Heterogeneity-based, multiple mechanisms in the resistance to osimertinib (AZD9291): A case report.
ABSTRACT: Osimertinib is a novel, irreversible, mutant-selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting EGFR mutations and the EGFR T790 mutation. Here, we report a woman with EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma who, after 23-month treatment with gefitinib, developed the EGFR T790M mutation, which converted the T790M status from positive to negative before osimertinib treatment and developed MET amplification, leading to rapid progression on osimertinib in two months. Subsequent treatment with crizotinib and c-Met inhibitor plus gefitinib also failed to improve the clinical outcome, suggesting the potential existence of another resistance mechanism. Our findings revealed the underlying multiple and heterogeneous mechanisms in resistance to osimertinib, suggesting combination strategies should be considered post-osimertinib progression.
Project description:The third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) osimertinib is approved for untreated, or previously EGFR-TKI-treated T790M-positive EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We investigated the heterogeneity of responses to osimertinib and its underlying mechanisms. A patient with EGFR-L858R-mutated NSCLC was treated with erlotinib. Following treatment, he developed brain and multiple bone metastases and was eventually diagnosed with NSCLC with EGFR-T790M mutation. The responses of various tumor specimens to osimertinib were heterogeneous. We investigated EGFR-T790M and MET amplification using PCR and FISH in autopsy specimens of the cervical spine, lumbar spine, and brain. We established the KNZ osimertinib-resistant (KNZ_OR) tumor cell line with MET amplification using a cervical spine lesion that was intrinsically resistant to osimertinib. We evaluated the effects of MET knockdown and MET inhibitor on KNZ_OR cell sensitivity to osimertinib in vitro and in vivo. Osimertinib-resistant lesions (cervical spine and brain) showed EGFR-L858R and MET amplification, but not EGFR-T790M, whereas osimertinib-sensitive lesions (lumbar spine) showed EGFR-L858R and -T790, but not MET amplification. Osimertinib decreased the association of amplified MET with L858R-mutated EGFR but increased that with human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 in KNZ_OR cells. MET knockdown or MET inhibitor sensitized KNZ_OR cells to osimertinib in vitro, indicating that MET amplification induced osimertinib resistance. Combination with osimertinib plus crizotinib induced tumor shrinkage in the KNZ_OR xenograft model. Hence, MET amplification might induce heterogeneous responses to osimertinib in EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Further investigations on mutated EGFR and amplified MET might lead to the development of effective therapies.
Project description:Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations accounts for 8%-30% of all cases of NSCLC depending on the geography and ethnicity. EGFR-mutated NSCLC usually responds to first-line therapy with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, there is eventual loss of efficacy to TKIs due to development of resistance. The most frequent cause for resistance is a second EGFR mutation in exon 20 (T790M), which is encountered in up to 62% of patients. Osimertinib is one of the third-generation EGFR TKIs with a high selective potency against T790M mutants. In Phase I trial of osimertinib in advanced lung cancer after progression on EGFR TKIs, the response rate and disease control rate were 61% and 95%, respectively. A subsequent Phase II (AURA2) trial demonstrated a disease control rate of 92%, a response rate of 71%, a median duration of response of 7.8 months, and a median progression-free survival of 8.6 months. Osimertinib was approved by the US Food & Drug Administration in November 2015 for patients whose tumors exhibited T790M mutation and for those with progressive disease on other EGFR TKIs. In this review, we address the role of EGFR TKIs in the management of EGFR mutation lung cancer and the mechanisms of resistance to TKIs with a focus on the role of osimertinib. Data from completed trials of osimertinib, ongoing trials, as well as novel diagnostic methods to detect EGFR T790M mutation are reviewed.
