Mathematical modelling of interacting mechanisms for hypoxia mediated cell cycle commitment for mesenchymal stromal cells.
ABSTRACT: Existing experimental data have shown hypoxia to be an important factor affecting the proliferation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), but the contrasting observations made at various hypoxic levels raise the questions of whether hypoxia accelerates proliferation, and how. On the other hand, in order to meet the increasing demand of MSCs, an optimised bioreactor control strategy is needed to enhance in vitro production.A comprehensive, single-cell mathematical model has been constructed in this work, which combines cellular oxygen sensing with hypoxia-mediated cell cycle progression to predict cell cycle commitment as a proxy to proliferation rate. With oxygen levels defined for in vitro cell culture, the model predicts enhanced proliferation under intermediate (2-8%) and mild (8-15%) hypoxia and cell quiescence under severe (
Project description:Oxygen-sensing pathways executed by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) induce a cellular adaptive program when oxygen supply becomes limited. However, the role of the HIF oxygen-sensing pathway in the airway response to hypoxic stress in adulthood remains poorly understood. Here we found that in vivo exposure to hypoxia led to a profound increase in bronchial epithelial cell proliferation mainly confined to Club (Clara) cells. Interestingly, this response was executed by hypoxia-inducible factor 2? (HIF2?), which controls the expression of FoxM1, a recognized proliferative factor of Club cells. Furthermore, HIF2? induced the expression of the resistin-like molecules ? and ? (RELM? and ?), previously considered bronchial epithelial growth factors. Importantly, despite the central role of HIF2?, this proliferative response was not initiated by in vivo Vhl gene inactivation or pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase oxygen sensors, indicating the molecular complexity of this response and the possible participation of other oxygen-sensing pathways. Club cells are principally involved in protection and maintenance of bronchial epithelium. Thus, our findings identify a novel molecular link between HIF2? and Club cell biology that can be regarded as a new HIF2?-dependent mechanism involved in bronchial epithelium adaptation to oxygen fluctuations.
Project description:The hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF)-1/2? are the main oxygen sensors which regulate the adaptation to intratumoral hypoxia. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the HIF proteins in regulating the radiation response of a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in vitro model. To directly assess the unique and overlapping functions of HIF-1? and HIF-2?, we use CRISPR gene-editing to generate isogenic H1299 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells lacking HIF-1?, HIF-2? or both. We found that in HIF1 knockout cells, HIF-2? was strongly induced by hypoxia compared to wild type but the reverse was not seen in HIF2 knockout cells. Cells lacking HIF-1? were more radiation resistant than HIF2 knockout and wildtype cells upon hypoxia, which was associated with a reduced recruitment of ?H2AX foci directly after irradiation and not due to differences in proliferation. Conversely, double-HIF1/2 knockout cells were most radiation sensitive and had increased ?H2AX recruitment and cell cycle delay. Compensatory HIF-2? activity in HIF1 knockout cells is the main cause of this radioprotective effect. Under hypoxia, HIF1 knockout cells uniquely had a strong increase in lactate production and decrease in extracellular pH. Using genetically identical HIF-? isoform-deficient cells we identified a strong radiosensitizing of HIF1, but not of HIF2, which was associated with a reduced extracellular pH and reduced glycolysis.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Two hallmarks of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are constitutive hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling and abundant intracellular lipid droplets (LD). However, regulation of lipid storage and its role in ccRCC are incompletely understood. Transcriptional profiling of primary ccRCC samples revealed that expression of the LD coat protein gene PLIN2 was elevated in tumors and correlated with HIF2?, but not HIF1?, activation. HIF2?-dependent PLIN2 expression promoted lipid storage, proliferation, and viability in xenograft tumors. Mechanistically, lipid storage maintained integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is functionally and physically associated with LDs. Specifically, PLIN2-dependent lipid storage suppressed cytotoxic ER stress responses that otherwise result from elevated protein synthetic activity characteristic of ccRCC cells. Thus, in addition to promoting ccRCC proliferation and anabolic metabolism, HIF2? modulates lipid storage to sustain ER homeostasis, particularly under conditions of nutrient and oxygen limitation, thereby promoting tumor cell survival. SIGNIFICANCE:We demonstrate that HIF2? promotes lipid storage, ER homeostasis, and cell viability in ccRCC via upregulation of the LD coat protein PLIN2, revealing a novel function for the well-documented "clear-cell" phenotype and identifying ER stress as a targetable vulnerability created by HIF2?/PLIN2 suppression in this common renal malignancy.
