Health-Related Quality of Life in Pulmonary Hypertension and Its Clinical Correlates: A Cross-Sectional Study.
ABSTRACT: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impairment is common in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its clinical predictors are not well established. This study aims to characterize the HRQoL of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and other precapillary forms of PH (pcPH) and to explore its clinical correlates.A cross-sectional, observational study of patients with documented PAH and other forms of pcPH. Patients completed two patient-reported outcome measures (PROM): Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Clinical characteristics were retrieved from electronic medical records.Mean CAMPHOR and NHP scores for the study population were indicative of a moderate HRQoL impairment. Patients in World Health Organisation Functional Classes (WHO FC) III/IV showed significantly worse HRQoL. The main clinical correlates of HRQoL were WHO FC, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), and Borg dyspnoea index. Overall quality of life (QoL), assessed through CAMPHOR's QoL domain, showed patterns comparable to HRQoL measured by both instruments.HRQoL, measured by two different PROMs, is impaired in Portuguese patients with PAH and other forms of pcPH, particularly in patients with increased disease severity. WHO FC, 6MWD, and Borg dyspnoea index are highly correlated with HRQoL and QoL.
Project description:Studies systematically comparing the performance of health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) instruments in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are lacking. We sought to address this by comparing cardiac and respiratory-specific measures of HRQoL in PAH. We prospectively assessed HRQoL in 128 patients with catheterisation-confirmed PAH at baseline and at 6, 12 and post-24 month follow-up visits. Cardiac-specific HRQoL was assessed using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (LHFQ); respiratory-specific HRQoL was assessed using the Airways Questionnaire 20 (AQ20); and general health status was assessed using the 36-item Short Form physical component summary (SF-36 PCS). The LHFQ and AQ20 were highly intercorrelated. Both demonstrated strong internal consistency and converged with the SF-36 PCS. Both discriminated patients based on World Health Organization (WHO) functional class, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and Borg dyspnoea index (BDI), with the exception of a potential floor effect associated with low 6MWD. The LHFQ was more responsive than the AQ20 to changes over time in WHO functional class, 6MWD and BDI. In multivariate analyses, the LHFQ and AQ20 were each longitudinal predictors of general health status, independent of functional class, 6MWD and BDI. In conclusion, both cardiac-specific and respiratory-specific measures appropriately assess HRQoL in most patients with PAH. Overall, the LHFQ demonstrates stronger performance characteristics than the AQ20.
Project description:Flolan (epoprostenol sodium) is most commonly prescribed to patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) owing to the requirement that the drug be delivered by continuous intravenous infusion and the reconstituted solution may only be administered up to 24 hours when it is maintained between a temperature of 2°C and 8°C. The aim of this single-arm, open label study was to describe the effects of the new thermostable formulation of Flolan on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and ease of administration in subjects switching from the currently marketed Flolan to the reformulated product.Following a 4-week run-in period and after 4 weeks of treatment with the reformulated product, patients completed the SF-36 HRQoL questionnaire and a study-specific questionnaire evaluating ease of administration, along with World Health Organization (WHO) functional class, six-minute walked distance (6MWD) and N-terminal-pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) assessment.16 participants completed the study. The SF-36 scores remained unchanged from baseline to Week 4. Conversely, there were small improvements for the majority of the study-specific questionnaire items and 14 (88%) subjects preferred the reformulated product to the currently marketed Flolan. There was no significant change in the dose of reformulated product, 6MWD, Borg dyspnoea index, WHO functional class and mean NT-proBNP levels. No significant changes in haemodynamic parameters were seen from baseline to 2 hours post transition in a subset of patients undergoing catheterization.The reformulated product was not associated with significant improvement in HRQoL compared with the currently marketed Flolan as measured by the SF-36. However, most subjects preferred the reformulated product to the currently marketed Flolan. Moreover, the 2 formulations of Flolan had similar safety and efficacy profiles.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01462565.
