Personalized oncogenomic analysis of metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma: using whole-genome sequencing to inform clinical decision-making.
ABSTRACT: Metastatic adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Because of their slow growth and relative rarity, there is limited evidence for systemic therapy regimens. Recently, molecular profiling studies have begun to reveal the genetic landscape of these poorly understood cancers, and new treatment possibilities are beginning to emerge. The objective is to use whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing and analysis to better understand the genetic alterations underlying the pathology of metastatic and rare ACCs and determine potentially actionable therapeutic targets. We report five cases of metastatic ACC, not originating in the salivary glands, in patients enrolled in the Personalized Oncogenomics (POG) Program at the BC Cancer Agency. Genomic workup included whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing, detailed analysis of tumor alterations, and integration with existing knowledge of drug-target combinations to identify potential therapeutic targets. Analysis reveals low mutational burden in these five ACC cases, and mutation signatures that are commonly observed in multiple cancer types. Notably, the only recurrent structural aberration identified was the well-described MYB-NFIB fusion that was present in four of five cases, and one case exhibited a closely related MYBL1-NFIB fusion. Recurrent mutations were also identified in BAP1 and BCOR, with additional mutations in individual samples affecting NOTCH1 and the epigenetic regulators ARID2, SMARCA2, and SMARCB1. Copy changes were rare, and they included amplification of MYC and homozygous loss of CDKN2A in individual samples. Genomic analysis revealed therapeutic targets in all five cases and served to inform a therapeutic choice in three of the cases to date.
Project description:The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of the MYB-NFIB fusion in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), to establish the clinicopathologic significance of the fusion, and to analyze the expression of MYB in ACCs in the context of the MYB-NFIB fusion.We did an extensive analysis involving 123 cancers of the salivary gland, including primary and metastatic ACCs, and non-ACC salivary carcinomas. MYB-NFIB fusions were identified by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and sequencing of the RT-PCR products, and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. MYB RNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.The MYB-NFIB fusion was detected in 28% primary and 35% metastatic ACCs, but not in any of the non-ACC salivary carcinomas analyzed. Different exons in both the MYB and NFIB genes were involved in the fusions, resulting in expression of multiple chimeric variants. Notably, MYB was overexpressed in the vast majority of the ACCs, although MYB expression was significantly higher in tumors carrying the MYB-NFIB fusion. The presence of the MYB-NFIB fusion was significantly associated (P = 0.03) with patients older than 50 years of age. No correlation with other clinicopathologic markers, factors, and survival was found.We conclude that the MYB-NFIB fusion characterizes a subset of ACCs and contributes to MYB overexpression. Additional mechanisms may be involved in MYB overexpression in ACCs lacking the MYB-NFIB fusion. These findings suggest that MYB may be a specific novel target for tumor intervention in patients with ACC.
Project description:Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is among the most common salivary gland malignancies, and is notorious for its unpredictable clinical course with frequent local recurrences and metastatic spread. However, the molecular mechanisms for metastatic spread are poorly understood. This malignancy is known to frequently harbor gene fusions involving MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB, and to have a low mutational burden. Most studies have focused on primary tumors to understand the biology of ACC, but this has not revealed a genetic cause for metastatic dissemination in the majority of cases. Hence, other molecular mechanisms are likely to be involved. Here, we characterize the genetic and microRNA expressional landscape of primary ACC and corresponding metastatic lesions from 11 patients. FISH demonstrated preservation of MYB aberrations between primary tumors and metastases, and targeted next-generation sequencing identified mutations exclusive for the metastatic lesions in 3/11 cases (27.3%). Global microRNA profiling identified several differentially expressed miRNAs between primary ACC and metastases as compared to normal salivary gland tissue. Interestingly, individual tumor pairs differed in miRNA profile, but there was no general difference between primary ACCs and metastases. Collectively, we show that MYB and NFIB aberrations are consistently preserved in ACC metastatic lesions, and that additional mutations included in the 50-gene hotspot panel used are infrequently acquired by the metastatic lesions. In contrast, tumor pairs differ in microRNA expression and our data suggest that they are heterogeneous according to their microRNA profile. This adds an additional layer to the complex process of ACC metastatic spread.
