Nicotine-Use/Smoking Is Associated with the Efficacy of Naltrexone in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The opioid antagonist naltrexone is not efficacious for every alcohol treatment seeker. However, various individual factors, such as genetic differences and nicotine-use/smoking status, have been suggested as predictors of naltrexone response. In a randomized clinical trial, we previously reported that nicotine-use/smoking status might be a stronger predictor of naltrexone efficacy than OPRM1 A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype. In this report, we further characterize the nicotine-users in that trial, examine other drinking outcomes, examine the influence of smoking change on naltrexone effects on drinking, and validate the result in smokers with disialo carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%dCDT) change as an independent biomarker of response. METHODS:Individuals (n = 146) meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence who were genotyped for the OPRM1 A118G SNP and who did, or did not, use nicotine/cigarettes were randomized, in a balanced fashion, to naltrexone (50 mg/d) or placebo and provided medical management (MM) over a 16-week clinical trial. Alcohol use and smoking during the trial were assessed and analyzed. RESULTS:Nicotine-use/smoking status significantly interacted with medication in reducing percent heavy drinking days (PHDD) during the trial (p = 0.003), such that nicotine-users/smokers showed significantly lower PHDD on naltrexone versus placebo (p = 0.0001, Cohen's d = 0.89), while nonusers showed no significant difference between naltrexone and placebo (p = 0.95, Cohen's d = 0.02). Similar effects were shown for drinks per day and percent days drinking. The superiority of naltrexone over placebo on PHDD reduction in nicotine-users/smokers was confirmed with %dCDT (Cohen's d range 0.3 to 0.9 over the study). Naltrexone did not significantly change cigarette use in smokers, and change in use did not influence naltrexone's effect on PHDD. CONCLUSIONS:These data confirm past findings that naltrexone is more efficacious in those who use nicotine/cigarettes. Compared to previous work on the OPRM1 A118G SNP, it appears that nicotine-use might be a more salient predictor of naltrexone treatment response. While naltrexone did not change cigarette use during the study, and smoking change was not related to alcohol reduction, it should be noted that participants were not seeking smoking cessation and MM did not address this issue.
Project description:Naltrexone reduces drinking among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but it is not effective for everyone. Variability in its effects on reward-related brain activation, genetic variation, and/or cigarette smoking may account for this mixed response profile. This randomized clinical trial tested the effects of naltrexone on drinking and alcohol cue-elicited brain activation, evaluated whether OPRM1 A118G genotype or smoking moderated these effects, and explored whether the effects of medication on cue-elicited activation predicted subsequent drinking. One hundred and fifty-two treatment-seeking individuals with alcohol dependence, half preselected to carry at least one A118G G (Asp) allele, were randomized to naltrexone (50?mg) or placebo for 16 weeks and administered an fMRI alcohol cue reactivity task at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment. Naltrexone, relative to placebo, significantly reduced alcohol cue-elicited activation of the right ventral striatum (VS) between baseline and week 2 and reduced heavy drinking over 16 weeks. OPRM1 genotype did not significantly moderate these effects, but G-allele carriers who received naltrexone had an accelerated return to heavy drinking after medication was stopped. Smoking moderated the effects of medication on drinking, such that naltrexone was superior to placebo only among smokers. The degree of reduction in right VS activation between scans interacted with medication in predicting subsequent drinking, such that individuals with greater reduction in activation who received naltrexone, but not placebo, experienced the least heavy drinking during the following 14 weeks. These data replicate previous findings that naltrexone reduces heavy drinking and reward-related brain activation among treatment-seeking individuals with AUDs, and indicate that smoking and the magnitude of reduction in cue-elicited brain activation may predict treatment response.
