Cell-Penetrating Function of the Poly(ADP-Ribose) (PAR)-Binding Motif Derived from the PAR-Dependent E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Iduna.
ABSTRACT: Iduna is a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cellular responses such as proteasomal degradation and DNA repair upon interaction with its substrate. We identified a highly cationic region within the PAR-binding motif of Iduna; the region was similar among various species and showed amino acid sequence similarity with that of known cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). We hypothesized that this Iduna-derived cationic sequence-rich peptide (Iduna) could penetrate the cell membrane and deliver macromolecules into cells. To test this hypothesis, we generated recombinant Iduna-conjugated enhanced green fluorescent protein (Iduna-EGFP) and its tandem-repeat form (d-Iduna-EGFP). Both Iduna-EGFP and d-Iduna-EGFP efficiently penetrated Jurkat cells, with the fluorescence signals increasing dose- and time-dependently. Tandem-repeats of Iduna and other CPPs enhanced intracellular protein delivery efficiency. The delivery mechanism involves lipid-raft-mediated endocytosis following heparan sulfate interaction; d-Iduna-EGFP was localized in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm, and its residence time was much longer than that of other controls such as TAT and Hph-1. Moreover, following intravenous administration to C57/BL6 mice, d-Iduna-EGFP was efficiently taken up by various tissues, including the liver, spleen, and intestine suggesting that the cell-penetrating function of the human Iduna-derived peptide can be utilized for experimental and therapeutic delivery of macromolecules.
Project description:Ubiquitin mediated protein degradation is crucial for regulation of cell signaling and protein quality control. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is a cell-signaling molecule that mediates changes in protein function through binding at PAR binding sites. Here we characterize the PAR binding protein, Iduna, and show that it is a PAR-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase. Iduna's E3 ligase activity requires PAR binding because point mutations at Y156A and R157A eliminate Iduna's PAR binding and Iduna's E3 ligase activity. Iduna's E3 ligase activity also requires an intact really interesting new gene (RING) domain because Iduna possessing point mutations at either H54A or C60A is devoid of ubiquitination activity. Tandem affinity purification reveals that Iduna binds to a number of proteins that are either PARsylated or bind PAR including PAR polymerase-1, 2 (PARP1, 2), nucleolin, DNA ligase III, KU70, KU86, XRCC1, and histones. PAR binding to Iduna activates its E3 ligase function, and PAR binding is required for Iduna ubiquitination of PARP1, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, and KU70. Iduna's PAR-dependent ubiquitination of PARP1 targets it for proteasomal degradation. Via PAR binding and ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, Iduna protects against cell death induced by the DNA damaging agent N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and rescues cells from G1 arrest and promotes cell survival after ?-irradiation. Moreover, Iduna facilitates DNA repair by reducing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites after MNNG exposure and facilitates DNA repair following ?-irradiation as assessed by the comet assay. These results define Iduna as a PAR-dependent E3 ligase that regulates cell survival and DNA repair.
Project description:Recent findings suggest that Ring finger protein 146 (RNF146), also called iduna, have neuroprotective property due to its inhibition of Parthanatos via binding with Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The Parthanatos is a PAR dependent cell death that has been implicated in many human diseases. RNF146/Iduna acts as a PARsylation-directed E3 ubquitin ligase to mediate tankyrase-dependent degradation of axin, thereby positively regulates Wnt signaling. RNF146/Iduna can also facilitate DNA repair and protect against cell death induced by DNA damaging agents or ?-irradiation. It can translocate to the nucleus after cellular injury and promote the ubiquitination and degradation of various nuclear proteins involved in DNA damage repair. The PARsylation-directed ubquitination mediated by RNF146/Iduna is analogous to the phosphorylation-directed ubquitination catalyzed by Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin complex. RNF146/Iduna has been found to be implicated in neurodegenerative disease and cancer development. Therefore modulation of the PAR-binding and PARsylation dependent E3 ligase activity of RNF146/Iduna could have therapeutic significance for diseases, in which PAR and PAR-binding proteins play key pathophysiologic roles.