Project description:PURPOSE:Third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have demonstrated potent activity against TKI resistance mediated by EGFR T790M. We studied whether noninvasive genotyping of cell-free plasma DNA (cfDNA) is a useful biomarker for prediction of outcome from a third-generation EGFR-TKI, osimertinib. METHODS:Plasma was collected from all patients in the first-in-man study of osimertinib. Patients who were included had acquired EGFR-TKI resistance and evidence of a common EGFR-sensitizing mutation. Genotyping of cell-free plasma DNA was performed by using BEAMing. Plasma genotyping accuracy was assessed by using tumor genotyping from a central laboratory as reference. Objective response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed in all T790M-positive or T790M-negative patients. RESULTS:Sensitivity of plasma genotyping for detection of T790M was 70%. Of 58 patients with T790M-negative tumors, T790M was detected in plasma of 18 (31%). ORR and median PFS were similar in patients with T790M-positive plasma (ORR, 63%; PFS, 9.7 months) or T790M-positive tumor (ORR, 62%; PFS, 9.7 months) results. Although patients with T790M-negative plasma had overall favorable outcomes (ORR, 46%; median PFS, 8.2 months), tumor genotyping distinguished a subset of patients positive for T790M who had better outcomes (ORR, 69%; PFS, 16.5 months) as well as a subset of patients negative for T790M with poor outcomes (ORR, 25%; PFS, 2.8 months). CONCLUSION:In this retrospective analysis, patients positive for T790M in plasma have outcomes with osimertinib that are equivalent to patients positive by a tissue-based assay. This study suggests that, upon availability of validated plasma T790M assays, some patients could avoid a tumor biopsy for T790M genotyping. As a result of the 30% false-negative rate of plasma genotyping, those with T790M-negative plasma results still need a tumor biopsy to determine presence or absence of T790M.
Project description:The discovery of mutations in EGFR significantly changed the treatment paradigm of patients with EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a particular group of patients with different clinical characteristics and outcome to EGFR-wild-type patients. In these patients, the treatment of choice as first-line therapy is first- or second-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as gefitinib, erlotinib, or afatinib. Inevitably, after the initial response, all patients become refractory to these drugs. The most common mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs is the development of a second mutation in exon 20 of EGFR (T790M). Osimertinib is a third-generation EGFR-TKI designed for overcoming T790M-mediated resistance. Based on the results of efficacy and tolerability of Phase II and Phase III studies, osimertinib has been approved for treatment of advanced EGFRT790M+ mutation NSCLC following progression on a prior EGFR-TKI. Occurrence of acquired resistance to osimertinib represents an urgent need for additional strategies including combination with other agents, such as other targeted therapies or checkpoint inhibitors, or development of new and more potent compounds.
Project description:The discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and subsequent demonstration of the efficacy of genotype-directed therapies with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) marked the advent of the era of precision medicine for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). First- and second-generation EGFR TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib and afatinib, have consistently shown superior efficacy and better toxicity compared with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy and currently represent the standard of care for EGFR-mutated advanced NSCLC patients. However, tumors invariably develop acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, thereby limiting the long-term efficacy of these agents. The T790M mutation in exon 20 of the EGFR gene has been identified as the most common mechanism of acquired resistance. Osimertinib is a third-generation TKI designed to target both EGFR TKI-sensitizing mutations and T790M, while sparing wild-type EGFR. Based on its pronounced clinical activity and good safety profile demonstrated in early Phase I and II trials, osimertinib received first approval in 2015 by the US FDA and in early 2016 by European Medicines Agency for the treatment of EGFR T790M mutation-positive NSCLC patients in progression after EGFR TKI therapy. Recent results from the Phase III AURA3 trial demonstrated the superiority of osimertinib over standard platinum-based doublet chemotherapy for treatment of patients with advanced EGFR T790M mutation-positive NSCLC with disease progression following first-line EGFR TKI therapy, thus definitively establishing this third-generation TKI as the standard of care in this setting. Herein, we review preclinical findings and clinical data from Phase I-III trials of osimertinib, including its efficacy in patients with central nervous system metastases. We further discuss currently available methods used to analyze T790M mutation status and the main mechanisms of resistance to osimertinib. Finally, we provide an outlook on ongoing trials with osimertinib and novel therapeutic combinations that might continue to improve the clinical outcome of EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients.
Project description:Osimertinib (Tagrisso®) is an oral, CNS-active, third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that selectively inhibits EGFR TKI-activating mutations over wild-type EGFR in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including the T790M mutation that often underlies acquired resistance to earlier generation EGFR TKIs. Relative to standard of care first-generation EGFR TKIs (erlotinib or gefitinib) as first-line treatment of EGFR activating mutation-positive advanced NSCLC, osimertinib significantly prolongs median progression-free survival (PFS), with separation of the Kaplan-Meier PFS survival curves evident by the first assessment timepoint of 6 weeks. Osimertinib prolongs PFS relative to standard EGFR TKI therapy in all prespecified groups, irrespective of the EGFR mutation present at study entry and presence of CNS metastases at study entry. Overall survival data are not yet mature. Osimertinib has a generally manageable tolerability profile.