Project description:Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an indolent salivary gland malignancy, characterized by t(6;9) translocations and MYB-NFIB gene fusions in approximately 50% of the tumors. The genetic alterations underlying t(6;9)-negative and t(6;9)-positive/MYB-NFIB fusion-negative ACC remain unknown. To uncover the genetic alterations in ACC lacking the canonical translocation and fusion transcript and identify new abnormalities in translocation positive tumors.We performed whole-genome sequencing in 21 salivary ACCs and conducted targeted molecular analyses in a validation set (81 patients). Microarray gene-expression data were also analyzed to explore the biologic differences between fusion positive and negative tumors.We identified a novel MYBL1-NFIB gene fusion as a result of t(8;9) translocation and multiple rearrangements in the MYBL1 gene in 35% of the t(6;9)-negative ACCs. All MYBL1 alterations involved deletion of the C-terminal negative regulatory domain and were associated with high MYBL1 expression. Reciprocal MYB and MYBL1 expression was consistently found in ACCs. In addition, 5'-NFIB fusions that did not involve MYB/MYBL1 genes were identified in a subset of t(6;9)-positive/fusion-negative tumors. We also delineated distinct gene-expression profiles in ACCs associated with the length of the MYB or MYBL1 fusions, suggesting a biologic importance of the C-terminal part of these fusions.Our study defines new molecular subclasses of ACC characterized by MYBL1 rearrangements and 5'-NFIB gene fusions.
Project description:Background:Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a relatively rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in salivary glands and various other organs. Recent studies have revealed that a significant proportion of ACCs harbor gene alterations involving MYB or MYBL1 (mostly fusions with NFIB) in a mutually-exclusive manner. However, its clinical significance remains to be well-established. Methods:We investigated clinicopathological and molecular features of 36 ACCs with special emphasis on the significance of MYBL1 alterations. Reverse-transcription polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to detect MYB/MYBL1-NFIB fusions and MYBL1 alterations, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate MYB expression in the tumors. The results were correlated with clinicopathological profiles of the patients. Results:RT-PCR revealed MYB-NFIB and MYBL1-NFIB fusions in 10 (27.8%) and 7 (19.4%) ACCs, respectively, in a mutually-exclusive manner. FISH for MYBL1 rearrangements was successfully performed in 11 cases, and the results were concordant with those of RT-PCR. Immunohistochemically, strong MYB expression was observed in 23 (63.9%) tumors, none of which showed MYBL1 alterations. Clinicopathologically, a trend of a better disease-specific survival was noted in patients with MYBL1 alterations than in those with MYB-NFIB fusions and/or strong MYB expression; however, the difference was not significant. Interestingly, we found tumors with MYBL1 alterations significantly frequently occurred in the mandibular regions (P = 0.012). Moreover, literature review revealed a similar tendency in a previous study. Conclusion:Our results suggest that there are some biological or etiological differences between ACCs with MYB and MYBL1 alterations. Moreover, the frequent occurrence of MYBL1-associated ACC in the mandibular regions suggests that MYB immunohistochemistry is less useful in diagnosing ACCs arising in these regions. Further studies are warranted to verify our findings.
Project description:Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare cancer with poor prognosis and high mortality due to metastatic disease. All reported genetic alterations have been in primary ACC, and it is unknown if there is molecular heterogeneity in ACC. Here, we report the genetic changes associated with metastatic ACC compared to primary ACCs and tumor heterogeneity. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 33 metastatic tumors. The overall mutation rate (per megabase) in metastatic tumors was 2.8-fold higher than primary ACC tumor samples. We found tumor heterogeneity among different metastatic sites in ACC and discovered recurrent mutations in several novel genes. We observed 37-57% overlap in genes that are mutated among different metastatic sites within the same patient. We also identified new therapeutic targets in recurrent and metastatic ACC not previously described in primary ACCs.