Project description:Glutamate acting on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors induces neuronal injury following stroke, through activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and generation of the death molecule poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer. Here we identify Iduna, a previously undescribed NMDA receptor-induced survival protein that is neuroprotective against glutamate NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo and against stroke through interfering with PAR polymer-induced cell death (parthanatos). Iduna's protective effects are independent and downstream of PARP-1 activity. Iduna is a PAR polymer-binding protein, and mutation at the PAR polymer binding site abolishes the PAR binding activity of Iduna and attenuates its protective actions. Iduna is protective in vivo against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity and middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced stroke in mice. To our knowledge, these results define Iduna as the first known endogenous inhibitor of parthanatos. Interfering with PAR polymer signaling could be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurologic disorders.
Project description:Biomolecules such as proteins, DNA, and RNA are macromolecules and can not cross the cell membrane. However, cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) has been shown to deliver therapeutic biomolecules successfully into cells. The various and widely used CPPs including TAT, VP22, and Antp are mostly non-human originated CPPs, and are limited by their potential toxicity and immunogenicity. We report here on a newly identified novel cell-penetrating sequence (LPIN; RRKRRRRRK) from the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of human nuclear phosphatase, LPIN3. LPIN-EGFP recombinant protein was concentration- and time-dependently delivered into cells and localized to the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm. It penetrated the cell membrane by lipid raft-mediated endocytosis by binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycan. LPIN-EGFP was successfully delivered into primary mouse splenocytes in vitro and it could be delivered into various tissues including liver, kidney, and intestine in mice after intra-peritoneal injection. This research suggests that LPIN-CPP could be used in a drug delivery system to deliver therapeutic biomolecules including peptides, proteins, DNA, and RNA and without the limitations of non-human originated CPPs such as TAT-CPP.
Project description:Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are intriguing molecules that have received much attention, both in terms of mechanistic analysis and as transporters for intracellular therapeutic delivery. Most CPPs contain an abundance of cationic charged residues, typically arginine, where the amino acid compositions, rather than specific sequences, tend to determine their ability to enter cells. Hydrophobic residues are often added to cationic sequences to create efficient CPPs, but typically at the penalty of increased cytotoxicity. Here, we examined polypeptides containing glycosylated, cationic derivatives of methionine, where we found these hydrophilic polypeptides to be surprisingly effective as CPPs and to also possess low cytotoxicity. X-ray analysis of how these new polypeptides interact with lipid membranes revealed that the incorporation of sterically demanding hydrophilic cationic groups in polypeptides is an unprecedented new concept for design of potent CPPs.
Project description:Therapeutic macromolecules such as proteins and oligonucleotides can be highly efficacious but are often limited to extracellular targets due to the cell's impermeable membrane. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are able to deliver such macromolecules into cells, but limited structure-activity relationships and inconsistent literature reports make it difficult to design effective CPPs for a given cargo. For example, polyarginine motifs are common in CPPs, promoting cell uptake at the expense of systemic toxicity. Machine learning may be able to address this challenge by bridging gaps between experimental data in order to discern sequence-activity relationships that evade our intuition. Our earlier data set and deep learning model led to the design of miniproteins (>40 amino acids) for antisense delivery. Here, we leveraged and expanded our model with data augmentation in the short CPP sequence space of the data set to extrapolate and discover short, low-arginine-content CPPs that would be easier to synthesize and amenable to rapid conjugation to desired cargo, and with minimal in vivo toxicity. The lead predicted peptide, termed <b>P6</b>, is as active as a polyarginine CPP for the delivery of an antisense oligomer, while having only one arginine side chain and 18 total residues. We determined the pentalysine motif and the C-terminal cysteine of <b>P6</b> to be the main drivers of activity. The antisense conjugate was able to enhance corrective splicing in an animal model to produce functional eGFP in heart tissue <i>in vivo</i> while remaining nontoxic up to a dose of 60 mg/kg. In addition, <b>P6</b> was able to deliver an enzyme to the cytosol of cells. Our findings suggest that, given a data set of long CPPs, we can discover by extrapolation short, active sequences that deliver antisense oligomers.