Project description:Although it has been shown that HIF1 and 2 fulfill essential roles within the hematopoietic system and in the regulation of HSC fate, little is currently known about the specific mechanisms that are involved. We identified transcriptome changes induced by hypoxia, constitutively active HIF1(P402/564) and HIF2(P405/531) in human cord blood CD34+ cells. Thus, we were able to identify common hypoxia-HIF1-HIF2 gene signatures, but we also identified specific target genes that were exclusively regulated by HIF1, HIF2 or hypoxia. Geneset enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that, besides known pathways associated with "hypoxia-induced signaling", also significant enrichment for the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF?) pathway was observed within the hypoxia/HIF1/HIF2 transcriptomes. One of the most significantly upregulated genes in both gene sets was the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1C (p57kip2). Combined hypoxia treatment or HIF overexpression together with TGF? stimulation resulted in enhanced expression of CDKN1C and enhanced cell cycle arrest within the CD34+/CD38- stem cell compartment. Interestingly, we observed that CD34+ cells cultured under hypoxic conditions secreted high levels of latent TGF?, suggesting an auto- or paracrine role of TGF? in the regulation of quiescence of these cells. However, knockdown of SMAD4 could not rescue the hypoxia induced cell cycle arrest, arguing against direct effects of hypoxia-induced secreted TGF?. Finally, the G?-coupled receptor GTPase RGS1 was identified as a HIF-dependent hypoxia target that dampens SDF1-induced migration and signal transduction in human CD34+ stem/progenitor cells.
Project description:Myofibroblasts are a key cell type in wound repair, cardiovascular disease, and fibrosis and in the tumor-promoting microenvironment. The high accumulation of myofibroblasts in reactive stroma is predictive of the rate of cancer progression in many different tumors, yet the cell types of origin and the mechanisms that regulate proliferation and differentiation are unknown. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, the characterization of normal human prostate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the TGF-?1-regulated pathways that modulate MSC proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation. Human prostate MSCs combined with prostate cancer cells expressing TGF-?1 resulted in commitment to myofibroblasts. TGF-?1-regulated runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) was required for cell cycle progression and proliferation of progenitors. RUNX1 also inhibited, yet did not block, differentiation. Knockdown of RUNX1 in prostate or bone marrow-derived MSCs resulted in cell cycle arrest, attenuated proliferation, and constitutive differentiation to myofibroblasts. These data show that RUNX1 is a key transcription factor for MSC proliferation and cell fate commitment in myofibroblast differentiation. This work also shows that the normal human prostate gland contains tissue-derived MSCs that exhibit multilineage differentiation similar to bone marrow-derived MSCs. Targeting RUNX1 pathways may represent a therapeutic approach to affect myofibroblast proliferation and biology in multiple disease states.
Project description:A mathematical model was developed for mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) growth in a packed bed bioreactor that improves oxygen availability by allowing oxygen diffusion through a gas-permeable wall. The governing equations for oxygen, glucose and lactate, the inhibitory waste product, were developed assuming Michaelis-Menten kinetics, together with an equation for the medium flow based on Darcy's Law. The conservation law for the cells includes the effects of inhibition as the cells reach confluence, nutrient and waste product concentrations, and the assumption that the cells can migrate on the scaffold. The equations were solved using the finite element package, COMSOL. Previous experimental results collected using a packed bed bioreactor with gas permeable walls to expand MSCs produced a lower cell yield than was obtained using a traditional cell culture flask. This mathematical model suggests that the main contributors to the observed low cell yield were a non-uniform initial cell seeding profile and a potential lag phase as cells recovered from the initial seeding procedure. Lactate build-up was predicted to have only a small effect at lower flow rates. Thus, the most important parameters to optimise cell expansion in the proliferation of MSCs in a bioreactor with gas permeable wall are the initial cell seeding protocol and the handling of the cells during the seeding process. The mathematical model was then used to identify and characterise potential enhancements to the bioreactor design, including incorporating a central gas permeable capillary to further enhance oxygen availability to the cells. Finally, to evaluate the issues and limitations that might be encountered scale-up of the bioreactor, the mathematical model was used to investigate modifications to the bioreactor design geometry and packing density.
Project description:Background:Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)1 and 2 are transcription factors that regulate the homeostatic response to low oxygen conditions. Since data related to the importance of HIF1 and 2 in hematopoietic stem and progenitors is conflicting, we investigated the chromatin binding profiles of HIF1 and HIF2 and linked that to transcriptional networks and the cellular metabolic state. Methods:Genome-wide ChIPseq and ChIP-PCR experiments were performed to identify HIF1 and HIF2 binding sites in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and healthy CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Transcriptome studies were performed to identify gene expression changes induced by hypoxia or by overexpression of oxygen-insensitive HIF1 and HIF2 mutants. Metabolism studies were performed by 1D-NMR, and glucose consumption and lactate production levels were determined by spectrophotometric enzyme assays. CRISPR-CAS9-mediated HIF1, HIF2, and ARNT-/- lines were generated to study the functional consequences upon loss of HIF signaling, in vitro and in vivo upon transplantation of knockout lines in xenograft mice. Results:Genome-wide ChIP-seq and transcriptome studies revealed that overlapping HIF1- and HIF2-controlled loci were highly enriched for various processes including metabolism, particularly glucose metabolism, but also for chromatin organization, cellular response to stress and G protein-coupled receptor signaling. ChIP-qPCR validation studies confirmed that glycolysis-related genes but not genes related to the TCA cycle or glutaminolysis were controlled by both HIF1 and HIF2 in leukemic cell lines and primary AMLs, while in healthy human CD34+ cells these loci were predominantly controlled by HIF1 and not HIF2. However, and in contrast to our initial hypotheses, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of HIF signaling did not affect growth, internal metabolite concentrations, glucose consumption or lactate production under hypoxia, not even in vivo upon transplantation of knockout cells into xenograft mice. Conclusion:These data indicate that, while HIFs exert control over glycolysis but not OxPHOS gene expression in human leukemic cells, this is not critically important for their metabolic state. In contrast, inhibition of BCR-ABL did impact on glucose consumption and lactate production regardless of the presence of HIFs. These data indicate that oncogene-mediated control over glycolysis can occur independently of hypoxic signaling modules.
