Re-classification of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies on the basis of whole-genome and multi-locus sequence analyses.
ABSTRACT: Although the genus Clavibacter was originally proposed to accommodate all phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria containing B2? diaminobutyrate in the peptidoglycan, reclassification of all but one species into other genera has resulted in the current monospecific status of the genus. The single species in the genus, Clavibacter michiganensis, has multiple subspecies, which are all highly host-specific plant pathogens. Whole genome analysis based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization as well as multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of seven housekeeping genes support raising each of the C. michiganensis subspecies to species status. On the basis of whole genome and MLSA data, we propose the establishment of two new species and three new combinations: Clavibacter capsici sp. nov., comb. nov. and Clavibacter tessellarius sp. nov., comb. nov., and Clavibacter insidiosus comb. nov., Clavibacter nebraskensis comb. nov. and Clavibacter sepedonicus comb. nov.
Project description:Clavibacter is an agriculturally important genus comprising a single species, Clavibacter michiganensis, and multiple subspecies, including, C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis which causes Goss's wilt/blight of corn, accounts for high yield losses and is listed among the five most significant diseases of corn in the United States of America. Our research objective was to develop a robust and rapid multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect C. michiganensis in general and C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with enhanced reliability and accuracy by adding non-complementary AT sequences to the 5' end of the forward and reverse primers. Comparative genomic analyses were performed to identify unique and conserved gene regions for primer and probe design. The unique genomic regions, ABC transporter ATP-binding protein CDS/ABC-transporter permease and MFS transporter were determined for specific detection of C. michiganensis and C. m. subsp. nebraskensis, respectively. The AT-rich sequences at the 5' position of the primers enhanced the reaction efficiency and sensitivity of rapid qPCR cycling; the reliability, accuracy and high efficiency of the developed assay was confirmed after testing with 59 strains from inclusivity and exclusivity panels-no false positives or false negatives were detected. The assays were also validated through naturally and artificially infected corn plant samples; all samples were detected for C. michiganensis and C. m. subsp. nebraskensis with 100% accuracy. The assay with 5' AT-rich sequences detected up to 10- and 100-fg of C. michiganensis and C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis genome targets, respectively. No adverse effect was observed when sensitivity assays were spiked with host genomic DNA. Addition of 5' AT-rich sequences enhanced the qPCR reaction efficiency from 0.82 (M = -3.83) and 0.91 (M = -3.54) to 1.04 (with optimum slope value; M = -3.23) for both C. michiganensis and C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, respectively; an increase of 10-fold sensitivity was also obtained with C. michiganensis primer set. The methodology proposed here can be used to optimize reaction efficiency and to harmonize diagnostic protocols which have prodigious applications in routine diagnostics, biosecurity and microbial forensics.
Project description:Subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis are important phytobacterial pathogens causing devastating diseases in several agricultural crops. The genome organizations of these pathogens are poorly understood. Here, the complete genomes of 5 subspecies (C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Cmi; C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Cms; C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, Cmn; C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, Cmi and C. michiganensis subsp. capsici, Cmc) were analyzed. This study assessed the taxonomic position of the subspecies based on 16S rRNA and genome-based DNA homology and concludes that there is ample evidence to elevate some of the subspecies to species-level. Comparative genomics analysis indicated distinct genomic features evident on the DNA structural atlases and annotation features. Based on orthologous gene analysis, about 2300 CDSs are shared across all the subspecies; and Cms showed the highest number of subspecies-specific CDS, most of which are mobile elements suggesting that Cms could be more prone to translocation of foreign genes. Cms and Cmi had the highest number of pseudogenes, an indication of potential degenerating genomes. The stress response factors that may be involved in cold/heat shock, detoxification, oxidative stress, osmoregulation, and carbon utilization are outlined. For example, the wco-cluster encoding for extracellular polysaccharide II is highly conserved while the sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose-6-phosphate yielding glucose-6-phosphate and fructose is highly divergent. A unique second form of the enzyme is only present in Cmn NCPPB 2581. Also, twenty-eight plasmid-borne CDSs in the other subspecies were found to have homologues in the chromosomal genome of Cmn which is known not to carry plasmids. These CDSs include pathogenesis-related factors such as Endocellulases E1 and Beta-glucosidase. The results presented here provide an insight of the functional organization of the genomes of five core C. michiganensis subspecies, enabling a better understanding of these phytobacteria.
