Prospective surveillance of healthcare-associated infections and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of pathogens in an Italian intensive care unit.
ABSTRACT: Background:The study aimed to evaluate the distribution of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), the incidence rates and device utilization ratio (DUR) of device-associated infections (DAIs), as well as the distribution and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of the responsible pathogens. Methods:Eligible patients who were admitted to an adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from May 1, 2013 to December 31, 2016 were included in the surveillance. Demographics, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, information regarding infection and isolated pathogens with antibiogram results were collected. Results:One thousand two hundred eighty-three patients were included in the surveillance. One hundred forty-seven HAIs were detected with a cumulative incidence of 9.2 per 100 patients 4-year period and an incidence rate of 17.4 per 1000 patient days. Fifty-six out of 1283 patients were affected by at least one episode of ICU-acquired pneumonia, and 72.7% of these were associated with intubation. ICU-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs) occurred in 4.4% of patients and 89.5% were catheter-related. ICU-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) occurred in 1% of patients, with 84.6% of the episodes being associated with the use of an urinary catheter. The pattern of antimicrobial-resistance in the isolates showed, among the Gram-positive bacteria, that 66.6% and 16.6% of Staphylococcus epidermidis were oxacillin and teicoplanin resistant, respectively. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, carbapenem resistance was found in 91.6% of Acinetobacter baumannii and 28.5% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Conclusions:The majority of HAIs in the ICU studied were associated with the use of invasive devices. Since a significant proportion of these HAIs are considered preventable, reinforcement of the evidence-based preventive procedures are needed.
Project description:PURPOSE:Some publications suggest high rates of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and of nosocomial pneumonia portending a poor prognosis in ICU cancer patients. A better understanding of the epidemiology of HAIs in these patients is needed. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of all the patients hospitalized for ??48 h during a 12-year period in the 12-bed ICU of the Gustave Roussy hospital, monitored prospectively for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and bloodstream infection (BSI) and for use of medical devices. RESULTS:During 3388 first stays in the ICU, 198 cases of VAP and 103 primary, 213 secondary, and 77 catheter-related BSIs were recorded. The VAP rate was 24.5/1000 ventilator days (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.2-28.0); the catheter-related BSI rate was 2.3/1000 catheter days (95% CI 1.8-2.8). The cumulative incidence during the first 25 days of exposure was 58.8% (95% CI 49.1-66.6%) for VAP, 8.9% (95% CI, 6.2-11.5%) for primary, 15.1% (95% CI 11.6-18.5%) for secondary and 5.0% (95% CI 3.2-6.8%) for catheter-related BSIs. VAP or BSIs were not associated with a higher risk of ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to report HAI rates in a large cohort of critically ill cancer patients. Although both the incidence of VAP and the rate of BSI are higher than in general ICU populations, this does not impact patient outcomes. The occurrence of device-associated infections is essentially due to severe medical conditions in patients and to the characteristics of malignancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vietnam is a lower middle-income country with no national surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). We assessed the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections and antimicrobial use in adult intensive care units (ICUs) across Vietnam. METHODS:Monthly repeated point prevalence surveys were systematically conducted to assess HAI prevalence and antimicrobial use in 15 adult ICUs across Vietnam. Adults admitted to participating ICUs before 08:00 a.m. on the survey day were included. RESULTS:Among 3287 patients enrolled, the HAI prevalence was 29.5% (965/3266 patients, 21 missing). Pneumonia accounted for 79.4% (804/1012) of HAIs Most HAIs (84.5% [855/1012]) were acquired in the survey hospital with 42.5% (363/855) acquired prior to ICU admission and 57.5% (492/855) developed during ICU admission. In multivariate analysis, the strongest risk factors for HAI acquired in ICU were: intubation (OR 2.76), urinary catheter (OR 2.12), no involvement of a family member in patient care (OR 1.94), and surgery after admission (OR 1.66). 726 bacterial isolates were cultured from 622/1012 HAIs, most frequently Acinetobacter baumannii (177/726 [24.4%]), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100/726 [13.8%]), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (84/726 [11.6%]), with carbapenem resistance rates of 89.2%, 55.7%, and 14.9% respectively. Antimicrobials were prescribed for 84.8% (2787/3287) patients, with 73.7% of patients receiving two or more. The most common antimicrobial groups were third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems (20.1%, 19.4%, and 14.1% of total antimicrobials, respectively). CONCLUSION:A high prevalence of HAIs was observed, mainly caused by Gram-negative bacteria with high carbapenem resistance rates. This in combination with a high rate of antimicrobial use illustrates the urgent need to improve rational antimicrobial use and infection control efforts.