Project description:The gene encoding the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) is reported to be associated with a range of substance dependence. Experiments in knockout mice indicate that the mu-opioid receptor may mediate reinforcing effects of nicotine. In humans, opioid antagonist naltrexone may reduce the reinforcing effects of tobacco smoking. Additionally, the OPRM1 gene is located in a region showing linkage to nicotine dependence. The OPRM1 is thus a plausible candidate gene for smoking behavior. To investigate whether OPRM1 contributes to the susceptibility of smoking initiation and nicotine dependence, we genotyped 11 SNPs in the gene for 688 Caucasian subjects of lifetime smokers and nonsmokers. Three SNPs showed nominal significance for smoking initiation and one reached significance for nicotine dependence. The global test for three-marker (rs9479757-rs2075572-rs10485057) haplotypes was significant for smoking initiation (p = 0.0022). The same three-marker haplotype test was marginal (p = 0.0514) for nicotine dependence. These results suggest that OPRM1 may be involved in smoking initiation and nicotine dependence.
Project description:Post hoc analyses of 2 randomized controlled trials suggest naltrexone may reduce alcohol use and improve smoking cessation outcomes among heavy drinkers receiving smoking cessation treatment. However, no studies have been conducted specifically to examine naltrexone for this purpose or to test whether naltrexone has benefit when added to smoking cessation counseling that explicitly addresses heavy drinking.We recruited heavy-drinking smokers from the community and randomized them to receive 10 weeks of either (i) 50 mg naltrexone (n = 75) or (ii) placebo (n = 75) daily. Participants received 6 weeks of transdermal nicotine patch and 6 sessions of counseling that addressed both heavy drinking and smoking. Participants were followed for 26 weeks after their target quit smoking date.Across medication conditions, there were substantial reductions at follow-up in percent heavy drinking days (primary outcome) and average drinks per week (secondary outcome). However, participants receiving naltrexone did not differ significantly from those receiving placebo on percent heavy drinking days (effect size d = -0.04, 95% CI [-0.30, 0.22], p = 0.76) or average drinks per week (d = -0.09, 95% CI [-0.35, 0.18], p = 0.54) during follow-up. Naltrexone compared to placebo was not associated with a significant increase in smoking abstinence rates during follow-up, odds ratio = 0.93, 95% CI [0.46, 1.86], p = 0.83. The effect of naltrexone on these outcomes was not significantly moderated by current alcohol dependence or gender.Results indicate that heavy-drinking smokers, including those with current alcohol dependence, can make substantial reductions in drinking in the context of smoking cessation treatment. However, this study provided no evidence that naltrexone is efficacious for enhancing reductions in drinking or improving smoking cessation in this population. Limitations of this study included lower-than-desired sample size and modest adherence to study medication.
Project description:It has been proposed that vulnerability to nicotine addiction is moderated by variation at the ?-opioid receptor locus (OPRM1), but results from human studies vary and prospective studies based on genotype are lacking. We have developed a humanized mouse model of the most common functional OPRM1 polymorphism rs1799971_A>G (A118G). Here we use this model system together with a cohort of German youth to examine the role of the OPRM1 A118G variation on nicotine reward. Nicotine reinforcement was examined in the humanized mouse model using i.v. self-administration. Male (n=17) and female (n=26) mice homozygous either for the major human A allele (AA) or the minor G allele (GG) underwent eight daily 2?h sessions of nicotine self-administration. Furthermore, male (n=104) and female (n=118) subjects homozygous for the A allele or carrying the G allele from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk were evaluated for pleasurable and unpleasant experiences during their initial smoking experience. A significant sex-by-genotype effect was observed for nicotine self-administration. Male 118GG mice demonstrated higher nicotine intake than male 118AA mice, suggesting increased nicotine reinforcement. In contrast, there was no genotype effect in female mice. Human male G allele carriers reported increased pleasurable effects from their first smoking experience, as compared to male homozygous A, female G and female homozygous A allele carriers. The 118G allele appears to confer greater sensitivity to nicotine reinforcement in males, but not females.
