Project description:PURPOSE:The chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) chDAB4 (APOMAB®) targets the Lupus associated (La)/Sjögren Syndrome-B (SSB) antigen, which is over-expressed in tumors but only becomes available for antibody binding in dead tumor cells. Hence, chDAB4 may be used as a novel theranostic tool to distinguish between responders and nonresponders early after chemotherapy. Here, we aimed to ascertain which positron emitter, Zirconium-89 ([89Zr]ZrIV) or Iodine-124 ([124I]I), was best suited to label chDAB4 for post-chemotherapy PET imaging of tumor-bearing mice and to determine which of two different bifunctional chelators provided optimal tumor imaging by PET using [89Zr]ZrIV-labeled chDAB4. METHODS:C57BL/6?J mice bearing subcutaneous syngeneic tumors of EL4 lymphoma were either untreated or given chemotherapy, then administered radiolabeled chDAB4 after 24?h with its biodistribution examined using PET and organ assay. We compared chDAB4 radiolabeled with [89Zr] ZrIV or [124I] I, or [89Zr]Zr-chDAB4 using either DFO-NCS or DFOSq as a chelator. RESULTS:After chemotherapy, [89Zr]Zr-chDAB4 showed higher and prolonged mean (± SD) tumor uptake of 29.5?±?5.9 compared to 7.8?±?1.2 for [124I] I -chDAB4. In contrast, antibody uptake in healthy tissues was not affected. Compared to DFO-NCS, DFOSq did not result in significant differences in tumor uptake of [89Zr]Zr-chDAB4 but did alter the tumor:liver ratio in treated mice 3?days after injection in favour of DFOSq (8.0?±?1.1) compared to DFO-NCS (4.2?±?0.7). CONCLUSION:ImmunoPET using chDAB4 radiolabeled with residualizing [89Zr] ZrIV rather than [124I] I optimized post-chemotherapy tumor uptake. Further, PET imaging characteristics were improved by DFOSq rather than DFO-NCS. Therefore, the radionuclide/chelator combination of [89Zr] ZrIV and DFOSq is preferred for the imminent clinical evaluation of chDAB4 as a selective tumor cell death radioligand.
Project description:PURPOSE:Metabolic imaging using [18F]FDG is the current standard for clinical PET; however, some malignancies (e.g., indolent lymphomas) show low avidity for FDG. The majority of B cell lymphomas express CD20, making it a valuable target both for antibody-based therapy and imaging. We previously developed PET tracers based on the humanised anti-CD20 antibody obinutuzumab (GA101). Preclinical studies showed that the smallest bivalent fragment, the cys-diabody (GAcDb, 54.5 kDa) with a peak uptake at 1-2 h post-injection and a biological half-life of 2-5 h, is compatible with short-lived positron emitters such as fluorine-18 (18F, t1/2 110 min), enabling same-day imaging. METHODS:GAcDb was radiolabeled using amine-reactive N-succinimidyl 4-[18F]-fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB), or thiol-reactive N-[2-(4-[18F]-fluorobenzamido)ethyl]maleimide ([18F]FBEM) for site-specific conjugation to C-terminal cysteine residues. Both tracers were used for immunoPET imaging of the B cell compartment in human CD20 transgenic mice (hCD20TM). [18F]FB-GAcDb immunoPET was further evaluated in a disseminated lymphoma (A20-hCD20) syngeneic for hCD20TM and compared to [18F]FDG PET. Tracer uptake was confirmed by ex vivo biodistribution. RESULTS:The GAcDb was successfully 18F-radiolabeled using two different conjugation methods resulting in similar specific activities and without impairing immunoreactivity. Both tracers ([18F]FB-GAcDb and [18F]FBEM-GAcDb) specifically target human CD20-expressing B cells in transgenic mice. Fast blood clearance results in high contrast PET images as early as 1 h post injection enabling same-day imaging. [18F]FB-GAcDb immunoPET detects disseminated lymphoma disease in the context of normal tissue expression of hCD20, with comparable sensitivity as [18F]FDG PET but with added specificity for the therapeutic target. CONCLUSIONS:[18F]FB-GAcDb and [18F]FBEM-GAcDb could monitor normal B cells and B cell malignancies non-invasively and quantitatively in vivo. In contrast to [18F]FDG PET, immunoPET provides not only information about the extent of disease but also about presence and localisation of the therapeutic target.