Project description:While the functions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) and HIF2?/ARNT (HIF2) proteins in activating hypoxia-inducible genes are well established, the role of other transcription factors in the hypoxic transcriptional response is less clear. We report here for the first time that the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine-zip transcription factor upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) is required for the hypoxic transcriptional response, specifically, for hypoxic activation of HIF2 target genes. We show that inhibiting USF2 activity greatly reduces hypoxic induction of HIF2 target genes in cell lines that have USF2 activity, while inducing USF2 activity in cells lacking USF2 activity restores hypoxic induction of HIF2 target genes. Mechanistically, USF2 activates HIF2 target genes by binding to HIF2 target gene promoters, interacting with HIF2? protein, and recruiting coactivators CBP and p300 to form enhanceosome complexes that contain HIF2?, USF2, CBP, p300, and RNA polymerase II on HIF2 target gene promoters. Functionally, the effect of USF2 knockdown on proliferation, motility, and clonogenic survival of HIF2-dependent tumor cells in vitro is phenocopied by HIF2? knockdown, indicating that USF2 works with HIF2 to activate HIF2 target genes and to drive HIF2-depedent tumorigenesis.
Project description:Most published studies addressing the role of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension development employ models that may not recapitulate the clinical setting, including the use of animals with pre-existing lung/vascular defects secondary to embryonic HIF ablation or activation. Furthermore, critical questions including how and when HIF signalling contributes to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension remain unanswered.Normal adult rodents in which global HIF1 or HIF2 was inhibited by inducible gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition (antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) and small molecule inhibitors) were exposed to short-term (4?days) or chronic (4-5?weeks) hypoxia. Haemodynamic studies were performed, the animals euthanised, and lungs and hearts obtained for pathological and transcriptomic analysis. Cell-type-specific HIF signals for pulmonary hypertension initiation were determined in normal pulmonary vascular cells in vitro and in mice (using cell-type-specific HIF deletion).Global Hif1a deletion in mice did not prevent hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension at 5?weeks. Mice with global Hif2a deletion did not survive long-term hypoxia. Partial Hif2a deletion or Hif2-ASO (but not Hif1-ASO) reduced vessel muscularisation, increases in pulmonary arterial pressures and right ventricular hypertrophy in mice exposed to 4-5?weeks of hypoxia. A small molecule HIF2 inhibitor (PT2567) significantly attenuated early events (monocyte recruitment and vascular cell proliferation) in rats exposed to 4?days of hypoxia, as well as vessel muscularisation, tenascin C accumulation and pulmonary hypertension development in rats exposed to 5?weeks of hypoxia. In vitro, HIF2 induced a distinct set of genes in normal human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, mediating inflammation and proliferation of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Endothelial Hif2a knockout prevented hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.Inhibition of HIF2 (but not HIF1) can provide a therapeutic approach to prevent the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Future studies are needed to investigate the role of HIFs in pulmonary hypertension progression and reversal.
Project description:Studying the proliferative ability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxic conditions can help us achieve the effective regeneration of ischemic injured myocardium. Cardiac-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) is a specific biomarker of muscle and heart tissue injury. This protein is purported to be involved in early myocardial development, adult myocardial tissue repair and responsible for the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. We have investigated the role of FABP3 in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells under ischemic conditions. MSCs from 12 donors were cultured either in standard normoxic or modified hypoxic conditions, and the differential expression of FABP3 was tested by quantitative (RT)PCR and western blot. We also established stable FABP3 expression in MSCs and searched for variation in cellular proliferation and differentiation bioprocesses affected by hypoxic conditions. We identified: (1) the FABP3 differential expression pattern in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions; (2) over-expression of FABP3 inhibited the growth and proliferation of the MSCs; however, improved their survival in low oxygen environments; (3) the cell growth factors and positive cell cycle regulation genes, such as PCNA, APC, CCNB1, CCNB2 and CDC6 were all down-regulated; while the key negative cell cycle regulation genes TP53, BRCA1, CASP3 and CDKN1A were significantly up-regulated in the cells with FABP3 overexpression. Our data suggested that FABP3 was up-regulated under hypoxia; also negatively regulated the cell metabolic process and the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibited cell growth and proliferation via negative regulation of the cell cycle and down-regulation of cell growth factors, but enhances cell survival in hypoxic or ischemic conditions.