Project description:The current study examined whether the presence of the G allele of the A118G polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene (rs1799971) and the long allele of exon 3 VNTR polymorphism of the DRD4 gene moderate the effect of alcohol administration on urge to smoke. These polymorphisms have been associated with greater alcohol induced-urge to drink. Urge to drink and alcohol consumption increase urge to smoke. Therefore, these polymorphisms may also sensitize urge to smoke after alcohol consumption.Individuals smoking 10-30 cigarettes per day and reporting heavy drinking were recruited from the community. Caucasians (n = 62), 57.3% male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design study. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. A118G genotype, exon 3 VNTR genotype, and urge to smoke (baseline and three times after receiving alcohol) were assessed.G allele carriers showed greater urge to smoke across all assessments. Additionally, a significant interaction indicated that G carriers, compared to homozygotes (AA), evinced a significantly greater increase in urge to smoke after high dose alcohol relative to placebo. The interaction between condition, DRD4 polymorphism, and time was not significant.Presence of G allele of the A118G polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene may lead to greater increases in urge to smoke after a high dose of alcohol. Pharmacotherapies targeted to opiate receptors (eg, naltrexone) may be especially helpful in aiding smoking cessation among G carriers who are heavy drinkers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is well known that naltrexone, an FDA-approved medication for treatment of alcohol dependence, is effective for only a subset of individuals. Recent studies have examined the utility of a functional A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) as a predictor of naltrexone treatment response. Although the findings to date have generally been consistent with a moderating effect of the SNP, further evaluation of this hypothesis is warranted. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether problem drinkers with one or two copies of the 118G allele respond better to naltrexone treatment. The treatment goal in this cohort of high functioning men who have sex with men (MSM) was to reduce heavy drinking, rather than to promote abstinence. METHOD:112 subjects of European ancestry from a randomized clinical trial of naltrexone and behavioral therapy for problem drinking MSM were included in the analysis. Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with 100 mg/day of oral naltrexone hydrochloride. All participants received medical management with a modified version of the Brief Behavioral Compliance Enhancement Treatment (BBCET), alone or in combination with Modified Behavioral Self-control Therapy (MBSCT). RESULTS:Naltrexone-treated subjects with one or two 118G alleles had a significantly greater percentage of non-hazardous drinking (NoH) (p < 0.01) than those treated with placebo or A118 homozygotes in either medication group. CONCLUSIONS:These results are consistent with a modest moderating effect of the OPRM1 118G allele on the reduction of heavy drinking by naltrexone treatment.
Project description:Among adolescent novice smokers, craving is often the first, and is the most reported, symptom of nicotine dependence. Until now, little has been known about the development of craving symptoms in novice smokers. The aim of this study was to identify specific genetic (i.e., DRD2 Taq1A, DRD4 48 bp VNTR, and OPRM1 A118G polymorphisms) and environmental mechanisms that underlie the emergence of both cue-induced and cognitive craving among adolescent novice smokers.A five-wave longitudinal, genetically-informed survey study was conducted with intervals of four months. The sample included 376 early adolescent smokers (12-13 years of age at baseline). Self-report questionnaires were completed regarding smoking behavior, observed parental smoking behavior, and both cue-induced and cognitive craving.Data were analyzed with a latent growth curve approach. For both cue-induced and cognitive craving, significant interaction effects were found for DRD2 Taq1A with parental smoke exposure. A1-allele carriers did not seem to be influenced by the environment with regard to craving development. Adolescents who are homozygous for the A2-allele and who are more exposed to parental smoking experience the highest levels of both types of craving over time. No significant interaction effects were found between parental smoke exposure and DRD4 48 bp VNTR or OPRM1 A118G.Previous studies identified DRD2 Taq1A A1-allele carriers as vulnerable to developing nicotine dependence. However, this study showed that parental smoking increased the chances of developing dependence more rapidly for early adolescents who are considered to be less sensitive to the rewarding effects of nicotine according to their DRD2 Taq1A genotype. It is thus especially important that these young people not be exposed to smoking in their social environment.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of A118G and its interaction with smoking and drinking on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk. METHODS:A total of 960 subjects (545 males and 415 females) with a mean age of 58.1 ± 13.4 years were selected, including 490 ESCC patients and 470 normal control subjects. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association between A118G and ESCC and its interaction with A118G and current smoking and drinking. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confident interval (95%CI) were calculated. RESULTS:The frequency for the A allele of A118G was significantly higher in ESCC cases, OR (95%CI) = 1.22 (1.08-1.59). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the A allele in A118G and increased ESCC risk. The ESCC risk was significantly higher in carriers of the A allele of the A118G polymorphism than those with GG (AG + AA vs. GG, adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1.20 (1.05-1.53)). We found that current smokers with AG or AA of the A118G genotype have the highest ESCC risk compared with never smokers with a GG genotype; the OR (95%CI) was 2.57 (1.66-3.33). Current drinkers with AG or AA of the A118G genotype have the highest ESCC risk compared with not currently drinking subjects with the GG genotype, OR (95%CI) = 2.36 (1.47-3.25), after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSION:The A allele of A118G and ESCC and additional interaction between the A allele of A118G and smoking or drinking were associated with increased ESCC risk.