Project description:Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and other forms of precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) have impaired quality of life (QoL). The Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) is a PH-specific patient-reported outcome measure that assesses symptoms, activity limitations and QoL. It was originally developed in UK-English. The main objective of this study was to create an adaptation of the CAMPHOR suitable for a Portuguese-speaking population.A multi-step approach was followed: bilingual and lay panel translation; cognitive debriefing interviews; and psychometric testing in repeated postal surveys (2 weeks apart) including assessment of internal consistency, reproducibility and validity. The Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) questionnaire was used as a comparator instrument to test convergent validity.The CAMPHOR was translated without difficulty by the two panels. Cognitive debriefing interviews showed the questionnaire was easily understood and considered relevant to patients' experience with their illness. Psychometric evaluation was performed with 50 PAH patients (47?±?14 years, 37 women). Cronbach's alpha coefficients showed good internal consistency for the three CAMPHOR scales [Symptoms?=?0.95; Activities?=?0.93 and QoL?=?0.94]. Test-retest coefficients showed that all scales had excellent reliability (Symptoms?=?0.94; Activities?=?0.89 and QoL?=?0.93), indicating low levels of random measurement error. The CAMPHOR correlated as expected with the NHP. The magnitude of correlations followed a similar pattern to those in the original development study. The CAMPHOR also exhibited evidence of known group validity in its ability to distinguish between self-reported severity and general health groups.A valid and reliable version of the CAMPHOR questionnaire for the European Portuguese-speaking population was developed and is recommended for use.
Project description:Although several new drugs have been approved in recent years, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a rapidly progressive disease with a poor prognosis. Ambrisentan, a selective endothelin type A antagonist, has been approved for treatment of PAH. This open label study assessed the efficacy and safety of ambrisentan in Chinese subjects with PAH.Eligible patients with PAH (World Health Organisation [WHO] functional class [FC] II orIII) were enrolled and received Ambrisentan (5 mg) once daily for a 12-week preliminary evaluation period, and a 12-week dose-adjustment period (dose titration to 10 mgallowed). Endpoints included: change from baseline in 6-Minute Walk Distance (6-MWD), N-Terminal Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-pro-BNP), WHO FC, Borg Dyspnoea Index (BDI), clinical worsening of PAH and incidences of adverse events (AE).One hundred thirty-three subjects (85 % women, mean age: 36 years) with PAH (WHOFC II or III) were enrolled and received ambrisentan (5 mg) once daily for a 12-week preliminary evaluation period, and a 12-week dose-adjustment period. Mean (SD) duration of drug exposure was 161.7 (27.13) days. Ambrisentan (average daily dose of 6.27 mg) significantly improved exercise capacity (6MWD) from baseline (mean: 377.1 m [m]) at week 12 (+53.6 m, p?<?0.001) (primary endpoint). Improvement in exercise capacity was noted as early as week 4, and was sustained up to week 24 (+ 64.4 m, p?<?0.001). NT-pro-BNP plasma levels decreased significantly (p?<?0.001) at week 12 (-861.4 ng/L) and week 24 (-806 ng/L) from baseline (mean: 1600.7 ng/L). The WHO FC showed improvements for 44 subjects at week 12 and 51 subjects at week 24. BDI scores decreased significantly at week 12 (-0.3, p?<?0.001) and week 24 (-0.2, p?=?0.003) from baseline (mean: 2.5). Four patients died during the study (sudden cardiac death [n?=?2], cerebral haemorrhage [n?=?1], cardiac failure [n?=?1]). Drug related adverse events occurred in 34.3 % of subjects; peripheral oedema (11.2 %) and flushing (8.2 %) occurred most frequently.Ambrisentan (5 and 10 mg, orally) significantly improved the exercise capacity in Chinese PAH subjects with a safety profile similar to that observed in global studies.NCT No. (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT01808313 ; Registration date (first time): February 28, 2013.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Patient treatment satisfaction is likely to be a highly relevant outcome measure in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition for which the benefits of treatment must be weighed against frequent, undesirable side effects, inconvenience, and complications associated with therapy. In this study, we sought to evaluate the psychometric properties of a patient-reported treatment satisfaction measure and its relationship to quality of life (QoL) among patients transitioning from inhaled iloprost (iILO) to inhaled treprostinil (iTRE). METHODS: We studied treatment satisfaction among 66 subjects with PAH in a single-arm, open-label, multi-center trial of iTRE following transition from iILO. Treatment satisfaction was assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM, version 1.4) administered to subjects immediately before and 12 weeks after transition of inhaled therapy. The TSQM is comprised of 4 domains: effectiveness, side effects, convenience, and global satisfaction. Scores range from 0 to 100 with higher scores indicating greater satisfaction. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD), functional class, adverse events, drug administration time, and PAH-specific QoL (CAMPHOR) were concurrently assessed. RESULTS: Domains of the TSQM demonstrated evidence of strong internal consistency at baseline and at 12 weeks (Cronbach ? = 0.88-0.93). Transition from iILO to iTRE was associated with an improvement in 3 of 4 TSQM domains: effectiveness (+20 ± 21, p < 0.0001), side effects (0 ± 22, p = 0.97), convenience (+39 ± 26, p < 0.0001), and global satisfaction (+20 ± 24, p = 0.0005). Change in effectiveness scores correlated with change in 6MWD (r = 0.43, p = 0.0004) and side effects scores at 12 weeks correlated inversely with number of severity-weighted treatment-emergent adverse events (r = -0.44, p = 0.0002). In multiple regression models adjusted for baseline characteristics, changes in effectiveness and convenience satisfaction scores were significantly associated with improvement in PAH-specific QoL (p = 0.002 and p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The TSQM demonstrated acceptable performance characteristics in patients with PAH. Changes in treatment satisfaction resulting from transitioning from iILO to iTRE were associated with improvements in PAH-specific QoL.
