Postoperative Behavioral Variables and Weight Change 3 Years After Bariatric Surgery.
ABSTRACT: Severe obesity (body mass index ?35 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]) is associated with significant medical comorbidity and increased mortality. Bariatric surgery induces weight loss, the extent of which can vary. Postoperative predictors of weight loss have not been adequately examined.To describe postoperative eating behaviors and weight control and their effects on 3-year change in weight.The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study is a multicenter observational cohort study at 10 US hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers. Adults undergoing first-time bariatric surgical procedures as part of routine clinical care were recruited between 2006 and 2009 and followed up until September 2012. Participants completed detailed surveys regarding eating and weight control behaviors prior to surgery and then annually after surgery for 3 years.Twenty-five postoperative behaviors related to eating behavior, eating problems, weight control practices, and the problematic use of alcohol, smoking, and illegal drugs. Behaviors examined were divided into those that were never present (preoperatively or postoperatively), those that were always present (preoperatively and postoperatively), and those that underwent a healthy change after surgery (development of a positive behavior or omission of a negative behavior).The sample included a total of 2022 participants (median age, 47 years [interquartile range, 38-55 years]; median BMI, 46 [interquartile range, 42-51]; 78% women): 1513 who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 509 who had undergone laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. If we consider the cumulative effects of the 3 behaviors that explain most of the variability (16%) in 3-year percent weight change following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, ie, weekly self-weighing, continuing to eat when feeling full more than once a week, and eating continuously during the day, a participant who postoperatively started to self-weigh, stopped eating when feeling full, and stopped eating continuously during the day after surgery would be predicted to lose a mean (SE) of 38.8% (0.8%) of their baseline weight. This average is about 14% greater weight loss compared with participants who made no positive changes in these variables (mean [SE], -24.6% [1.6%]; mean difference, -14.2%; 95% CI, -18.7% to -9.8%; P?
Project description:Background: Although bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity, weight regain may still occur. While non-modifiable factors associated with weight regain have been explored, modifiable factors responsible for weight regain are understudied. This scoping review aimed to identify modifiable behaviors associated with weight regain after bariatric surgery. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane, National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT) and Practice-based Evidence in Nutrition (PEN) which included articles published between January 1990 and February 2 2017, for studies examining "weight regain" after bariatric surgery. A total of 293 citations were retrieved. Eligible articles must have examined modifiable factors and addressed weight regain, or a long-term post-operative phase in which weight regain may occur. After removing duplicates, 22 studies were included for thematic analysis. Results: Key modifiable factors associated with weight regain were identified and categorized under the following themes: poor dietary adherence (e.g. excessive calorie, carbohydrate, and alcohol intake), maladaptive eating behaviors (e.g. grazing, binging), lack of on-going follow-up with the bariatric team and insufficient physical activity. Conclusions: Health professionals and self-monitoring tools for patients who have undergone bariatric surgery may benefit from these findings to direct their education and interventions to target behavior change.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The long-term effects of presurgical psychological interventions on weight loss, eating behaviors, affective symptoms, and health-related quality of life remain uncertain. This study aimed to assess the 4-year effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) before bariatric surgery on these outcomes. METHODS:Single-center randomized controlled parallel-group trial. Patients were assessed after CBT before bariatric surgery (n?=?98) and 1 year (n?=?80) and 4 years (n?=?61) after surgery. The intervention group received a 10-week preoperative individual CBT focusing on self-monitoring to identify triggers of dysfunctional eating behaviors in order to improve regulation of eating as well as the breaking of the interrelationship between eating behaviors, negative mood, and dysfunctional cognitions. RESULTS:The 61 patients (70% women) had a mean (SD) age of 42.4 (10.1) years and BMI 43.5 (4.4) kg/m2. Preoperative CBT was not associated with 1- and 4-year reduction of dysfunctional eating behaviors, affective symptoms and body weight, or improved health-related quality of life. Patients with minor or considerable symptoms of depression receiving CBT had lower mean BMI than controls, both before surgery, -?1.1 kg/m2, and -?1.5 kg/m2, and 4-years after surgery, -?2.9 kg/m2 and -?7.5 kg/m2, respectively. CONCLUSION:Presurgical CBT was not associated with better long-term outcomes. However, in patients with minor or considerable symptoms of depression, CBT was associated with lower body weight before and 4 years after surgery. Additional studies are required to verify whether patients with symptoms of depression should be offered CBT before and/or after bariatric surgery, and which clinical aspects the CBT should address. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01403558.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While presurgical eating behaviors have demonstrated limited prognostic value, cognitions regarding the effects of eating may serve as important predictors of weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery. The Eating Expectancies Inventory (EEI) is a commonly used, self-report measure of expected consequences of eating; however, its psychometric and predictive properties have not yet been evaluated among bariatric surgery patients. OBJECTIVES:This study sought to examine the factor structure and internal consistency of the EEI among bariatric surgery candidates, to examine relationships between EEI factors and measures of eating psychopathology, and to explore the effects of eating expectancies on postsurgical weight loss. SETTING:Data originated from an interdisciplinary bariatric surgery center in the Midwest United States. METHODS:Two hundred sixty-two women completed self-report questionnaires before bariatric surgery. Presurgical data and available postsurgical weights (at 6, 12, and 18 mo) were obtained from medical records. RESULTS:Analyses indicated that the original 5-factor model was a good-to-excellent fit for the EEI data. All EEI factors demonstrated good reliability and were significantly associated with eating disorder symptoms and behaviors at baseline. Higher scores on EEI Factor 1 (negative affect) and Factor 5 (alleviates boredom) predicted poorer weight loss at 18 months postsurgery (n = 132). CONCLUSIONS:Findings support the reliability and validity of the EEI among female bariatric candidates. Presurgical eating expectancies were linked to pathologic eating patterns and also predicted postsurgical weight loss trajectories, suggesting that eating expectancies may have prognostic value as predictors of bariatric surgery outcomes.