Project description:Inadequate diagnostic methods for prostate cancer lead to over- and undertreatment, and the inability to intraoperatively visualize positive margins may limit the success of surgical resection. Prostate cancer visualization could be improved by combining the complementary modalities of immuno-positron emission tomography (immunoPET) for preoperative disease detection, and fluorescence imaging-guided surgery (FIGS) for real-time intraoperative tumor margin identification. Here, we report on the evaluation of dual-labeled humanized anti-prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) cys-minibody (A11 cMb) for immunoPET/fluorescence imaging in subcutaneous and orthotopic prostate cancer models. Methods: A11 cMb was site-specifically conjugated with the near-infrared fluorophore Cy5.5 and radiolabeled with 124I or 89Zr. 124I-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 was used for successive immunoPET/fluorescence imaging of prostate cancer xenografts expressing high or moderate levels of PSCA (22Rv1-PSCA and PC3-PSCA). 89Zr-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 dual-modality imaging was evaluated in an orthotopic model. Ex vivo biodistribution at 24 h was used to confirm the uptake values, and tumors were visualized by post-mortem fluorescence imaging. Results: A11 cMb-Cy5.5 retained low nanomolar affinity for PSCA-positive cells. Conjugation conditions were established (dye-to-protein ratio of 0.7:1) that did not affect the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, or clearance of A11 cMb. ImmunoPET using dual-labeled 124I-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 showed specific targeting to both 22Rv1-PSCA and PC3-PSCA s.c. xenografts in nude mice. Ex vivo biodistribution confirmed specific uptake to PSCA-expressing tumors with 22Rv1-PSCA:22Rv1 and PC3-PSCA:PC3 ratios of 13:1 and 5.6:1, respectively. Consistent with the immunoPET, fluorescence imaging showed a strong signal from both 22Rv1-PSCA and PC3-PSCA tumors compared with non-PSCA expressing tumors. In an orthotopic model, 89Zr-A11 cMb-Cy5.5 immunoPET was able to detect intraprostatically implanted 22Rv1-PSCA cells. Importantly, fluorescence imaging clearly distinguished the prostate tumor from surrounding seminal vesicles. Conclusion: Dual-labeled A11 cMb specifically visualized PSCA-positive tumor by successive immunoPET/fluorescence, which can potentially be translated for preoperative whole-body prostate cancer detection and intraoperative surgical guidance in patients.
Project description:The efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) targeted to solid tumors depends on biological processes that are hard to monitor in vivo. 89Zr-immunoPET of the ADC antibodies could help understand the performance of ADCs in the clinic by confirming the necessary penetration, binding, and internalization. This work studied monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) ADCs against two targets in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, TENB2 and STEAP1, in four patient-derived tumor models (LuCaP35V, LuCaP70, LuCaP77, LuCaP96.1). Three aspects of ADC biology were measured and compared: efficacy was measured in tumor growth inhibition studies; target expression was measured by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry; and tumor antibody uptake was measured with 111In-mAbs and gamma counting or with 89Zr-immunoPET. Within each model, the mAb with the highest tumor uptake showed the greatest potency as an ADC. Sensitivity between models varied, with the LuCaP77 model showing weak efficacy despite high target expression and high antibody uptake. Ex vivo analysis confirmed the in vivo results, showing a correlation between expression, uptake and ADC efficacy. We conclude that 89Zr-immunoPET data can demonstrate which ADC candidates achieve the penetration, binding, and internalization necessary for efficacy in tumors sensitive to the toxic payload.
Project description:Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL), a distinct mature B-cell lymphoma, expresses CD20 and has recently been successfully treated with the combination of a type I anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab, with multiple combination chemotherapy regimens. Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb), recognizing a unique CD20 extracellular membrane epitope with enhanced antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) vs rituximab. We hypothesize that obinutuzumab vs rituximab will significantly enhance in-vitro and in-vivo cytotoxicity against PMBL. PMBL cells were treated with equal dose of obinutuzumab and rituximab for 24 hours (1-100 ?g/ml). ADCC were performed with ex-vivo expanded natural killer cells at 10:1 E: T ratio. Mice were xenografted with intravenous injections of luciferase expressing Karpas1106P cells and treated every 7 days for 8 weeks. Tumor burden was monitored by IVIS spectrum system. Compared with rituximab, obinutuzumab significantly inhibited PMBL cell proliferation (p = 0.01), promoted apoptosis (p = 0.05) and enhanced ADCC (p = 0.0002) against PMBL. Similarly, in PMBL xenografted NOD scid gamma mice, obinutuzumab significantly enhanced survival than rituximab when treated with equal doses (p = 0.05). Taken together our results suggest that obinutuzumab significantly enhanced natural killer cytotoxicity, reduced PMBL proliferation and prolonged the overall survival in humanized PMBL xenografted NOD scid gamma mice.