Project description:HIV-infected patients may be at a greater risk of Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAIs) but risks factors for HAIs have not been well described in this population.The aim of this study was to examine the incidence, temporal trends and risk factors of HAIs among adult HIV positive patients.This was a retrospective cohort study carried out in an academic health system in New York City which included four hospitals over a 9-year period from 2006 to 2014. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were built to determine risk factors associated with site-specific HAIs such as Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs), Pneumonia (PNUs) and Bloodstream Infections (BSIs).There were 10,575 HIV positive discharges and 1,328 had HAIs: 697 UTIs, 555 BSIs and 192 PNUs. The incidence rate of HAIs decreased from 19.8 to 15.1 new infections per 1000 persondays between 2006 and 2014 (p value<0.001). In addition to the expected risk factors of urinary catheter use for UTI and central venous line use for BSI, symptomatic HIV and renal failure were significant risk factors for both UTIs (95% CI OR: (1.24, 2.27) and (1.46, 2.11) respectively) and BSIs (95% CIs OR: (2.28, 4.18) and (1.81, 2.71) respectively).HIV-infected patients had similar risk factors for HAIs as HIV-uninfected patients. Further research is required to address how patients' CD4 counts and viral loads affect their susceptibility to HAIs.
Project description:Due to therapeutic challenges, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) caused by Acinetobacter baumannii (HA-AB), particularly carbapenem-resistant strains (HA-CRAB) pose a serious health threat to patients worldwide. This systematic review sought to summarize recent data on the incidence and prevalence of HA-AB and HA-CRAB infections in the WHO-defined regions of Europe (EUR), Eastern Mediterranean (EMR) and Africa (AFR). A comprehensive literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and GMI databases (01/2014-02/2019). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to determine the pooled incidence of HA-AB and HA-CRAB infections as well as the proportions of A. baumannii among all HAIs. 24 studies from 3,340 records were included in this review (EUR: 16, EMR: 6, AFR: 2). The pooled estimates of incidence and incidence density of HA-AB infection in intensive care units (ICUs) were 56.5 (95% CI 33.9-92.8) cases per 1,000 patients and 4.4 (95% CI 2.9-6.6) cases per 1,000 patient days, respectively. Five studies conducted at a hospital-wide level or in specialized clinical departments/wards (ICU + non-ICU patients) showed HA-AB incidences between 0.85 and 5.6 cases per 1,000 patients. For carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infections in ICUs, the pooled incidence and incidence density were 41.7 (95% CI 21.6-78.7) cases per 1,000 patients and 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.7) cases per 1,000 patient days, respectively. In ICUs, A. baumannii and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains accounted for 20.9% (95% CI 16.5-26.2%) and 13.6% (95% CI 9.7-18.7%) of all HAIs, respectively. Our study highlights the persistent clinical significance of hospital-acquired A. baumannii infections in the studied WHO regions, particularly in ICUs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represent serious complications for patients within pediatric cardiac intensive care units (CICU). HAIs are associated with increased morbidity, mortality and resource utilization. There are few studies describing the epidemiology of HAIs across the entire spectrum of patients (surgical and nonsurgical) receiving care in dedicated pediatric CICUs. METHODS:Retrospective analyses of 22,839 CICU encounters from October 2013 to September 2016 across 22 North American CICUs contributing data to the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium clinical registry. RESULTS:HAIs occurred in 2.4% of CICU encounters at a rate of 3.3 HAIs/1000 CICU days, with 73% of HAIs occurring in children <1 year. Eighty encounters (14%) had ?2 HAIs. Aggregate rates for the 4 primary HAIs are as follows: central line-associated blood stream infection, 1.1/1000 line days; catheter-associated urinary tract infections, 1.5/1000 catheter days; ventilator-associated pneumonia, 1.9/1000 ventilator days; surgical site infections, 0.81/100 operations. Surgical and nonsurgical patients had similar HAIs rates/1000 CICU days. Incidence was twice as high in surgical encounters and increased with surgical complexity; postoperative infection occurred in 2.8% of encounters. Prematurity, younger age, presence of congenital anomaly, Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality Categories (STAT) 4-5 surgery, admission with an active medical condition, open sternum and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with HAIs. In univariable analysis, HAI was associated with longer hospital length of stay and durations of urinary catheter, central venous catheter and ventilation. Mortality was 24.4% in patients with HAIs versus 3.4% in those without, P < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS:We provide comprehensive multicenter benchmark data regarding rates of HAIs within dedicated pediatric CICUs. We confirm that although rare, HAIs of all types are associated with significant resource utilization and mortality.