Project description:Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a relatively rare slow-growing and often-aggressive epithelial-myoepithelial neoplasm that arises in multiple organs including the skin. The t(6;9) (q22-23;p23-24) translocation, resulting in a MYB-NFIB gene fusion has been found in ACCs from the salivary glands and other organs. Recently, MYB aberrations occurring in a subset (40%) of primary cutaneous ACC (PCACC) examples was described. Herein, we report three additional cases of PCACC harboring MYB aberrations. The tumors presented in three males aged 43, 81 and 55?years old and affected the extremities in the first two patients and the scalp in the third one. None of the patients had history of prior or concurrent ACC elsewhere. Lesions exhibited the classic ACC morphology of nests of basaloid cells arranged in cribriform and adenoid patterns. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in two cases with one case showing lymph node positivity. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with break-apart probes for MYB and NFIB loci revealed that two cases showed MYB rearrangements while one case showed loss of one MYB signal. None of the cases showed NFIB rearrangements. We contribute with three additional cases of PCACC exhibiting MYB aberrations, the apparent driving genetic abnormality in these tumors.
Project description:Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer that preferentially occurs in the head and neck, breast, as well as in other sites. It is an aggressive cancer with high rates of recurrence and distant metastasis. Patients with advanced disease are generally incurable due to the lack of effective systemic therapies. Activation of the master transcriptional regulator MYB is the genomic hallmark of ACC. MYB activation occurs through chromosomal translocation, copy number gain or enhancer hijacking, and is the key driving event in the pathogenesis of ACC. However, the functional consequences of alternative mechanisms of MYB activation are still uncertain. Here, we show that overexpression of MYB or MYB-NFIB fusions leads to transformation of human glandular epithelial cells in vitro and results in analogous cellular and molecular consequences. MYB and MYB-NFIB expression led to increased cell proliferation and upregulation of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Notably, we identified the DNA-damage sensor kinase ATR, as a MYB downstream therapeutic target that is overexpressed in primary ACCs and ACC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Treatment with the clinical ATR kinase inhibitor VX-970 induced apoptosis in MYB-positive ACC cells and growth inhibition in ACC PDXs. To our knowledge, ATR is the first example of an actionable target downstream of MYB that could be further exploited for therapeutic opportunities in ACC patients. Our findings may also have implications for other types of neoplasms with activation of the MYB oncogene.
Project description:To investigate the molecular genetic heterogeneity associated with the t(6:9) in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and correlate the findings with patient clinical outcome.Multimolecular and genetic techniques complemented with massive pair-ended sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism array analyses were used on tumor specimens from 30 new and 52 previously analyzed fusion transcript-negative ACCs by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). MYB mRNA expression level was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The results of 102 tumors (30 new and 72 previously reported cases) were correlated with the clinicopathologic factors and patients' survival.The FISH analysis showed 34 of 82 (41.5%) fusion-positive tumors and molecular techniques identified fusion transcripts in 21 of the 82 (25.6%) tumors. Detailed FISH analysis of 11 out the 15 tumors with gene fusion without transcript formation showed translocation of NFIB sequences to proximal or distal sites of the MYB gene. Massive pair-end sequencing of a subset of tumors confirmed the proximal translocation to an NFIB sequence and led to the identification of a new fusion gene (NFIB-AIG1) in one of the tumors. Overall, MYB-NFIB gene fusion rate by FISH was in 52.9% whereas fusion transcript forming incidence was 38.2%. Significant statistical association between the 5' MYB transcript expression and patient survival was found.We conclude that: (i) t(6;9) results in complex genetic and molecular alterations in ACC, (ii) MYB-NFIB gene fusion may not always be associated with chimeric transcript formation, (iii) noncanonical MYB-NFIB gene fusions occur in a subset of tumors, (iv) high MYB expression correlates with worse patient survival.