Project description:Background:Questions remain regarding both the safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including the effects of bariatric surgery on the course of disease. We report a case series from a tertiary care IBD referral center and review the existing literature regarding the safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in IBD patients. Objectives:Examine the safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in IBD patients. Explore possible effects of weight loss on postoperative IBD course. Method:We performed a retrospective review of patients at our center undergoing bariatric surgery with a concurrent IBD diagnosis, collecting baseline characteristics, surgery type, and postoperative course (including IBD outcomes and weight loss). Data from these patients were combined with available data from the existing literature to calculate standardized means with standard error, variance, and confidence intervals (CI). Results:Data from 13 patients who had undergone bariatric surgery at our facility were combined with data from 8 other studies to create a study population of 101 patients. Of these, 61 had Crohn's disease, 37 ulcerative colitis, and 3 IBD-unspecified, with a mean preoperative BMI of 44.2 (95% CI 42.9-45.7). Following surgery, a mean excess weight loss of 68.4% was demonstrated (95% CI, 65.7-71.2). Of the 101 patients, 22 experienced early and 20 experienced late postoperative complications. Postoperatively, 10 patients experienced a flare of IBD, 20 remained in remission, and 7 patients were able to discontinue immunosuppressive therapy. Conclusions:Based on available studies, bariatric surgery appears to be both an effective and safe option for weight loss in patients with IBD.
Project description:Background:Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective strategy for producing significant and durable weight loss. Yet, not all patients achieve initial weight loss success and some degree of weight regain is very common, sometimes as early as 1-2 years post-surgery. Suboptimal weight loss not fully explained by surgical, demographic, and medical factors has led to greater emphasis on patient behaviors evidenced by clinical guidelines for appropriate eating and physical activity. However, research to inform such guidelines has often relied on imprecise measures or not been specific to bariatric surgery. There is also little understanding of what psychosocial factors and environmental contexts impact outcomes. To address research gaps and measurement limitations, we designed a protocol that innovatively integrates multiple measurement tools to determine which behaviors, environmental contexts, and psychosocial factors are related to outcomes and explore how psychosocial factors/environmental contexts influence weight. This paper provides a detailed description of our study protocol with a focus on developing and deploying a multi-sensor assessment tool to meet our study aims. Methods:This NIH-funded prospective cohort study evaluates behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental predictors of weight loss after bariatric surgery using a multi-sensor platform that integrates objective sensors and self-report information collected via smartphone in real-time in patients' natural environment. A target sample of 100 adult, bariatric surgery patients (ages 21-70) use this multi-sensor platform at preoperative baseline, as well as 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, to assess recommended behaviors (e.g., meal frequency, physical activity), psychosocial indicators with prior evidence of an association with surgical outcomes (e.g., mood/depression), and key environmental factors (e.g., type/quality of food environment). Weight also is measured at each assessment point. Discussion:This project has the potential to build a more sophisticated and valid understanding of behavioral and psychosocial factors contributing to success and risk after bariatric surgery. This new understanding could directly contribute to improved (i.e., specific, consistent, and validated) guidelines for recommended pre- and postoperative behaviors, which could lead to improved surgical outcomes. These data will also inform behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental targets for adjunctive interventions to improve surgical outcomes. Trial registration:Registered trial NCT02777177 on 5/19/2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Binge eating disorder (BED) is very frequently observed in patients considered for weight loss surgery and seems to influence their outcome critically. Literature highlights a global emotional overload in individuals with BED, but little is known on the mechanisms involved. The present study aimed to focus on emotion regulation, impulsivity, depression, and anxiety in people with and without BED and fulfilling inclusion criteria for bariatric surgery. Doing so, we sought to individualize factors related to BED. Then, we examined the contribution of depression, anxiety, emotion regulation difficulties, and impulsivity to inappropriate eating behaviors observed in patients with BED. METHODS:A sample of 121 individuals (79.3% female, mean age: 40.82 ± 9.26, mean current body mass index (BMI): 44.92 kg/m2 ± 7.55) seeking bariatric surgery were recruited at the Champagne Ardenne Specialized Center in Obesity in Reims, France from November 2017 to October 2018. They were stratified as with or without BED according to the binge eating scale. Characteristics identified in univariate analyses as differentiating the two groups were then included in multivariable analyses. RESULTS:Multivariable analyses showed that limited access to emotional regulation strategies was significantly associated with BED. Furthermore, inappropriate eating behaviors were independently associated with age, depression severity, anxiety, emotional dysregulation, and impulsivity in BED group. CONCLUSIONS:The present findings are indicative of an association between emotion deficit and BED in obese patients seeking bariatric surgery. Patients with BED could benefit from the addition of an emotion regulation intervention.
