Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Residents: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
ABSTRACT: Burnout is highly prevalent in residents. No randomized controlled trials have been conducted measuring the effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on burnout in residents.To determine the effectiveness of MBSR in reducing burnout in residents.A randomized controlled trial comparing MBSR with a waitlist control group.Residents from all medical, surgical and primary care disciplines were eligible to participate. Participants were self-referred.The MBSR consisted of eight weekly 2.5-h sessions and one 6-h silent day.The primary outcome was the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Dutch version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Secondary outcomes included the depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment subscales of burnout, worry, work-home interference, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, positive mental health, empathy and medical errors. Assessment took place at baseline and post-intervention approximately 3 months later.Of the 148 residents participating, 138 (93%) completed the post-intervention assessment. No significant difference in emotional exhaustion was found between the two groups. However, the MBSR group reported significantly greater improvements than the control group in personal accomplishment (p?=?0.028, d?=?0.24), worry (p?=?0.036, d?=?0.23), mindfulness skills (p?=?0.010, d?=?0.33), self-compassion (p?=?0.010, d?=?0.35) and perspective-taking (empathy) (p?=?0.025, d?=?0.33). No effects were found for the other measures. Exploratory moderation analysis showed that the intervention outcome was moderated by baseline severity of emotional exhaustion; those with greater emotional exhaustion did seem to benefit.The results of our primary outcome analysis did not support the effectiveness of MBSR for reducing emotional exhaustion in residents. However, residents with high baseline levels of emotional exhaustion did appear to benefit from MBSR. Furthermore, they demonstrated modest improvements in personal accomplishment, worry, mindfulness skills, self-compassion and perspective-taking. More research is needed to confirm these results.
Project description:Objectives:Healthcare professionals are prone to experience burnout-a psychological syndrome resulting from chronic stressors at work. Some individual differences, like self-compassion-the non-judgmental observation of one's own pain and failure, while understanding that these are part of being human-can protect against burnout. Methods:We administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the Stressful Life Events Scale to a sample of healthcare professionals (medical residents, nurses, and physicians) in Lebanon (N?=?93). Results:The sample demonstrated a high degree of Emotional Exhaustion (M?=?27, SD?=?11.79), average levels of Depersonalization (M?=?9.46, SD?=?6.35), and Personal Accomplishment (M?=?34.95, SD?=?6.58), and moderate levels of Self-compassion (M?=?3.25). All burnout components were significantly and inversely associated with self-compassion, with the strongest association found between Emotional Exhaustion and Self-compassion (r?=?-.37, p?<?.001). Self-compassion significantly explained burnout, above and beyond sociodemographic and occupational variables (Emotional Exhaustion: ?R 2?=?.11, F (1.85)?=?12.71, p?<?.01; Depersonalization: ?R 2?=?.07, F (1.85)?=?6.73, p?=?.01; Low Personal Accomplishment: ?R 2?=?.11, F (1.85)?=?11.29, p?<?.01). Conclusions:Burnout is prevalent in the sample, yet self-compassion may be a possible protective factor.
Project description:The purpose of this exploratory study was to obtain greater insight into the effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on the mental health of employees.Using PsycINFO, PubMed, and CINAHL, we performed a systematic review in October 2015 of studies investigating the effects of MBSR and MBCT on various aspects of employees' mental health. Studies with a pre-post design (i.e. without a control group) were excluded.24 articles were identified, describing 23 studies: 22 on the effects of MBSR and 1 on the effects of MBSR in combination with some aspects of MBCT. Since no study focused exclusively on MBCT, its effects are not described in this systematic review. Of the 23 studies, 2 were of high methodological quality, 15 were of medium quality and 6 were of low quality. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the emergent and relatively uncharted nature of the topic of investigation, the exploratory character of this study, and the diversity of outcomes in the studies reviewed. Based on our analysis, the strongest outcomes were reduced levels of emotional exhaustion (a dimension of burnout), stress, psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and occupational stress. Improvements were found in terms of mindfulness, personal accomplishment (a dimension of burnout), (occupational) self-compassion, quality of sleep, and relaxation.The results of this systematic review suggest that MBSR may help to improve psychological functioning in employees.
Project description:Background :The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is considered the "gold standard" for measuring burnout, encompassing 3 scales: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Other well-being instruments have shown utility in various settings, and correlations between MBI and these instruments could provide evidence of relationships among key variables to guide well-being efforts. Objective :We explored correlations between the MBI and other well-being instruments. Methods :We fielded a multicenter survey of 9 emergency medicine (EM) residencies, administering the MBI and 4 published well-being instruments: a quality-of-life assessment, a work-life balance rating, an appraisal of career satisfaction, and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire 2 question screen. Consistent with the Maslach definition, burnout was defined by high emotional exhaustion (> 26) and high depersonalization (> 12). Results :Of 334 residents, 261 (78%) responded. Residents who reported lower quality of life had higher emotional exhaustion (ρ = -0.437, P < .0001), higher depersonalization (ρ = -0.18, P < .005), and lower personal accomplishment (ρ = 0.347, P < .001). Residents who reported a negative work-life balance had emotional exhaustion (P < .001) and depersonalization (P < .009). Positive career satisfaction was associated with lower emotional exhaustion (P < .0001), lower depersonalization (P < .005), and higher personal accomplishment (P < .05). A positive depression screen was associated with higher emotional exhaustion, higher depersonalization, and lower personal achievement (all P < .0001). Conclusions :Our multicenter study of EM residents demonstrated that assessments using the MBI correlate with other well-being instruments.