Project description:Salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is rare, aggressive, and challenging to treat. Many ACCs have a t(6;9) chromosomal translocation resulting in a MYB-NFIB fusion gene, but the clinical significance is unclear. The purposes of this study were to describe the clinicopathologic factors impacting survival and to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of MYB-NFIB fusion.Case series.Medical records of patients treated for ACC of the head and neck from 1974 to 2011 were reviewed and clinicopathologic data recorded. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect MYB rearrangement in archival tumor tissue as a marker of MYB-NFIB fusion.One hundred fifty-eight patients were included, with median follow-up 75.1 months. Median overall survival was 171.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?131.9-191.6), and median disease-free survival was 112.0 months (95% CI?=?88.7-180.4). Advanced stage was associated with decreased overall survival (adjusted ptrend ?<?0.001), and positive margins were associated with decreased disease-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]?=?8.80, 95% CI?=?1.25-62.12, P = 0.029). Ninety-one tumors were evaluable using FISH, and 59 (65%) had evidence of a MYB-NFIB fusion. MYB-NFIB positive tumors were more likely than MYB-NFIB negative tumors to originate in minor salivary glands (adjusted prevalence ratios?=?1.51, 95% CI?=?1.07-2.12, P = 0.019). MYB-NFIB tumor status was not significantly associated with disease-free or overall survival (hazard ratio [HR]?=?1.53, 95% CI?=?0.77-3.02, P = 0.22 and HR?=?0.91, 95% CI?=?0.46-1.83, P = 0.80, respectively, for MYB-NFIB positive compared with MYB-NFIB negative tumors).Stage and margin status were important prognostic factors for ACC. Tumors with evidence of MYB-NFIB fusion were more likely to originate in minor salivary glands, but MYB-NFIB tumor status was not significantly associated with prognosis.4.
Project description:BACKGROUNDAdenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy arising in salivary glands and other sites, characterized by high rates of relapse and distant spread. Recurrent/metastatic (R/M) ACCs are generally incurable, due to a lack of active systemic therapies. To improve outcomes, deeper understanding of genetic alterations and vulnerabilities in R/M tumors is needed.METHODSAn integrated genomic analysis of 1,045 ACCs (177 primary, 868 R/M) was performed to identify alterations associated with advanced and metastatic tumors. Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, germline mutations, and therapeutic actionability were assessed.RESULTSCompared with primary tumors, R/M tumors were enriched for alterations in key Notch (NOTCH1, 26.3% vs. 8.5%; NOTCH2, 4.6% vs. 2.3%; NOTCH3, 5.7% vs. 2.3%; NOTCH4, 3.6% vs. 0.6%) and chromatin-remodeling (KDM6A, 15.2% vs. 3.4%; KMT2C/MLL3, 14.3% vs. 4.0%; ARID1B, 14.1% vs. 4.0%) genes. TERT promoter mutations (13.1% of R/M cases) were mutually exclusive with both NOTCH1 mutations (q = 3.3 × 10-4) and MYB/MYBL1 fusions (q = 5.6 × 10-3), suggesting discrete, alternative mechanisms of tumorigenesis. This network of alterations defined 4 distinct ACC subgroups: MYB+NOTCH1+, MYB+/other, MYBWTNOTCH1+, and MYBWTTERT+. Despite low mutational load, we identified numerous samples with marked intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, including branching evolution across multiregion sequencing.CONCLUSIONThese observations collectively redefine the molecular underpinnings of ACC progression and identify further targets for precision therapies.FUNDINGAdenoid Cystic Carcinoma Research Foundation, Pershing Square Sohn Cancer Research grant, the PaineWebber Chair, Stand Up 2 Cancer, NIH R01 CA205426, the STARR Cancer Consortium, NCI R35 CA232097, the Frederick Adler Chair, Cycle for Survival, the Jayme Flowers Fund, The Sebastian Nativo Fund, NIH K08 DE024774 and R01 DE027738, and MSKCC through NIH/NCI Cancer Center Support Grant (P30 CA008748).