Risk Stratification of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in Fanconi Anemia Patients Using Autofluorescence Imaging and Cytology-On-A Chip Assay.
ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a hereditary genomic instability disorder with a predisposition to leukemia and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) facilitates cure of bone marrow failure and leukemia and thus extends life expectancy in FA patients; however, survival of hematologic malignancies increases the risk of OSCC in these patients. We developed a "cytology-on-a-chip" (COC)-based brush biopsy assay for monitoring patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). Using this COC assay, we measured and correlated the cellular morphometry and Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2 (MCM2) expression levels in brush biopsy samples of FA patients' OPMD with clinical risk indicators such as loss of autofluorescence (LOF), HSCT status, and mutational profiles identified by next-generation sequencing. Statistically significant differences were found in several cytology measurements based on high-risk indicators such as LOF-positive and HSCT-positive status, including greater variation in cell area and chromatin distribution, higher MCM2 expression levels, and greater numbers of white blood cells and cells with enlarged nuclei. Higher OPMD risk scores were associated with differences in the frequency of nuclear aberrations and differed based on LOF and HSCT statuses. We identified mutation of FAT1 gene in five and NOTCH-2 and TP53 genes in two cases of FA patients' OPMD. The high-risk OPMD of a non-FA patient harbored FAT1, CASP8, and TP63 mutations. Use of COC assay in combination with visualization of LOF holds promise for the early diagnosis of high-risk OPMD. These minimally invasive diagnostic tools are valuable for long-term surveillance of OSCC in FA patients and avoidance of unwarranted scalpel biopsies.
Project description:Fanconi anemia (FA) is caused by mutations of DNA repair genes. The risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) among FA patients is 800-folds higher than in the general population. Early detection of OSCC, preferably at it precursor stage, is critical in FA patients to improve their survival. In an ongoing clinical trial, we are evaluating the effectiveness of the programmable bio-nanochip (p-BNC)-based oral cytology test in diagnosing oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) in non-FA patients. We used this test to compare cytomorphometric and molecular biomarkers in OSCC cell lines derived from FA and non-FA patients to brush biopsy samples of a FA patient with OPMD and normal mucosa of healthy volunteers. Our data showed that expression patterns of molecular biomarkers were not notably different between sporadic and FA-OSCC cell lines. The p-BNC assay revealed significant differences in cytometric parameters and biomarker MCM2 expression between cytobrush samples of the FA patient and cytobrush samples of normal oral mucosa obtained from healthy volunteers. Microscopic examination of the FA patient's OPMD confirmed the presence of dysplasia. Our pilot data suggests that the p-BNC brush biopsy test recognized dysplastic oral epithelial cells in a brush biopsy sample of a FA patient.
Project description:Previous studies have revealed FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1) played a tumor suppressive or oncogenic role in a context-dependent manner in various cancers. However, the functions of FAT1 are ambiguous in tumorigenesis owing to inconsistent research in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study aimed to gain an insight into the role of FAT1 in the tumor genesis and development by comprehensive bioinformatics, in vitro experiments and analysis of RNA-seq after FAT1 silencing. The expression and survival data analysis were done using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) database, verified with clinical samples via real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemical (IHC). Overall, FAT1 significantly raised in OSCC with a poor prognosis outcome. Some work on FAT1 mutant implied that 404, 614, 1662 and 3554 may be four SNP loci. The in vitro experiment showed the promoting effect of FAT1 in the proliferation and migration of OSCC cells. FAT1 can also inhibit both the early and late apoptosis of OSCC cells. Bioinformatics analysis of FAT1 silencing revealed that the cell cycle, DNA replication, and some core genes (MCM2, MCM5, CCNE1 SPC24, MYBL2, KIF2C) may be the potential mechanism in OSCC. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that FAT1 may act as oncogenesis in OSCC with potential mechanism influencing the cell cycle and DNA repair. Overall design: Examination of 2 FAT1 knockdown and corresponding negative control cells in HN6 and HN30. Repeated at another separate time.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine the prevalence of Candida species by PCR-RFLP method in the saliva of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and healthy cohorts. Unstimulated saliva was collected from patients with OSCC (n?=?97), OPMD (n?=?200), and healthy controls (n?=?200). Candida species were isolated using the standard protocol. The isolates were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods. The odds/risk ratio was calculated using Pearson's Chi-square test. The significance of Candidal carriage was calculated by independent T-test. RESULTS:Oral Candidal carriage was 72.2%, 58% and 20.5% among patients with OSCC, OPMD, and healthy controls respectively. The oral Candidal carriage in OSCC and OPMD was highly significant (p?=?0.0001). Non albicans Candida predominated over Candida albicans. Candida species were diverse among the study groups with a predominance of Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Pichia anomala formerly Candida pelliculosa. P. anomala occurrence outnumbered in health. The odds/risk ratio for OSCC and OPMD were 4.25/11.87 and 3.52/6.99 respectively. A high prevalence of non albicans Candida was observed both in all the three groups (OSCC, OPMD and healthy controls). High odds and risk ratio associates Candida species to OSCC and OPMD. Candida famata may be associated with OSCC and OPMD.