Project description:Health care professionals (HCPs) are a population at risk for high levels of burnout and compassion fatigue. The aim of the present systematic review was to give an overview on recent literature about mindfulness and compassion characteristics of HCPs, while exploring the effectiveness of techniques, involving the two aspects, such as MBSR or mindfulness intervention and compassion fatigue-related programs. A search of databases, including PubMed and PsycINFO, was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the methodological quality for this systematic review was appraised using AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews-2). The number of articles that met the inclusion criteria was 58 (4 RCTs, 24 studies with pre-post measurements, 12 cross-sectional studies, 11 cohort studies and 7 qualitative studies). MBSR intervention was effective at improving, and maintaining, mindfulness and self-compassion levels and to improve burnout, depression, anxiety, stress. The most frequently employed interventional strategies were mindfulness-related trainings that were effective at improving mindfulness and self-compassion, but not compassion fatigue, levels. Compassion-related interventions have been shown to improve self-compassion, mindfulness and interpersonal conflict levels. Mindfulness was effective at improving negative affect and compassion fatigue, while compassion satisfaction may be related to cultivation of positive affect. This systematic review summarized the evidence regarding mindfulness- and compassion-related qualities of HCPs as well as potential effects of MBSR, mindfulness-related and compassion-related interventions on professionals' psychological variables like mindfulness, self-compassion and quality of life. Combining structured mindfulness and compassion cultivation trainings may enhance the effects of interventions, limit the variability of intervention protocols and improve data comparability of future research.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Surgeon burnout has implications for patient safety and workforce sustainability. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of burnout among surgeons in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic.<h4>Methods</h4>This cross-sectional online survey was set in the UK National Health Service and involved 601 surgeons across the UK of all specialities and grades. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a bespoke questionnaire. Outcome measures included emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS).<h4>Results</h4>A total of 142 surgeons reported having contracted COVID-19. Burnout prevalence was particularly high in the emotional exhaustion (57%) and depersonalisation (50%) domains, while lower on the low personal accomplishment domain (15%). Burnout prevalence was unrelated to COVID-19 status; however, the greater the perceived impact of COVID-19 on work, the higher the prevalence of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Degree of worry about contracting COVID-19 oneself and degree of worry about family and friends contacting COVID-19 was positively associated with prevalence on all three burnout domains. Across all three domains, burnout prevalence was exceptionally high in the Core Trainee 1-2 and Specialty Trainee 1-2 grades.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings highlight potential undesirable implications for patient safety arising from surgeon burnout. Moreover, there is a need for ongoing monitoring in addition to an enhanced focus on mental health self-care in surgeon training and the provision of accessible and confidential support for practising surgeons.
Project description:Objectives:First responders are at elevated risk for psychological distress from frequent exposure to potentially traumatic events. Self-compassion may buffer against the negative impact of these stressors, and the potential emotional challenges of having high levels of compassion for others. However, little is known about the psychological impact of compassion in first responders. We examined how self-compassion, compassionate love for others, and service role interacted to predict mental health in a diverse group of first responders. Methods:First responders (N = 171) with both traditional and emotional support roles completed an online survey including measures of self-compassion, compassionate love, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress, secondary traumatic stress, burnout, resilience, compassion satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Results:Greater self-compassion and compassionate love both independently predicted less depersonalization (|?|s ? .18, ps < .01). Greater self-compassion predicted less general psychological distress, post-traumatic stress, secondary traumatic stress, and emotional exhaustion, as well as greater resilience and life satisfaction (|?|s ? .35, ps < .001). Greater compassionate love predicted greater personal accomplishment and compassion satisfaction for all first responders (|?|s ? .30, ps < .001); for traditional first responders only, greater self-compassion predicted greater personal accomplishment and compassion satisfaction (role x self-compassion; |?|s ? .16, ps < .05). Emotional support first responders reported less emotional exhaustion and greater resilience than traditional first responders (|?|s ? .21, ps < .05). Conclusions:Self-compassion and compassionate love each play important roles in promoting mental health among first responders. Programs designed to increase compassion could be beneficial in this population. Supplementary Information:The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12671-020-01527-y.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Health personnel are susceptible to high levels of work stress and burnout due to the psychological and emotional demands of their work, as well as to other aspects related to the organisation of that work. This paper describes the rationale and design of the MINDUUDD study, the aim of which is to evaluate the effectiveness of a mindfulness and self-compassion 4-session programme versus the standard 8-session programme to reduce work stress and burnout in Family and Community Medicine and Nursing tutors and residents. METHODS:The MINDUDD study is a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial with three parallel arms. Six Teaching Units will be randomised to one of the three study groups: 1) Experimental Group-8 (EG8); 2) Experimental Group-4 (EG4) Control group (CG). At least 132 subjects will participate (66 tutors/66 residents), 44 in the EG8, 44 in the EG4, and 44 in the CG. Interventions will be based on the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program, including some self-compassion practices of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) programme. The EG8 intervention will be implemented during 8 weekly face-to-face sessions of 2.5?h each, while the EG4 intervention will consist of 4 sessions of 2.5?h each. The participants will have to practice at home for 30?min/day in the EG8 and 15?min/day in the EG4. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), and Goldberg Anxiety-Depression Scale (GADS) will be administered. Measurements will be taken at baseline, at the end of the programs, and at three months after completion. The effect of the interventions will be evaluated by bivariate and multivariate analyses (Multiple Linear Regression). DISCUSSION:If the abbreviated mindfulness programme is at least as effective as the standard program, its incorporation into the curriculum and training plans will be easier and more appropriate. It will also be more easily applied and accepted by primary care professionals because of the reduced resources and means required for its implementation, and it may also extend beyond care settings to academic and teaching environments as well. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03629457 ; date of registration: 13.08.2018).
