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Oral epithelial cells orchestrate innate type 17 responses to Candida albicans through the virulence factor candidalysin.

ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that causes severe oral infections in immunodeficient patients. Invasion of C. albicans hyphae into oral epithelium is an essential virulence trait. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) signaling is required for both innate and adaptive immunity to C. albicans During the innate response, IL-17 is produced by ?? T cells and a poorly understood population of innate-acting CD4+ ?? T cell receptor (TCR??)+ cells, but only the TCR??+ cells expand during acute infection. Confirming the innate nature of these cells, the TCR was not detectably activated during the primary response, as evidenced by Nur77eGFP mice that report antigen-specific signaling through the TCR. Rather, the expansion of innate TCR??+ cells was driven by both intrinsic and extrinsic IL-1R signaling. Unexpectedly, there was no requirement for CCR6/CCL20-dependent recruitment or prototypical fungal pattern recognition receptors. However, C. albicans mutants that cannot switch from yeast to hyphae showed impaired TCR??+ cell proliferation and Il17a expression. This prompted us to assess the role of candidalysin, a hyphal-associated peptide that damages oral epithelial cells and triggers production of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1. Candidalysin-deficient strains failed to up-regulate Il17a or drive the proliferation of innate TCR??+ cells. Moreover, candidalysin signaled synergistically with IL-17, which further augmented the expression of IL-1?/? and other cytokines. Thus, IL-17 and C. albicans, via secreted candidalysin, amplify inflammation in a self-reinforcing feed-forward loop. These findings challenge the paradigm that hyphal formation per se is required for the oral innate response and demonstrate that establishment of IL-1- and IL-17-dependent innate immunity is induced by tissue-damaging hyphae.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC5881387 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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