Project description:Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) develop in a complex tissue microenvironment where they grow sustainably, acquiring oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) characteristics. The malignant tumor depends on interactions with the surrounding microenvironment to achieve loco-regional invasion and distant metastases. Unlike abnormal cells, the multiple cell types in the tissue microenvironment are relatively stable at the genomic level and, thus, become therapeutic targets with lower risk of resistance, decreasing the risk of OPMD acquiring cancer characteristics and carcinoma recurrence. However, deciding how to disrupt the OPMD and OSCC microenvironments is itself a daunting challenge, since their microenvironments present opposite capacities, resulting in diverse consequences. Furthermore, recent studies revealed that tumor-associated immune cells also participate in the process of differentiation from OPMD to OSCC, suggesting that reeducating stromal cells may be a new strategy to prevent OPMD from acquiring OSCC characteristics and to treat OSCC. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of the microenvironment of OPMD and OSCC as well as new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1) regulates cell-cell adhesion and extracellular matrix architecture, while acting as tumor suppressor or oncogene, context-dependently. Despite implication of FAT1 in several malignancies, its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. Herein, we document the driver-oncogene role of FAT1, and its mediation of cell-death evasion, proliferation, oncogenicity, and chemoresistance in OSCC. In-silica analyses indicate FAT1 mutations are frequent and drive head-neck SCC, with enhanced expression defining high-risk population and poor prognosis. We demonstrated aberrant FAT1 mRNA and protein expression in OSCC compared with non-cancer tissues, whereas loss-of-FAT1-function attenuates human primary SAS and metastatic HSC-3 OSCC cell viability, without affecting normal primary human gingival fibroblast cells. shFAT1 suppressed PCNA and upregulated BAX/BCL2 ratio in SAS and HSC-3 cells. Moreover, compared with wild-type cells, shFAT1 concomitantly impaired HSC-3 cell migration, invasion, and clonogenicity. Interestingly, while over-expressed FAT1 characterized cisplatin-resistance (CispR), shFAT1 synchronously re-sensitized CispR cells to cisplatin, enhanced glutathione (GSH)/GSH synthetase (GSS)-mediated oxidative stress and deregulated LRP5/WNT2 signaling. Concisely, FAT1 is an actionable driver-oncogene in OSCC and targeting FAT1 in patients with erstwhile cisplatin-resistant OSCC is therapeutically promising.
Project description:The critical role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cancer has been recognized, but the involvement of HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is still controversial. The aim of this study was to identify and verify the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection (HPV16 and 18) in Chinese patients with OSCC or OPMD using real-time PCR and DNA sequencing.Paired tissue and serum DNA samples were extracted from 40 Chinese patients with OSCC and 59 with OPMD. A SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay was developed to detect the E6 gene of HPV16 and HPV18. Suspicious positive samples were then sequenced to eliminate false positives.We found that none of the tissue and serum samples of OSCCs and OPMDs were positive for HPV16 E6 or 18 E6, using both real-time PCR and DNA sequencing. Overall, 3 of 198 (1.52 %) and 7 of 198 (3.54 %) samples were false-positive for HPV16 E6 and HPV18 E6, respectively, using real-time PCR.The lack of HPV16 and HPV18 detected in this study indicates that high-risk HPV 16 and 18 infections are uncommon in Chinese patients with OSCC and OPMD. Real-time PCR followed by DNA sequencing for HPV DNA detection is an effective strategy to rule out false positives.