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To conduct an updated assessment of the validity and reliability of administrative coded data (ACD) in identifying hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). METHODS:We systematically searched three libraries for studies on ACD detecting HAIs compared to manual chart review. Meta-analyses were conducted for prosthetic and nonprosthetic surgical site infections (SSIs), Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias/events (VAPs/VAEs) and non-VAPs/VAEs, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), and central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). A random-effects meta-regression model was constructed. RESULTS:Of 1,906 references found, we retrieved 38 documents, of which 33 provided meta-analyzable data (N = 567,826 patients). ACD identified HAI incidence with high specificity (?93 percent), prosthetic SSIs with high sensitivity (95 percent), and both CDIs and nonprosthetic SSIs with moderate sensitivity (65 percent). ACD exhibited substantial agreement with traditional surveillance methods for CDI (? = 0.70) and provided strong diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) for the identification of CDIs (DOR = 772.07) and SSIs (DOR = 78.20). ACD performance in identifying nosocomial pneumonia depended on the ICD coding system (DORICD-10/ICD-9-CM = 0.05; p = .036). Algorithmic coding improved ACD's sensitivity for SSIs up to 22 percent. Overall, high heterogeneity was observed, without significant publication bias. CONCLUSIONS:Administrative coded data may not be sufficiently accurate or reliable for the majority of HAIs. Still, subgrouping and algorithmic coding as tools for improving ACD validity deserve further investigation, specifically for prosthetic SSIs. Analyzing a potential lower discriminative ability of ICD-10 coding system is also a pending issue.
Project description:Objective:To determine whether infection-prevention and control (IPC) interventions can reduce the colonisation and infection of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in a general ICU ward in China. Methods:We used a quasi-experimental before-and-after study design. The study was conducted in 4 stages: baseline period, January 2013-June 2013; IPC interventions period including de-escalation and targeted bundle interventions, July 2013-June 2014; modified IPC interventions period, July 2014-June 2015; and follow-up period, July 2015-June 2016. We used modified de-escalation interventions according to patient-risk assessments to prevent the transmission of CRKP. Results:A total of 629 patients were enrolled in study. The incidence of ICU-acquired CRKP colonisation/infection was 10.08 (4.43-16.43) per 1000 ICU patient-days during the baseline period, and significantly decreased early during the IPC interventions, but the colonisation/infections reappeared in April 2014. During the modified IPC intervention and follow-up periods, the incidence of ICU-acquired CRKP colonisations/infections reduced to 5.62 (0.69-6.34) and 2.84 (2.80-2.89), respectively, with ongoing admission of cases with previously acquired CRKP. The incidence of ICU-acquired CRKP catheter-related bloodstream infections decreased from 2.54 during the baseline period to 0.41 during the follow-up period. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and skin and soft tissue infections showed a downward trend from 2.84 to 0.41 and from 3.4 to 0.47, respectively, with slight fluctuations. Conclusions:Comprehensive IPC interventions including de-escalation and targeted bundle interventions showed a significant reduction in ICU-acquired CRKP colonisations/infections, despite ongoing admission of patients colonised/infected with CRKP.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>In order to maximise the prevention of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance, data on the incidence of HAIs are crucial. In Ethiopia, data about the occurrence of HAIs among hospitalised paediatric patients are lacking. We aim to determine the incidence and risk factors of HAIs among paediatric patients in Ethiopia.<h4>Design</h4>A prospective cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>A teaching hospital in southeast Ethiopia.<h4>Participants</h4>448 hospitalised paediatric patients admitted between 1 November 2018 and 30 June 2019.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Incidence and risk factors of hospital-acquired infections.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 448 paediatric patients were followed for 3227 patient days. The median age of the patients was 8 months (IQR: 2-26 months). The incidence rate of HAIs was 17.7 per 1000 paediatric days of follow-up; while the overall cumulative incidence was 12.7% (95% CI 9.8% to 15.8%) over 8?months. Children who stayed greater than 6 days in the hospital (median day) (adjusted risk ratio (RR): 2.58, 95%?CI 1.52 to 4.38), and children with underlying disease conditions of severe acute malnutrition (adjusted RR: 2.83, 95%?CI 1.61 to 4.97) had higher risks of developing HAIs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The overall cumulative incidence of HAIs was about 13 per 100 admitted children. Length of stay in the hospital and underlying conditions of severe acute malnutrition were found to be important factors associated with increased risk of HAIs.