Project description:Few controlled clinical trials exist to support oral combination therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).Patients with PAH (idiopathic [IPAH] or associated with connective tissue disease [APAH-CTD]) taking bosentan (62.5 or 125 mg twice daily at a stable dose for ?3 months) were randomized (1:1) to sildenafil (20 mg, 3 times daily; n = 50) or placebo (n = 53). The primary endpoint was change from baseline in 6-min walk distance (6MWD) at week 12, assessed using analysis of covariance. Patients could continue in a 52-week extension study. An analysis of covariance main-effects model was used, which included categorical terms for treatment, baseline 6MWD (<325 m; ?325 m), and baseline aetiology; sensitivity analyses were subsequently performed.In sildenafil versus placebo arms, week-12 6MWD increases were similar (least squares mean difference [sildenafil-placebo], -2.4 m [90% CI: -21.8 to 17.1 m]; P = 0.6); mean ± SD changes from baseline were 26.4 ± 45.7 versus 11.8 ± 57.4 m, respectively, in IPAH (65% of population) and -18.3 ± 82.0 versus 17.5 ± 59.1 m in APAH-CTD (35% of population). One-year survival was 96%; patients maintained modest 6MWD improvements. Changes in WHO functional class and Borg dyspnoea score and incidence of clinical worsening did not differ. Headache, diarrhoea, and flushing were more common with sildenafil.Sildenafil, in addition to stable (?3 months) bosentan therapy, had no benefit over placebo for 12-week change from baseline in 6MWD. The influence of PAH aetiology warrants future study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00323297 (registration date: May 5, 2006).
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Fatigue is one of the most disabling symptoms in COPD, but little is known about the impact of fatigue on functional disability. We explored the impact of fatigue and fatigue intensity on exercise tolerance after adjusting for other factors using multivariate analysis and compared it to that of dyspnoea.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 119 patients with mainly moderate-severe stable COPD (38 % women, mean age 66 years) were enrolled. We used the Medical Research Council dyspnoea scores (MRC), Manchester COPD fatigue scale (MCFS) and its three dimensions, Borg scales for fatigue and dyspnoea, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, the BODE index, and the Centre for Epidemiological Study on Depression scale (CES-D), and we measured spirometry, blood gases, systemic inflammatory markers and fat-free mass index (FFMI).<h4>Results</h4>Fatigue measured using the MCFS was associated with 6MWD and explained 22 % of the variability in 6MWD (p < 0.001). Fatigue remained associated with 6MWD after adjusting for MRC dyspnoea, FFMI and FEV<sub>1</sub>, FVC, PaO<sub>2</sub>, PaCO<sub>2</sub>, CES-D, TNF-alpha, smoking status, age and gender. We found that 33, 50 and 23 % of patients reported an increase by 2 scores on Borg scales for fatigue, dyspnoea or both at the end of the 6MWT. Fatigue scores (both before and after the 6MWT) were negatively correlated with 6MWD after adjusting for FEV<sub>1</sub>, FFMI, CES-D score and age (p = 0.007 and 0.001, respectively).<h4>Conclusion</h4>In moderate stable COPD, fatigue may be a central driver of functional disability, to the same extent as dyspnoea.
