SK-216, a Novel Inhibitor of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, Suppresses Lung Metastasis of Human Osteosarcoma.
ABSTRACT: Lung metastasis constitutes the leading cause of the death in patients with osteosarcoma. We have previously reported that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) regulates the invasion and lung metastasis of osteosarcoma cells in a mouse model and as well as in clinical samples. In the present study, we examined the anti-metastatic effect of SK-216, a small compound PAI-1 inhibitor, in human 143B osteosarcoma cells. An in vitro study showed that SK-216 treatment suppressed invasion activity by inhibiting PAI-1 expression in 143B cells, but had no influence on their proliferation or migration. 143B cells treated with SK-216 exhibited reduced matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of SK-216 into mouse models resulted in downregulation of PAI-1 expression levels in the primary tumors and showed suppression of lung metastases without influencing the proliferative activity of the tumor cells in the primary lesions. These results indicate that SK-216, a PAI-1 inhibitor, may serve as a novel drug to prevent lung metastasis in human osteosarcoma.
Project description:Despite recent improvements in the therapy for osteosarcoma, 30-40% of osteosarcoma patients die of this disease, mainly due to its lung metastasis. We have previously reported that intravenous injection of miR-143 significantly suppresses lung metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells (143B) in a mouse model. In this study, we examined the biological role and mechanism of miR-143 in the metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells. We identified plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as a direct target gene of miR-143. To determine the role of PAI-1 in human osteosarcoma cells, siRNA was transfected into 143B cells for knockdown of PAI-1 expression. An in vitro study showed that downregulation of PAI-1 suppressed cell invasion activity, but not proliferation. Moreover, injection of PAI-1 siRNA into a primary lesion in the osteosarcoma mouse model inhibited lung metastasis compared to control siRNA-injected mice, without influencing the proliferative activity of the tumor cells. Subsequent examination using 143B cells revealed that knockdown of PAI-1 expression resulted in downregulation of the expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), which is also a target gene of miR-143 and a proteolytic enzyme that regulates tumor-induced osteolysis. Immunohistochemical analysis using clinical samples showed that higher miR-143 expressing cases showed poor expression of PAI-1 in the primary tumor cells. All such cases belonged to the lung metastasis-negative group. Moreover, the frequency of lung metastasis-positive cases was significantly higher in PAI-1 and MMP-13 double-positive cases than in PAI-1 or MMP-13 single-positive or double-negative cases (P < 0.05). These results indicated that PAI-1, a target gene of miR-143, regulates invasion and lung metastasis via enhancement of MMP-13 expression and secretion in human osteosarcoma cells, suggesting that these molecules could be potential therapeutic target genes for preventing lung metastasis in osteosarcoma patients.
Project description:More effective treatment of metastasizing osteosarcoma with a current mean 5-year survival rate of less than 20% requires more detailed knowledge on mechanisms and key regulatory molecules of the complex metastatic process. CXCR4, the receptor of the chemokine CXCL12, has been reported to promote tumor progression and metastasis in osteosarcoma. CXCR7 is a recently deorphanized CXCL12-scavenging receptor with so far not well-defined functions in tumor biology. The present study focused on a potential malignancy enhancing function of CXCR7 in interaction with CXCR4 in osteosarcoma, which was investigated in an intratibial osteosarcoma model in SCID mice, making use of the human 143B osteosarcoma cell line that spontaneously metastasizes to the lung and expresses endogenous CXCR4. 143B osteosarcoma cells stably expressing LacZ (143B-LacZ cells) were retrovirally transduced with a gene encoding HA-tagged CXCR7 (143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells). 143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells co-expressing CXCR7 and CXCR4 exhibited CXCL12 scavenging and enhanced adhesion to IL-1?-activated HUVEC cells compared to 143B-LacZ cells expressing CXCR4 alone. SCID mice intratibially injected with 143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells had significantly (p<0.05) smaller primary tumors, but significantly (p<0.05) higher numbers of lung metastases than mice injected with 143B-LacZ cells. Unexpectedly, 143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells, unlike 143B-LacZ cells, also metastasized with high incidence to the auriculum cordis. In conclusion, expression of the CXCL12 scavenging receptor CXCR7 in the CXCR4-expressing human 143B osteosarcoma cell line enhances its metastatic activity in intratibial primary tumors in SCID mice that predominantly metastasize to the lung and thereby closely mimic the human disease. These findings point to CXCR7 as a target, complementary to previously proposed CXCR4, for more effective metastasis-suppressive treatment in osteosarcoma.
