broiler flocks, which could be helpful in future studies on the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the field.
Project description:The small-scale mobile poultry-processing unit (MPPU) produced raw poultry products are of particular food safety concern due to exemption of USDA poultry products inspection act. Limited studies reported the microbial quality and safety of MPPU-processed poultry carcasses. This study evaluated the Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence in broiler ceca and on MPPU-processed carcasses and efficacy of commercial antimicrobials against Campylobacter jejuni on broilers. In study I, straight-run Hubbard?×?Cobb broilers (147) were reared for 38?days on clean-shavings (CS, 75) or built-up-litter (BUL, 72) and processed at an MPPU. Aerobic plate counts (APCs), coliforms, Escherichia coli, and yeast/molds (Y/M) of carcasses were analyzed on petrifilms. Ceca and carcass samples underwent microbial analyses for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. using the modified USDA method and confirmed by API-20e test (Salmonella), latex agglutination immunoassay (Campylobacter), and Gram staining (Campylobacter). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (CadF gene) identified the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli in ceca and on carcasses. In study II, fresh chilled broiler carcasses were spot inoculated with C. jejuni (4.5?log10?CFU/mL) and then undipped, or dipped into peroxyacetic acid (PAA) (1,000?ppm), lactic acid (5%), lactic and citric acid blend (2.5%), sodium hypochlorite (69?ppm), or a H2O2-PAA mix (SaniDate® 5.0, 0.25%) for 30?s. Surviving C. jejuni was recovered onto Brucella agar. APCs, coliforms, and E. coli populations were similar (P?>?0.05) on CS and BUL carcasses. Carcasses of broilers raised on BUL contained a greater (P?<?0.05) Y/M population (2.2?log10?CFU/mL) than those reared on CS (1.8?log10?CFU/mL). Salmonella was not detected in any ceca samples, whereas 2.8% of the carcasses from BUL were present with Salmonella. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni was lower (P?<?0.05), and C. coli was similar (P?>?0.05) in CS-treated ceca than BUL samples. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni, and C. coli was not different (P?>?0.05) on CS- and BUL-treated carcasses. All antimicrobials reduced C. jejuni by 1.2-2.0?log CFU/mL on carcasses compared with controls. Hence, raising broilers on CS and applying post-chilling antimicrobial treatment can reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter on MPPU-processed broiler carcasses.
Project description:In many industrialized countries, the incidence of campylobacteriosis exceeds that of salmonellosis. Campylobacter bacteria are transmitted to humans mainly in food, especially poultry meat products. Total prevention of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks is the best way to reduce (or eliminate) the contamination of poultry products. The aim of this study was to establish the sources and routes of contamination of broilers at the farm level. Molecular typing methods (DNA macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and analysis of gene polymorphism by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism) were used to characterize isolates collected from seven broiler farms. The relative genomic diversity of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni was determined. Analysis of the similarity among 116 defined genotypes was used to determine clusters within the two species. Furthermore, evidence of recombination suggested that there were genomic rearrangements within the Campylobacter populations. Recovery of related clusters from different broiler farms showed that some Campylobacter strains might be specifically adapted to poultry. Analysis of the Campylobacter cluster distribution on three broiler farms showed that soil in the area around the poultry house was a potential source of Campylobacter contamination. The broilers were infected by Campylobacter spp. between days 15 and 36 during rearing, and the type of contamination changed during the rearing period. A study of the effect of sanitary barriers showed that the chickens stayed Campylobacter spp. free until they had access to the open area. They were then rapidly colonized by the Campylobacter strains isolated from the soil.