Project description:Presently, various studies had investigated the accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with diverse conclusions. This study aimed to assess its accuracy for OSCC and OPMD and to investigate its applicability in general dental practice. After a comprehensive literature search, a meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled diagnostic indexes of autofluorescence for premalignant lesions (PML) and malignant lesions (ML) of the oral cavity, lung, esophagus, stomach and colorectum and to compute indexes regarding the detection of OSCC aided by algorithms. Besides, a u test was performed. Twenty-four studies detecting OSCC and OPMD in 2761 lesions were included. This demonstrated that the overall accuracy of autofluorescence for OSCC and OPMD was superior to PML and ML of the lung, esophagus and stomach, slightly inferior to the colorectum. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity for OSCC and OPMD were 0.89 and 0.8, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity could be remarkably improved by additional algorithms. With relatively high accuracy, autofluorescence could be potentially applied as an adjunct for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Moreover, approaches such as algorithms could enhance its specificity to ensure its efficacy in primary care.
Project description:Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by chromosomal instability and impaired DNA damage repair. FA patients develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) earlier and more frequently than the general population, especially after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although evidence of an etiological role of the local microbiome and carcinogenesis has been mounting, no information exists regarding the oral microbiome of FA patients. The aim of this study was to explore the salivary microbiome of 61 FA patients regarding their oral health status and OSCC risk factors. After answering a questionnaire and receiving clinical examination, saliva samples were collected and analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region. The microbial profiles associated with medical and clinical parameters were analyzed using general linear models. Patients were young (mean age, 22 y) and most had received HSCT ( n = 53). The most abundant phyla were Firmicutes [mean relative abundance (SD), 42.1% (10.1%)] and Bacteroidetes [(25.4% (11.4%)]. A history of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) ( n = 27) was associated with higher proportions of Firmicutes (43.8% × 38.5%, P = 0.05). High levels of gingival bleeding were associated with the genera Prevotella (22.25% × 20%), Streptococcus (19.83% × 17.61%), Porphyromonas (3.63% × 1.42%, P = 0.03), Treponema (1.02% × 0.28%, P = 0.009), Parvimonas (0.28% × 0.07%, P = 0.02) and Dialister (0.27% × 0.10%, P = 0.04). Finally, participants transplanted over 11 y ago showed the highest levels of Streptococcus (18.4%), Haemophilus (12.7%) and Neisseria (6.8%). In conclusion, FA patients that showed poor oral hygiene harbored higher proportions of the genera of bacteria compatible with gingival disease. Specific microbial differences were associated with a history of oral GVHD and a history of oral mucositis.
Project description:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is genetically highly heterogeneous, which contributes to the challenges of treatment. To create an in vitro model that accurately reflects this heterogeneity, we generated a panel of HPV-negative OSCC cell lines. By whole exome sequencing of the lines and matched patient blood samples, we demonstrate that the mutational spectrum of the lines is representative of primary OSCC in The Cancer Genome Atlas. We show that loss of function mutations in FAT1 (an atypical cadherin) and CASP8 (Caspase 8) frequently occur in the same tumour. OSCC cells with inactivating FAT1 mutations exhibited reduced intercellular adhesion. Knockdown of FAT1 and CASP8 individually or in combination in OSCC cells led to increased cell migration and clonal growth, resistance to Staurosporine-induced apoptosis and, in some cases, increased terminal differentiation. The OSCC lines thus represent a valuable resource for elucidating the impact of different mutations on tumour behaviour.
Project description:NANOG, a key regulator of pluripotency and self-renewal in embryonic and adult stem cells, is frequently overexpressed in multiple cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). It has been frequently associated with poor outcomes in epithelial cancers, and recently implicated in laryngeal tumorigenesis. On this basis, we investigated the role of NANOG protein expression as an early cancer risk biomarker in oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), and the impact on prognosis and disease outcomes in OSCC patients. NANOG expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 55 patients with oral epithelial dysplasia, and 125 OSCC patients. Correlations with clinical and follow-up data were assessed. Nuclear NANOG expression was detected in 2 (3.6%) and cytoplasmic NANOG expression in 9 (16.4%) oral dysplasias. NANOG expression increased with the grade of dysplasia. Cytoplasmic NANOG expression and the histopathological grading were significantly correlated with oral cancer risk, although dysplasia grading was the only significant independent predictor of oral cancer development in multivariate analyses. Cytoplasmic NANOG expression was also detected in 39 (31%) OSCC samples. Positive NANOG expression was significantly associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, and was more frequent in pN0 tumors, early I-II stages. These data unveil the clinical relevance of NANOG in early stages of OSCC tumorigenesis rather than in advanced neoplastic disease. NANOG expression emerges as an early predictor of oral cancer risk in patients with OPMD.