Project description:Little is known about the psychological prerequisites for weight loss maintenance after bariatric surgery. A first step in investigating whether existing knowledge of conservative weight loss treatment is applicable for lifestyle interventions postoperatively is to compare specific psychological characteristics at baseline. The aim of this study was to compare patients scheduled for bariatric surgery with patients receiving conservative treatment for morbid obesity on measures of behavioral and psychosocial characteristics considered predictors of their adoption of and adherence to long-term lifestyle recommendations.Baseline clinical and questionnaire data from the prospective "Oslo Bariatric Surgery Study" were used to examine potential differences between bariatric surgery patients (n = 301) and patients receiving conservative weight loss treatment (n = 261).The surgical group was characterized by their younger age (43.8 vs. 46.2 years, p <0.01), higher percentage of women (79.1 vs. 70.1 %, p <0.05), and higher Body Mass Index (BMI; 45.0 vs. 41.9 kg/m(2), p <0.001). A multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for group differences in BMI, gender, and age, showed that the surgical group had higher self-efficacy (Odds ratio; OR = 3.44, 95 % Confidence interval; CI 1.65, 7.14), more positive outcome expectations (OR = 1.53, 95 % CI 1.23, 1.89), and plans that were more explicit for changing their eating behaviors (OR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.93). The surgical patients were also less ready to change physical activity levels (OR = 0.59, 95 % CI 0.48, 0.73), had tried more types of unhealthy weight loss methods in the past (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.33), drank soda more frequently (OR = 1.24, 95 % CI 1.02, 1.50), had fewer binge eating episodes (OR = 0.38, 95 % CI 0.20, 0.71), and had more depressive symptoms (OR = 1.19, 95 % CI 1.09, 1.29).Patients opting for bariatric surgery had more positive expectations of the treatment outcomes and stronger beliefs in their ability to achieve these outcomes. Those starting conservative treatment had stronger beliefs in readiness to change physical activity levels. Future studies should explore the effect of interventions for bariatric surgery patients, promoting postoperative physical activity and stress realistic outcome expectations. The potential effects of incorporating this knowledge in intervention strategies remain to be explored.
Project description:Bariatric surgery is considered to be an effective treatment for the resolution of severe obesity; however, in more than half of the bariatric surgery patients, weight reacquisition occurs as early as 18?months postsurgery, compromising the surgery's beneficial effects. Maintaining weight loss after surgery poses a great challenge, necessitating the identification of predicting factors. In the present study, we explored the association between weight regain and dietary habits and behavioral lifestyle practices in patients following bariatric surgery. Fifty patients who underwent bariatric surgery with ?18-month postoperative period of follow-up were included. They were classified into two groups: weight maintainers (n?=?29) were patients who regained <15% of their weight, and weight regainers (n?=?21) were patients who regained ?15% of their weight compared to their lowest postoperative weight. The mean age of the study participants was 41.4?±?8.9?years, and twenty-eight patients (56%) of the total, were females. A detailed analysis of dietary and lifestyle habits was performed by questionnaire-based interviews. Significant weight regain was noted in the regainers compared to the maintainers (19.6?±?8.4?kg vs. 4.5?±?3.5?kg, respectively, P ? 0.001), which was attributed to their following of unhealthy dietary habits and behavioral lifestyle practices. The dietary and behavioral lifestyle practices adopted by the maintainers were higher fiber consumption and water intake, monitored pace of eating, evasion of emotional binge, and distracted eating and following of self-assessment behaviors. Additionally, regular nutritional follow-ups and compliance with postoperative dietary counseling significantly helped to improve weight maintenance. In conclusion, the effectiveness of weight loss postbariatric surgery was compromised by weight regain due to unhealthy dietary and behavioral lifestyle practices stemming from a lack of nutritional guidance and knowledge. The implementation of comprehensive nutritional counseling and advice on behavioral changes before and after surgery will help achieve optimal weight results.