Project description:Obese patients are at higher than normal risk for postoperative infections such as pneumonia and surgical site infections, but the relation between obesity and infections acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU) is unclear. Our objective was to describe the relation between body mass index (BMI) and site-specific ICU-acquired infection risk in adults.Secondary analysis of a large, dual-institutional, prospective observational study of critically ill and injured surgical patients remaining in the ICU for at least 48 h. Patients were classified into BMI groups according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute guidelines: <or= 18.5 kg/m(2) (underweight), 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) (normal), 25-29.9 kg/m(2) (overweight), 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) (obese), and >or= 40.0 kg/m(2) (severely obese). The primary outcomes were the number and site of ICU-acquired U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-defined infections. Multivariable logistic and Poisson regression were used to determine age-, sex-, and severity-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and incidence rate ratios associated with differences in BMI.A total of 2,037 patients had 1,436 infection episodes involving 1,538 sites in a median ICU length of stay of 9 days. After adjusting for age, sex, and illness severity, severe obesity was an independent risk factor for catheter-related (OR 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5, 3.4) and other blood stream infections (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.9, 5.3). Cultured organisms did not differ by BMI group.Obesity is an independent risk factor for ICU-acquired catheter and blood stream infections. This observation may be explained by the relative difficulty in obtaining venous access in these patients and the reluctance of providers to discontinue established venous catheters in the setting of infection signs or symptoms.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Incidence rates of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) depend upon infection control policy and practices, and the effectiveness of the implementation of antibiotic stewardship. Amongst intensive care unit (ICU) patients with HAIs, a substantial number of pathogens were reported to be multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB). However, impacts of ICU HAIs due to MDRB (MDRB-HAIs) remain understudied. Our study aimed to evaluate the negative impacts of MRDB-HAIs versus HAIs due to non-MDRB (non-MRDB-HAIs). METHODS:Among 60,317 adult patients admitted at ICUs of a 2680-bed medical centre in Taiwan between January 2010 and December 2017, 279 pairs of propensity-score matched MRDB-HAI and non-MRDB-HAI were analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Between the MDRB-HAI group and the non-MDRB-HAI group, significant differences were found in overall hospital costs, costs of medical and nursing services, medication, and rooms/beds, and in ICU length-of-stay (LOS). As compared with the non-MDRB-HAI group, the mean of the overall hospital costs of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 26%; for categorized expenditures, the mean of costs of medical and nursing services of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 8%, of medication by 26.9%, of rooms/beds by 10.3%. The mean ICU LOS in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 13%. Mortality rates in both groups did not significantly differ. CONCLUSIONS:These data clearly demonstrate more negative impacts of MDRB-HAIs in ICUs. The quantified financial burdens will be helpful for hospital/government policymakers in allocating resources to mitigate MDRB-HAIs in ICUs; in case of need for clarification/verification of the medico-economic burdens of MDRB-HAIs in different healthcare systems, this study provides a model to facilitate the evaluations.