Project description:To develop a more comprehensive explanation and understanding of the prevalence of and factors associated with burnout for residents of the Saudi Plastic Surgery Residency Program. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Data was gathered using a survey, which was distributed during April 2015, among all 57 plastic surgery residents enrolled in training programs across all regions of Saudi Arabia, 38 of whom responded (60% response rate). The dependent variable was professional burnout, which was measured by 3 subscales of the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). High scores on emotional exhaustion (EE) or depersonalization (DP) or low scores on personal accomplishment (PA) were taken to be indicative of professional burnout. Variables evaluating possible predictors of burnout, such as sociodemographic and professional characteristics, were also included. Results: The validated rate of high burnout status was 18%. Nearly three quarters (71%) of residents scored high in emotional exhaustion, and half (50%) scored high in depersonalization. A third (34%) scored low in personal accomplishment. However, only 5% were dissatisfied with the plastic surgery specialty as a career, and 69% would choose the same specialty again. Workload was not found to play a significant role in the development of burnout (mean 70 hours per week). Conclusion: Approximately half of plastic surgery trainees in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have signs of professional burnout.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Burnout results from excessive demands at work. Caregivers suffering from burnout show a state of emotional exhaustion, leading them to distance themselves from their patients and to become less efficient in their work. While some studies have shown a negative impact of burnout on physicians' clinical reasoning, others have failed to demonstrate any such impacts. To better understand the link between clinical reasoning and burnout, we carried out a study looking for an association between burnout and clinical reasoning in a population of general practice residents.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a cross-sectional observational study among residents in general practice in 2017 and 2019. Clinical reasoning performance was assessed using a script concordance test (SCT). The Maslach Burnout Inventory for Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) was used to determine burnout status in both original standards of Maslach's burnout inventory manual (conventional approach) and when individuals reported high emotional exhaustion in combination with high depersonalization or low personal accomplishment compared to a norm group ("emotional exhaustion +1" approach).<h4>Results</h4>One hundred ninety-nine residents were included. The participants' mean SCT score was 76.44% (95% CI: 75.77-77.10). In the conventional approach, 126 residents (63.31%) had no burnout, 37 (18.59%) had mild burnout, 23 (11.56%) had moderate burnout, and 13 (6.53%) had severe burnout. In the "exhaustion +?1" approach, 38 residents had a burnout status (19.10%). We found no significant correlation between burnout status and SCT scores either for conventional or "exhaustion +?1" approaches.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data seem to indicate that burnout status has no significant impact on clinical reasoning. However, one speculation is that SCT mostly examines the clinical reasoning process's analytical dimension, whereas emotions are conventionally associated with the intuitive dimension. We think future research might aim to explore the impact of burnout on intuitive clinical reasoning processes.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To investigate the prevalence of burnout syndrome among physicians of all specialties, including residents and non-specialists, on a national level in Croatia.<h4>Methods</h4>This cross-sectional study, conducted in October 2017, used anonymous online survey based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey. The Croatian version of the inventory was assessed for acceptability, factorial validity, and reliability. Key dimensions of burnout - emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment were assessed. Respondents scoring high for emotional exhaustion or depersonalization were defined as burned-out.<h4>Results</h4>The response rate was 18% (2557/14 427). Respondents' median age was 41 years (range 25-80), and 68% (1737/2557) were women. Good sampling adequacy and scale reliability were confirmed. Factorial validity suggested the presence of three overall factors, and no items were eliminated. Sixty-three percent of physicians were burned-out. High score on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment were found in 58%, 29%, and 52% of respondents, respectively. As many as 16% of the respondents simultaneously experienced high levels of all three burnout dimensions. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that residents and physicians in tertiary or primary care were at an increased risk of burnout, while physicians working in institutes were at a decreased risk.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Active national measures are needed to reduce the high prevalence of burnout among Croatian physicians.