Project description:Oral bosentan has been widely applied in pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD). A systemic review and meta-analysis was conducted for a therapeutic evaluation of oral bosentan in both adult and pediatric patients with PAH-CHD. The acute responses and a long-term effect were respectively assessed in a comparison with baseline characteristics, and the improvement of exercise tolerance was analyzed.PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of clinical controlled trails or observational studies have been searched for a recording of bosentan effects on the PAH-CHD participants. For mortality and rate of adverse events (AEs), it was described in detail. Randomized-effects model or fixed-effects model was used to calculate different effective values with a sensitivity analysis.Seventeen studies were pooled in this review, and 3 studies enrolled the pediatric patients. Among all studies, 456 patients were diagnosed with PAH-CHD, and 91.7% were treated with oral bosentan. With a term less than 6 months of bosentan therapy, there existed a significant improvement in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and the World Health Organization functional class (WHO-FC), but no such differences in Borg dyspnea index scores (BDIs) and the resting oxygen saturation (SpO2). Although with a prolonged treatment, not only 6MWD and FC, but also the resting SpO2 and heart rate were changed for a better exercise capability. Additionally, compared with the basic cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, it showed a statistically significant difference in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRi). Although a limitation of pooled studies with comparative outcomes of different terms, outcomes presented a lower WHO-FC which contributes to a success in a prolonged treatment.Bosentan in PAH-CHD is well established and still requires clinical trials for an identification of its efficiency on CHD patients for an optimized period lessening a serious complication and the common AEs.
Project description:The Pulmonary Arterial hyperTENsion sGC-stimulator Trial-1 (PATENT-1) was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluating riociguat in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). PATENT-2 was an open-label long-term extension to PATENT-1. Here, we explore the efficacy and safety of riociguat in the subgroup of patients with persistent/recurrent PAH after correction of congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) from the PATENT studies.In PATENT-1, patients received riociguat (maximum 2.5 or 1.5?mg three times daily) or placebo for 12?weeks; efficacy assessments included change from baseline to study end in 6-min walking distance (6MWD; primary), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), N-terminal of the prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), WHO functional class (WHO FC) and time to clinical worsening. In PATENT-2, eligible patients from PATENT-1 received long-term riociguat (maximum 2.5?mg three times daily); the primary assessment was safety and tolerability. All PAH-CHD patients had a corrected cardiac defect.In PATENT-1, riociguat increased mean±SD 6MWD from baseline to week 12 by 39±60?m in patients with PAH-CHD versus 0±42?m for placebo. Riociguat also improved several secondary variables versus placebo, including PVR (-250±410 vs -66±632?dyn·s/cm(5)), NT-proBNP (-164±317 vs -46±697?pg/mL) and WHO FC (21%/79%/0% vs 8%/83%/8% improved/stabilised/worsened). One patient experienced clinical worsening (riociguat 1.5?mg group). Riociguat was well tolerated. In PATENT-2, riociguat showed sustained efficacy and tolerability in patients with PAH-CHD at 2?years.Riociguat was well tolerated in patients with PAH-CHD and improved clinical outcomes including 6MWD, PVR, WHO FC and NT-proBNP.The clinical trials numbers are NCT00810693 for PATENT-1 and NCT00863681 for PATENT-2.
Project description:No therapy is known to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) or dyspnoea in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The present study investigated longitudinal changes in HRQoL and dyspnoea and explored the effects of bosentan on these end-points during the Bosentan Use in Interstitial Lung Disease (BUILD)-1 trial. In total, 154 subjects received oral bosentan (n = 71) or placebo (n = 83). Changes in HRQoL and dyspnoea from baseline to month (M) 6 and up to M12 were measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), Transition Dyspnoea Index and Borg dyspnoea index. Overall, minimal changes occurred in measures of HRQoL and dyspnoea among placebo-treated subjects during the study. The effects of bosentan treatment on HRQoL and dyspnoea in the all-treated population were minimal. However, in the subset of subjects who had undergone surgical lung biopsy for diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, treatment effects were observed up to M12 in the impact domain of the SGRQ and the physical functioning, general health and role emotional domains of the SF-36. HRQoL and dyspnoea changed minimally during the course of the present study. Observations from exploratory analyses suggested benefits of bosentan on HRQoL among patients who had undergone surgical lung biopsy for diagnosis, and they merit further investigation.