Project description:Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have tremendous potential for use in gene and drug delivery applications. The selection of new CPPs with desired capabilities from randomized peptide libraries is challenging, since the CPP phenotype is a complex selection target. Here we report the discovery of an unusual new CPP from a randomized peptide library using a functional selection system based on plasmid display (PD). After four rounds of screening of a 14-mer peptide library over PC12 cells, several peptides were identified and tested for their ability to deliver the green fluorescent protein (GFP). One peptide (SG3) exhibited a cell penetrating phenotype; however, unlike other well-known CPPs such as TAT or Penetratin, the newly identified peptide was not highly cationic. The PD protocol necessitated the addition of a cationic lipid (Lipofectamine2000), and in the presence of this compound, the SG3 peptide significantly outperformed the well-known TAT CPP in the delivery of GFP to PC12 cells and primary astrocytes. When the SG3 peptide was fused to the pro-apoptotic BH3 peptide from the Bak protein, significant cell death was induced in cultured primary astrocytes, indicating relevant, intracellular delivery of a functional cargo. The PD platform is a useful method for identifying functional new CPPs from randomized libraries with unique delivery capabilities.
Project description:Cellular uptake of therapeutic oligonucleotides and subsequent intracellular trafficking to their target sites represents the major technical hurdle for the biological effectiveness of these potential drugs. Accordingly, laboratories worldwide focus on the development of suitable delivery systems. Among the different available non-viral systems like cationic polymers, cationic liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) represent an attractive concept to bypass the problem of poor membrane permeability of these charged macromolecules. While uptake per se in most cases does not represent the main obstacle of nucleic acid delivery in vitro, it becomes increasingly apparent that intracellular trafficking is the bottleneck. As a consequence, in order to optimize a given delivery system, a side-by-side analysis of nucleic acid cargo internalized and the corresponding biological effect is required to determine the overall efficacy. In this review, we will concentrate on peptide-mediated delivery of siRNAs and steric block oligonucleotides and discuss different methods for quantitative assessment of the amount of cargo taken up and how to correlate those numbers with biological effects by applying easy to handle reporter systems. To illustrate current limitations of non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems, we present own data as an example and discuss options of how to enhance trafficking of molecules entrapped in cellular compartments.
Project description:Covalent coupling with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) has been a common strategy to facilitate the cell entry of nanomaterial and other macromolecules. Though efficient, this strategy requires chemical modifications on nanomaterials, which is not always desired for their applications. Recent studies on a few cationic CPPs have revealed that they can stimulate the cellular uptake of nanoparticles (NPs) simply via co-administration (bystander manner), which bypasses the requirement of chemical modification. In this study, we investigated the other classes of CPPs and discovered that transportan (TP) peptide, an amphiphilic CPP, also exhibited such bystander activities. When simply co-administered, TP peptide enabled the cells to engulf a variety of NPs, as well as common solute tracers, while these payloads had little or no ability to enter the cells by themselves. This result was validated in vitro and ex vivo, and TP peptide showed no physical interaction with co-administered NPs (bystander cargo). We further explored the cell entry mechanism for TP peptide and its bystander cargo, and showed that it was mediated by a receptor-dependent macropinocytosis process. Together, our findings improve the understanding of TP-assisted cell entry, and open up a new avenue to apply this peptide for nanomaterial delivery.
Project description:The increased need for macromolecular therapeutics, such as peptides, proteins and nucleotides, to reach intracellular targets necessitates more effective delivery vectors and a higher level of understanding of their mechanism of action. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) can transport a range of macromolecules into cells, either through direct plasma membrane translocation or endocytosis. All known endocytic pathways involve cell-cortex remodelling, a process shown to be regulated by reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton. Here using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and a variety of actin inhibitors we identify how actin disorganisation in different cell types differentially influences the cellular entry of three probes: the CPP octaarginine - Alexa488 conjugate (R8-Alexa488), octaarginine conjugated Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP-R8), and the fluid phase probe dextran. Disrupting actin organisation in A431 skin epithelial cells dramatically increases the uptake of EGFP-R8 and dextran, and contrasts strongly to inhibitory effects observed with transferrin and R8 attached to the fluorophore Alexa488. This demonstrates that uptake of the same CPP can occur via different endocytic processes depending on the conjugated fluorescent entity. Overall this study highlights how cargo influences cell uptake of this peptide and that the actin cytoskeleton may act as a gateway or barrier to endocytosis of drug delivery vectors.