Project description:Pulmonary metastases are the main cause of death in patients with osteosarcoma, however, the molecular mechanisms of metastasis are not well understood. To detect lung metastasis-related microRNA (miRNA) in human osteosarcoma, we compared parental (HOS) and its subclone (143B) human osteosarcoma cell lines showing lung metastasis in a mouse model. miR-143 was the most downregulated miRNA (P < 0.01), and transfection of miR-143 into 143B significantly decreased its invasiveness, but not cell proliferation. Noninvasive optical imaging technologies revealed that intravenous injection of miR-143, but not negative control miRNA, significantly suppressed lung metastasis of 143B (P < 0.01). To search for miR-143 target mRNA in 143B, microarray analyses were performed using an independent RNA pool extracted by two different comprehensive miR-143-target mRNA collecting systems. Western blot analyses revealed that MMP-13 was mostly protein downregulated by miR-143. Immunohistochemistry using clinical samples clearly revealed MMP-13-positive cells in lung metastasis-positive cases, but not in at least three cases showing higher miR-143 expression in the no metastasis group. Taken together, these data indicated that the downregulation of miR-143 correlates with the lung metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells by promoting cellular invasion, probably via MMP-13 upregulation, suggesting that miRNA could be used to develop new molecular targets for osteosarcoma metastasis.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour. Patients often develop lung metastasis and have a poor prognosis despite extensive chemotherapy and surgical resections. Tissue Factor is associated with poor clinical outcome in a wide range of cancer types, and promotes angiogenesis and metastasis. The role of Tissue Factor in OS tumourigenesis is unknown. Fifty-three osteosarcoma pre-treatment biopsies and four osteosarcoma cell lines were evaluated for Tissue Factor expression, and a possible association with clinical parameters was investigated. Tissue Factor function was inhibited in an osteosarcoma cell line (143B) by shRNA knockdown or specific antibodies, and pro-tumourigenic gene expression, proliferation, matrigel invasion and transwell migration was examined. 143B cells were implanted in mice in the presence of Tissue Factor-blocking antibodies, and tumour volume, micro-vessel density and metastases in the lung were evaluated. Tissue Factor was highly expressed in 73.6?% of osteosarcoma biopsies, and expression associated significantly with disease-free survival. Tissue Factor was expressed in all four investigated cell lines. Tissue Factor was knocked down in 143B cells, which led to reduced expression of IL-8, CXCL-1, SNAIL and MMP2, but not MMP9. Tissue Factor knockdown or inhibition with antibodies reduced matrigel invasion. Tissue Factor antibodies limited 143B tumour growth in vivo, and resulted in decreased intra-tumoural micro-vessel density. Furthermore, lung metastasis from the primary tumour was significantly reduced. Thus, Tissue Factor expression in osteosarcoma reduces metastasis-free survival in patients, and increases pro-tumourigenic behaviour both in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Inhibitors of specific tyrosine kinases are attractive lead compounds for development of targeted chemotherapies for many tumors, including osteosarcoma. We asked whether inhibition of specific tyrosine kinases would decrease the motility, colony formation, and/or invasiveness by human osteosarcoma cell lines (TE85, MNNG, 143B, SAOS-2, LM-7). An EGF-R inhibitor reduced motility of all five cell lines by 50% to 80%. In contrast, an IGF-1R inhibitor preferentially reduced motility by 42% in LM-7 cells and a met inhibitor preferentially reduced motility by 80% in MNNG cells. The inhibitors of EGF-R, IGF-1R, and met reduced colony formation by more than 80% in all tested cell lines (TE85, MNNG, 143B). The EGF-R inhibitor reduced invasiveness by 62% in 143B cells. The JAK inhibitor increased motility of SAOS-2 and LM7 cells without affecting colony formation or invasiveness. Inhibitors of HER-2, NGF-R, and PDGF-Rs did not affect motility, invasiveness, or colony formation. These results support the hypothesis that specific tyrosine kinases regulate tumorigenesis and/or metastasis in osteosarcoma.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common form of primary bone cancer. Over 20% of osteosarcoma patients present with pulmonary metastases at diagnosis, and nearly 70% of these patients fail to respond to treatment. Previous work revealed that human and canine osteosarcoma cell lines are extremely sensitive to the therapeutic proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in vitro. However, bortezomib has proven disappointingly ineffective against solid tumors including sarcomas in animal experiments and clinical trials. Poor tumor penetration has been speculated to account for the inconsistency between in vitro and in vivo responses of solid tumors to bortezomib. Here we show that the second-generation proteasome inhibitor ixazomib, which reportedly has enhanced solid tumor penetration compared to bortezomib, is toxic to human and canine osteosarcoma cells in vitro. We used experimental osteosarcoma metastasis models to compare the efficacies of ixazomib and bortezomib against primary tumors and metastases derived from luciferase-expressing KRIB or 143B human osteosarcoma cell lines in athymic mice. Neither proteasome inhibitor reduced the growth of primary intramuscular KRIB tumors, however both drugs inhibited the growth of established pulmonary metastases created via intravenous inoculation with KRIB cells, which were significantly better vascularized than the primary tumors. Only ixazomib slowed metastases from KRIB primary tumors and inhibited the growth of 143B pulmonary and abdominal metastases, significantly enhancing the survival of mice intravenously injected with 143B cells. Taken together, these results suggest ixazomib exerts better single agent activity against osteosarcoma metastases than bortezomib. These data provide hope that incorporation of ixazomib, or other proteasome inhibitors that penetrate efficiently into solid tumors, into current regimens may improve outcomes for patients diagnosed with metastatic osteosarcoma.