Project description:The genus Clavibacter comprises one species and five subspecies of plant-pathogenic bacteria, four of which are classified as quarantine organisms due to the high economic threat they pose. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is one of the most important pathogens of tomato, but the recommended diagnostic tools are not satisfactory due to false-negative and/or -positive results. To provide a robust analysis of the genetic relatedness among a worldwide collection of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains, relatives (strains from the four other C. michiganensis subspecies), and nonpathogenic Clavibacter-like strains isolated from tomato, we performed multilocus sequence-based analysis and typing (MLSA and MLST) based on six housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, gyrB, ppK, recA, and rpoB). We compared this "framework" with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics such as pathogenicity on tomato, reaction to two antisera by immunofluorescence and to five PCR identification tests, and the presence of four genes encoding the main C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis pathogenicity determinants. We showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is monophyletic and is distinct from its closest taxonomic neighbors. The nonpathogenic Clavibacter-like strains were identified as C. michiganensis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These strains, while cross-reacting with C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis identification tools, are phylogenetically distinct from the pathogenic strains but belong to the C. michiganensis clade. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis clonal complexes linked strains from highly diverse geographical origins and also strains isolated over long periods of time in the same location. This illustrates the importance of seed transmission in the worldwide dispersion of this pathogen and its survival and adaptation abilities in a new environment once introduced.
Project description:We report here the complete genome sequence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus R1-1, isolated in Minnesota, USA. The R1-1 genome, generated by a de novo assembly of PacBio sequencing data, is the first complete genome sequence available for this subspecies.
Project description:Members of the genus Clavibacter are economically important bacterial plant pathogens infecting a set of diverse agricultural crops (e.g., alfalfa, corn, potato, tomato, and wheat). Tomato-associated Clavibacter sp. strains account for a great portion of the genetic diversity of the genus, and C. michiganensis sensu stricto (formerly C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), causing bacterial canker disease, is considered one of the most destructive seed-borne agents for the crop worldwide. However, current taxonomic descriptions of the genus do not reflect the existing diversity of the strains, resulting in unsatisfactory results in quarantine surveys for the pathogens. In this study, we used all the available genome sequences of Clavibacter sp. strains, including the type strains of newly described subspecies, to provide precise insight into the diversity of tomato-associated members of the genus and further clarify the taxonomic status of the strains using genotypic and phenotypic features. The results of phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of nine hypothetical new species among the investigated strains. None of the three new subspecies (i.e., C. michiganensis subsp. californiensis, C. michiganensis subsp. chilensis, and C. michiganensis subsp. phaseoli) is included within the tomato-pathogenic C. michiganensis sensu stricto lineage. Although comparative genomics revealed the lack of chp and tomA pathogenicity determinant gene clusters in the nonpathogenic strains, a number of pathogenicity-related genes were noted to be present in all the strains regardless of their pathogenicity characteristics. Altogether, our results indicate a need for a formal taxonomic reconsideration of tomato-associated Clavibacter sp. strains to facilitate differentiation of the lineages in quarantine inspections.IMPORTANCE Clavibacter spp. are economically important bacterial plant pathogens infecting a set of diverse agricultural crops, such as alfalfa, corn, pepper, potato, tomato, and wheat. A number of plant-pathogenic members of the genus (e.g., C. michiganensis sensu stricto and C. sepedonicus, infecting tomato and potato plants, respectively) are included in the A2 (high-risk) list of quarantine pathogens by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). Although tomato-associated members of Clavibacter spp. account for a significant portion of the genetic diversity in the genus, only the strains belonging to C. michiganensis sensu stricto (formerly C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) cause bacterial canker disease of tomato and are subjected to the quarantine inspections. Hence, discrimination between the pathogenic and nonpathogenic Clavibacter sp. strains associated with tomato seeds and transplants plays a pivotal role in the accurate detection and cost-efficient management of the disease. On the other hand, detailed information on the genetic contents of different lineages of the genus would lead to the development of genome-informed specific detection techniques. In this study, we have provided an overview of the phylogenetic and genomic differences between the pathogenic and nonpathogenic tomato-associated Clavibacter sp. strains. We also noted that the taxonomic status of newly introduced subspecies of C. michiganensis (i.e., C. michiganensis subsp. californiensis, C. michiganensis subsp. chilensis, and C. michiganensis subsp. phaseoli) should be reconsidered.