Project description:Heavy-drinking smokers constitute a sizeable and hard-to-treat subgroup of smokers, for whom tailored smoking cessation therapies are not yet available.The present study used a double-blind, randomized, 2?×?2 medication design, testing varenicline alone (VAR; 1 mg twice daily), low dose naltrexone alone (L-NTX; 25 mg once daily), varenicline plus naltrexone, and placebo for effects on cigarette craving and subjective response to alcohol and cigarettes in a sample (n?=?130) of heavy-drinking daily smokers (?10 cigarettes/day).All participants were tested after a 9-day titration period designed to reach a steady state on the target medication. Testing was completed at 12 h of nicotine abstinence, after consuming a standard dose of alcohol (target breath alcohol concentration?=?0.06 g/dl) and after smoking the first cigarette of the day.The combination of VAR?+?L-NTX was superior to placebo, and at times superior to monotherapy, in attenuating cigarette craving, cigarette and alcohol "high," and in reducing ad-lib consumption of both cigarettes and alcohol during the 9-day medication titration period.These preliminary findings indicate that clinical studies of the combination of VAR?+?L-NTX for heavy drinkers trying to quit smoking are warranted and may ultimately improve clinical care for this sizeable and treatment-resistant subgroup of smokers.
Project description:Naltrexone is moderately effective for the treatment of alcohol dependence, but there is great individual variability. The opioid receptor (OPRM1) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) asn40asp has been shown to alter alcohol and naltrexone response in animals and humans. In addition, the brain opioid and dopamine systems interact and might underlie drinking and craving. This study investigated the effects of the OPRM1 SNP and dopamine transporter (DAT) variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) genetic differences on drinking, alcohol effects, and naltrexone response under controlled conditions in nontreatment-seeking alcoholics.Two hundred and sixty-five nontreatment-seeking individuals with alcohol dependence were genotyped a priori for the OPRM1 asn40asp SNP and post hoc for DAT (SLC6A3) 9 and 10 VNTRs. Asp40 carriers (n = 43) and matched asn40 homozygotes (n = 40) were randomized to naltrexone or placebo for 7 days before receiving a priming drink and limited-access alcohol consumption in a bar-lab setting. Effects of genotypes on natural drinking as well as drinking, alcohol effects, and response to naltrexone in the bar-lab setting were examined by genotype.There were no significant main effects of naltrexone or OPRM1 genotype, or any medication by OPRM1 interaction, on drinking variables. However, in individuals who had at least one DAT 9 VNTR, and who were also OPRM1 asn40 homozygotes, naltrexone reduced drinks/d consumed under natural conditions (p = 0.006), but not in the bar-lab. OPRM1 asn40 homozygotes (p = 0.028) and DAT 9 VNTR carriers (p = 0.032) had more stimulation to alcohol after the priming drink.This study does not support a salient role for the OPRM1 asp40 alone in predicting drinking or naltrexone effects. However, although exploratory and in need of replication, it introduces the possibility that epistasis between the OPRM1 gene and DAT gene might need to be taken into account when examining differential genetic response to alcohol or medication treatment, especially in early-stage alcoholics.