Project description:Patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are particularly sensitive to treatment with first- or second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib, which block the cell-signaling pathways that drive the growth of tumor cells. Unfortunately, the majority of patients develop resistance to them after a median duration of response of around 10 months, and in over half of these patients the emergence of the EGFR T790M resistance mutation is detected. Osimertinib is an oral, highly selective, irreversible inhibitor of both EGFR-activating mutations and the T790M-resistance mutation, while sparing the activity of wild-type EGFR This article reviews clinical trial development of osimertinib in patients with NSCLC, presenting efficacy and safety evidence for its value in the EGFR T790M mutation-positive population and in different settings, including patients with metastatic disease. The preclinical background of clinically acquired resistance to osimertinib is presented and the combination tactics being investigated in an attempt to circumvent this are addressed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Osimertinib (AZD9291) is a third-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that selectively inhibits the activating EGFR mutation and T790M mutation, and is currently used globally to treat EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, acquired resistance to osimertinib is inevitable.<h4>Methods</h4>We established osimertinib-resistant cells (PC9/T790M/AZDR and H1975/AZDR) derived from EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells harboring T790M mutation, and investigated the mechanism of acquired resistance to osimertinib by whole-exome sequencing and multiple phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) array. A tumor specimen from an EGFR-mutant NSCLC patient with acquired resistance to osimertinib was also subjected to immunohistochemical analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Whole-exome sequencing analysis demonstrated that genetic alterations, such as acquisition of EGFR C797S, loss of T790M mutation, MET amplification, or mutated KRAS, MEK, BRAF, PIK3CA, were not detected. Analysis of phospho-RTK array revealed that insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) was activated in PC9/T790M/AZDR and H1975/AZDR cells. Knockdown of IGF1R by siRNA as well as inhibition of IGF1R activation by linstinib (IGF1R inhibitor) significantly restored the sensitivity to osimertinib. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression level of phosphorylated IGF1R was higher in the tumor specimen from the EGFR-mutant NSCLC patient with acquired resistance to osimertinib than in the specimen collected prior to the treatment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>IGF1R activation could occur following treatment with osimertinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC with T790M mutation, and might be one of the mechanisms underlying osimertinib resistance. Combined treatment of osimertinib and IGF1R inhibitor might be effective in overcoming the acquired resistance to osimertinib induced by IGF1R activation.<h4>Key points</h4>Significant findings of the study: Using osimertinib-resistant cells, we found that IGF1R activation induced by osimertinib treatment in EGFR-mutant NSCLC with T790M mutation is involved in resistance. Increased phosphorylation of IGF1R was observed in the tumor specimen from an EGFR-mutant NSCLC patient with acquired osimertinib resistance.<h4>What this study adds</h4>IGF1R activation might be one of the mechanisms of osimertinib resistance. A combination therapy with osimertinib and an IGF1R inhibitor might be an optimal approach for overcoming the acquired resistance to osimertinib induced by IGF1R activation.
Project description:The introduction of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) has significantly improved the prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutations. The most common mechanism of acquired resistance to first- and second-generation EGFR TKIs is represented by the secondary T790M mutation. Osimertinib, a third-generation TKI designed to target both EGFR sensitizing mutations and T790M, was first approved for the treatment of EGFR T790M mutation-positive NSCLC patients in progression after EGFR TKI therapy. The FLAURA study demonstrated that first-line treatment of EGFR mutant patients with osimertinib significantly improved progression free survival (PFS) over first-generation EGFR-TKIs, thus leading to its approval also in this setting. Moreover, osimertinib has shown significant central nervous system (CNS) activity and a favorable safety profile. The current review focuses on the clinical development of osimertinib, the mechanisms of acquired resistance identified in patients receiving osimertinib and the strategies currently under evaluation to overcome resistance.
Project description:Osimertinib is an effective third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved in multiple countries and regions for patients with EGFR T790M mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite impressive initial tumor responses, development of drug resistance ultimately limits the benefit of this compound. Mechanisms of resistance to osimertinib are just beginning to emerge, such as EGFR C797S and L718Q mutations, BRAF V600E and PIK3CA E545K mutations, as well as ERBB2 and MET amplification. However, a comprehensive view is still missing. In this study, we presented the first case of Chinese NSCLC patient who developed resistance to osimertinib, and discovered de novo EGFR G796D mutation as a potential mechanism. Our findings provided insights into mechanisms of resistance to osimertinib and highlighted tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution during the development of drug resistance.