Project description:The introduction of targeted therapy against CD20(+) with the monoclonal antibody rituximab has dramatically improved the survival of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Unfortunately, CLL remains incurable with chemoimmunotherapy, with many patients having refractory or relapsing disease after rituximab-containing therapy. Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a novel humanized Type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has been investigated and compared to rituximab. Here, we provide an overview of obinutuzumab, including its mechanisms of action, preclinical data, and Phase I to III clinical studies. Preclinical data illustrate obinutuzumab's higher potency compared to rituximab through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and direct cell death. Recently, the CLL11 study presented a significant benefit from obinutuzumab chemoimmunotherapy and supports its use for treatment-naive unfit CLL patients. Herein, we review that obinutuzumab is both a safe and effective alternative to rituximab.
Project description:Obinutuzumab is a humanized, type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody designed for strong induction of direct cell death and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. The Phase III GADOLIN trial tested the clinical efficacy of obinutuzumab plus bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab monotherapy in rituximab-refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma versus treatment with bendamustine alone. It demonstrated significantly longer progression-free survival for the obinutuzumab-containing regimen in this difficult to treat patient group. Based on the results of this trial, US FDA approval was most recently granted for obinutuzumab in the treatment of follicular lymphoma that has relapsed after or was refractory to a rituximab-containing regimen. This article summarizes the available data on chemistry, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and safety of obinutuzumab in the treatment of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Project description:Impressive progress has been made in recent decades for advanced-stage follicular lymphoma with the availability of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, initially rituximab and more recently obinutuzumab. Obinutuzumab is a unique, third-generation, fully humanized glycoengineered IgG1 type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. It has been shown to have increased antitumor activity compared to rituximab in preclinical studies, including whole-blood B-cell depletion assays, xenograft models, and primate models. This has spurred on the development of obinutuzumab through Phase I/II trials as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents and other targeted therapies. Its efficacy compared to rituximab and in rituximab-refractory disease has led to its continued development and eventual approval for the treatment of follicular lymphoma. Here in this review, we highlight the design and development of obinutuzumab in the treatment of advanced stage grade 1-3A follicular lymphoma and its future directions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Obinutuzumab, a Type II anti-CD20 antibody, is used to treat follicular lymphoma. A major mode of action of obinutuzumab is antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Knowledge of the mechanisms of resistance to obinutuzumab is important for the development of next-line strategies to follow obinutuzumab-containing therapy, including obinutuzumab retreatment. Unfortunately, the mechanisms by which tumor cells acquire resistance to ADCC are still poorly understood. To address this, we examined the mechanisms of resistance to obinutuzumab-induced ADCC and the combination efficacy of obinutuzumab and clinically available agents in the established resistant cells.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We established cells resistant to obinutuzumab-induced ADCC using the non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell line RL and examined their mechanisms of resistance and the combination efficacy of obinutuzumab and clinically available agents. Comprehensive analysis by RNA sequencing of resistance mechanisms revealed that abnormal Fas signaling decreased sensitivity to ADCC in resistant clones. Combination treatment with prednisolone, a component of CHOP and CVP, was found to enhance ADCC sensitivity of RL cells and resistant clones and to significantly suppress tumor growth in xenograft models. Treatment with prednisolone upregulated expression of CD20 and an apoptosis-inducing protein BIM, which might augment perforin/granzyme B-mediated cell death. Furthermore, pretreatment of the effector cells with bendamustine enhanced ADCC activity, and treatment with obinutuzumab plus bendamustine showed significant antitumor efficacy in xenograft models. It was speculated that bendamustine upregulates ADCC activity by potentiating granules-mediated cell killing.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study revealed a novel mechanism underlying obinutuzumab-induced ADCC resistance and indicated that ADCC resistance could be overcome by combining obinutuzumab with prednisolone or bendamustine. This study provides a scientific rationale for obinutuzumab-retreatment in combination with clinically available chemotherapeutic agents for obinutuzumab resistant follicular lymphoma.
Project description:Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) such as rituximab have been proven to be highly effective at improving outcome in B-cell malignancies. However, many patients ultimately relapse and become refractory to treatment. The glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAb obinutuzumab was developed to induce enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent phagocytosis and direct cell death and was shown to lead to improved outcomes in a randomized study in B-CLL. We hypothesized that immune stimulation through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonism in combination with obinutuzumab would further enhance lymphoma clearance and the generation of long-term antitumor immune responses. Here we demonstrate, in syngeneic human CD20 (hCD20)-expressing models of lymphoma, that systemic administration of a TLR7 agonist (R848) increases responses when administered in combination with obinutuzumab and protects against disease recurrence. Depletion studies demonstrate that primary antitumor activity is dependent on both NK cells and CD4+ T cells but not on CD8+ T cells. However, both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells appear necessary for the generation of protective immunological memory. Importantly, increased tumor-free survival post obinutuzumab and R848 combination therapy was seen in hCD20 transgenic mice, which express hCD20 on normal B cells. These findings provide a rationale for clinical testing of obinutuzumab in combination with systemically administered TLR7 agonists to further improve outcome.