Project description:It has been reported that the progression of osteosarcoma was closely associated with the aberrant activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) is a secreted Wnt inhibitor whose role in human osteosarcoma remains unknown. In this study, WIF-1 expression in NHOst and osteosarcoma cell lines was determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, methylation-specific PCR, and Western blotting analysis. In addition, tissue array from patient samples was examined for WIF-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Compared with normal human osteoblasts, WIF-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly downregulated in several osteosarcoma cell lines. The downregulation of WIF-1 mRNA expression is associated with its promoter hypermethylation in these tested cell lines. Importantly, WIF-1 expression was also downregulated in 76% of examined osteosarcoma cases. These results suggest that the downregulation of WIF-1 expression plays a role in osteosarcoma progression. To further study the potential tumor suppressor function of WIF-1 in osteosarcoma, we established stable 143B cell lines overexpressing WIF-1. WIF-1 overexpression significantly decreased tumor growth rate in nude mice as examined by the s.c. injection of 143B cells stably transfected with WIF-1 and vector control. WIF-1 overexpression also markedly reduced the number of lung metastasis in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model of osteosarcoma. Together, these data suggest that WIF-1 exerts potent antiosteosarcoma effect in vivo in mouse models. Therefore, the reexpression of WIF-1 in WIF-1-deficient osteosarcoma represents a potential novel treatment and preventive strategy.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant neoplasm of bone and typically occurs in children and young adults. As a highly metastatic malignancy, 15-20% of osteosarcoma patients are diagnosed after the tumor has already metastasized (typically to the lungs), which translates to 5-year survival rates of <40%. Here, we tested the effect of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor flavopiridol (alvocidib) in U2OS, SaOS-2, SJSA-1, and 143B osteosarcoma tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that flavopiridol can drastically decrease survival in these osteosarcoma cell lines at nanomolar concentrations and induce mitotic catastrophe in p53-null osteosarcomas. We also performed transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) of flavopiridol-treated osteosarcoma cells, which revealed significant changes in genes coding for proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions, including cadherin 3 (CDH3) and 4 (CDH4). These transcriptional changes translated to a striking reduction in the ability of osteosarcoma cells to migrate and invade in vitro. Further, in vivo assessment of the effects of flavopiridol on osteosarcoma metastasis resulted in a significant reduction in the number of lung metastases in mice treated with flavopiridol at concentrations that are physiologically tolerable. This study suggests that flavopiridol, likely in combination with other cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, may be a promising drug for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
Project description:Pulmonary metastasis is the main cause of medical failure and death of osteosarcoma patients. Our recent study identified IRX1 as a potential metastasis-driving gene in osteosarcoma. Studies showed that IRX1 can promote the migration, invasion and anoikis resistance of osteosarcoma cells. We generated 143B stable IRX1 knockdown and control cell lines, and found that IRX1 knockdown can inhibit the pulmonary metastasis of 143B cells in orthotopic mouse osteosarcoma model. Expression microarrays are performed in143B-shCtrl and 143B-shIRX1 cells to study the mechanism of IRX1 on promoting metastasis of osteosarcoma
Project description:Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor in the bone, which originates from normal osteoblasts or osteoblast precursors. Normal osteoblasts express estrogen receptor alpha (ER?); however, osteosarcomas do not express ER? due to promoter DNA methylation. Here we show that treatment of 143B osteosarcoma cells with decitabine (DAC, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine) induces expression of ER? and leads to decreased proliferation and concurrent induction of osteoblast differentiation. DAC exposure reduced protein expression of metastasis-associated markers VIMENTIN, SLUG, ZEB1, and MMP9, with a concurrent decrease in mRNA expression of known stem cell markers SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG. Treatment with 17?-estradiol (E2) synergized with DAC to reduce proliferation. Overexpression of ER? inhibited proliferation and induced osteoblast differentiation, whereas knockout of ER? by CRISPR/Cas9 prevented the effects of DAC. In an orthotopic model of osteosarcoma, DAC inhibited tumor growth and metastasis of 143B cells injected into the tibia of NOD SCID gamma mice. Furthermore, ER? overexpression reduced tumor growth and metastasis, and ER? knockout prevented the effects of DAC in vivo. Together, these experiments provide preclinical evidence that the FDA-approved DNA methylation inhibitor DAC may be repurposed to treat patients with osteosarcoma based on its efficacy to decrease proliferation, to induce osteoblast differentiation, and to reduce metastasis to visceral organs.Significance: These findings describe the effects of DNA methyltransferase inhibition on ER? and its potential role as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma.See related commentary by Roberts, p. 1034 See related article by El Ayachi and colleagues; Cancer Res 79(5);982-93.