Project description:In 2014, the pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis was isolated from symptomatic corn leaves in Manitoba, Canada. We report the draft genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis DOAB 397, consisting of 3.059 Mb with 73.0% G+C content, 2,922 predicted protein-coding sequences, 45 tRNAs, 3 rRNAs, and 37 pseudogenes.
Project description:Here, we present the draft genome sequences of 10 Clavibacter sp. strains, including the type strains of different subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis and a potentially novel species within the genus. Genome lengths of the strains varied between 2,982,864 and 3,288,331?bp, with G+C contents of 72.23 to 73.50%.
Project description:Bacteriophage CMP1 is a member of the Siphoviridae family that infects specifically the plant-pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. The linear double- stranded DNA is terminally redundant and not circularly permuted. The complete nucleotide sequence of the bacteriophage CMP1 genome consists of 58,652 bp including the terminal redundant ends of 791 bp. The G+C content of the phage (57%) is significantly lower than that of its host (72.66%). 74 potential open reading frames were identified and annotated by different bioinformatic tools. Two large clusters which encode the early and the late functions could be identified which are divergently transcribed. There are only a few hypothetical gene products with conserved domains and significant similarity to sequences from the databases. Functional analyses confirmed the activity of four gene products, an endonuclease, an exonuclease, a single-stranded DNA binding protein and a thymidylate synthase. Partial genomic sequences of CN77, a phage of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, revealed a similar genome structure and significant similarities on the level of deduced amino acid sequences. An endolysin with peptidase activity has been identified for both phages, which may be good tools for disease control of tomato plants against Clavibacter infections.
Project description:A phylogenetic analysis by parsimony of 16S rRNA gene sequences (16S rDNA) revealed that species and subspecies of Clavibacter and Rathayibacter form a discrete monophyletic clade, paraphyletic to Corynebacterium species. Within the Clavibacter-Rathayibacter clade, four major phylogenetic groups (subclades) with a total of 10 distinct taxa were recognized: (I) species C. michiganensis; (II) species C. xyli; (III) species R. iranicus and R. tritici; and (IV) species R. rathayi. The first three groups form a monophyletic cluster, paraphyletic to R. rathayi. On the basis of the phylogeny inferred, reclassification of members of Clavibacter-Rathayibacter group is proposed. A system for classification of taxa in Clavibacter and Rathayibacter was developed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequences. The groups delineated on the basis of RFLP patterns of 16S rDNA coincided well with the subclades delineated on the basis of phylogeny. In contrast to previous classification systems, which are based primarily on phenotypic properties and are laborious, the RFLP analyses allow for rapid differentiation among species and subspecies in the two genera.
Project description:Goss's wilt (GW) of maize is caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and has spread in recent years throughout the Great Plains, posing a threat to production. The genetic basis of plant resistance is unknown. Here, a simple method for quantifying disease symptoms was developed and used to select cohorts of highly resistant and highly susceptible lines known as extreme phenotypes (XP). Copy number variation (CNV) analyses using whole genome sequences of bulked XP revealed 141 genes containing CNV between the two XP groups. The CNV genes include the previously identified common rust resistant locus rp1. Multiple Rp1 accessions with distinct rp1 haplotypes in an otherwise susceptible accession exhibited hypersensitive responses upon inoculation. GW provides an excellent system for the genetic dissection of diseases caused by closely related subspecies of C. michiganesis. Further work will facilitate breeding strategies to control GW and provide needed insight into the resistance mechanism of important related diseases such as bacterial canker of tomato and bacterial ring rot of potato.