The PPAR? agonist efatutazone delays invasive progression and induces differentiation of ductal carcinoma in situ.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a pre-invasive lesion of the breast considered a precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma. This study aimed to determine whether activated PPAR? acts as a tumor suppressor in human DCIS progression. METHODS:We utilized the high-affinity PPAR? agonist, efatutazone, to activate endogenous PPAR? in a well-defined model for the progression of basal (triple negative) DCIS, MCFDCIS cells, cultured under 2D and 3D conditions. We studied the effects of activated PPAR? on DCIS progression in MCFDCIS xenograft and C3(1)/Tag transgenic mice treated with 30 mg/kg of efatutazone. RESULTS:In vitro, efatutazone did not alter the MCFDCIS cell proliferation but induced phenotypic and gene expression changes, indicating that activated PPAR? is able to differentiate MCFDCIS cells into more luminal and lactational-like cells. In addition, MCFDCIS tumorsphere formation in 3D was reduced by PPAR? activation. In vivo, efatutazone-treated MCFDCIS tumors exhibited fat deposition along with upregulation of PPAR? responsive genes in both epithelial and stromal compartments, suggesting features of milk-producing mammary epithelial cell differentiation. The efatutazone-treated lesions were less invasive with fewer CD44+/p63+ basal progenitor cells. PPAR? activation downregulated Akt phosphorylation in these tumors, although the ERK pathway remained unchanged. Similar trends in gene expression changes consistent with lactational and luminal cell differentiation were observed in the C3(1)/Tag mouse model after efatutazone treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that activation of the PPAR? pathway differentiates DCIS lesions and may be a useful approach to delay DCIS progression.
Project description:Lineage plasticity is important for the development of basal-like breast cancer (BLBC), an aggressive cancer subtype. While BLBC is likely to originate from luminal progenitor cells, it acquires substantial basal cell features and contains a heterogenous collection of cells exhibiting basal, luminal, and hybrid phenotypes. Why luminal progenitors are prone to BLBC transformation and what drives luminal-to-basal reprogramming remain unclear. Here, we show that the transcription factor SOX9 acts as a determinant for estrogen-receptor-negative (ER-) luminal stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs). SOX9 controls LSPC activity in part by activating both canonical and non-canonical nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling. Inactivation of TP53 and RB via expression of SV40 TAg in a BLBC mouse tumor model leads to upregulation of SOX9, which drives luminal-to-basal reprogramming in vivo. Furthermore, SOX9 deletion inhibits the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)-like lesions to invasive carcinoma. These data show that ER- LSPC determinant SOX9 acts as a lineage plasticity driver for BLBC progression.
Project description:PURPOSE:Invasive breast cancers are thought to arise from in situ lesions, but some ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are indolent with low likelihood of progressing to invasive carcinoma. Comparison of risk factor associations between DCIS and invasive disease may elucidate which factors influence early versus late stages of carcinogenesis. Therefore, we determined whether there were differences in risk factor profiles for screen-detected DCIS and invasive breast cancer among Luminal A lesions. METHODS:We conducted a case-control analysis using data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (1993-2001). Analyses were restricted to Luminal A tumors and screen-detected tumors among mammography-eligible women, to limit confounding by mode of detection (N = 108 DCIS; N = 203 invasive). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between risk factors and lesion type. RESULTS:In stratified analyses, we observed qualitative differences in the direction of association for ever smoking, obese BMI, high waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), and ?10 years of oral contraceptive use between DCIS and invasive disease. Breastfeeding was inversely associated with invasive disease and was not associated with DCIS. Interaction tests for risk factor associations between Luminal A DCIS and invasive breast cancer were not statistically significant (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Among Luminal A tumors, established breast cancer risk factors may exert stronger effects on progression of early lesions to invasive disease, with lesser effects on risk of DCIS.
Project description:Breast cancers are heterogeneous and complex diseases, and subtypes of breast cancers may involve unique molecular mechanisms. The p16(INK4a) and p53 pathways are two of the major pathways involved in control of the cell cycle. They also play key roles in tumorigenesis. However, whether the roles of these pathways differ in the subtypes of breast cancer is unclear. Therefore, p16 and p53 expression were investigated in different breast cancer subtypes to ascertain their contributions to these cancers. A total of 400 cases of non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), including the major molecular subtypes luminal-A, luminal-B, Her-2, and triple-negative subtypes, and 50 cases of normal controls were compared. Luminal-A cancers expressed the lowest level of p16 among the subtypes in DCIS, and the level of p16 expression was up-regulated in the luminal-A of IDC (P<0.008). Triple-negative breast cancers were characterized by a correlation of p53 overexpression with a high level of p16 expression. Luminal lesion types with high p16 expression in DCIS were found to be more likely to develop into aggressive breast cancers, possibly promoted by p53 dysfunction. Taken together, the present study suggest that p16 expression in luminal-A breast cancers is associated with their progression from DCIS to IDC, and both p53 and p16 expressions are important for the development of triple-negative breast cancers in DCIS and IDC.
Project description:The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a poorly understood key event in breast tumor progression. Here, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a model of human DCIS and primary breast tumors. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts and inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. Molecular profiles of isolated luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells identified an intricate interaction network involving TGFbeta, Hedgehog, cell adhesion, and p63 required for myoepithelial cell differentiation, the elimination of which resulted in loss of myoepithelial cells and progression to invasion.
Project description:Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women comprising about 12% females worldwide. The underlying alteration in the gene expression, molecular mechanism and metabolic pathways responsible for incidence and progression of breast tumorigenesis are yet not completely understood. In the present study, potential biomarker genes involved in the early progression for early diagnosis of breast cancer has been detailed. Regulation and Gene profiling of Ductal Carcinoma In-situ (DCIS), Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) and healthy samples have been analyzed to follow their expression pattern employing normalization, statistical calculation, DEGs annotation and Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network. We have performed a comparative study on differentially expressed genes among Healthy vs DCIS, Healthy vsIDC and DCIS vs IDC. We found MCM102 and SLC12A8as consistently over-expressed and LEP, SORBS1, SFRP1, PLIN1, FABP4, RBP4, CD300LG, ID4, CRYAB, ECRG4, G0S2, FMO2, ADAMTS5, CAV1, CAV2, ABCA8, MAMDC2, IGFBP6, CLDN11, TGFBR3as under-expressed genes in all the 3 conditions categorized for pre-invasive and invasive ductal breast carcinoma. These genes were further studied for the active pathways where PPAR(?) signaling pathway was found to be significantly involved. The gene expression profile database can be a potential tool in the early diagnosis of breast cancer.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is characterised by the intraductal proliferation of malignant epithelial cells. Several histological classification systems have been developed, but assessing the histological type/grade of DCIS lesions is still challenging, making treatment decisions based on these features difficult. To obtain insight in the molecular basis of the development of different types of DCIS and its progression to invasive breast cancer, we have studied differences in gene expression between different types of DCIS and between DCIS and invasive breast carcinomas. METHODS:Gene expression profiling using microarray analysis has been performed on 40 in situ and 40 invasive breast cancer cases. RESULTS:DCIS cases were classified as well- (n = 6), intermediately (n = 18), and poorly (n = 14) differentiated type. Of the 40 invasive breast cancer samples, five samples were grade I, 11 samples were grade II, and 24 samples were grade III. Using two-dimensional hierarchical clustering, the basal-like type, ERB-B2 type, and the luminal-type tumours originally described for invasive breast cancer could also be identified in DCIS. CONCLUSION:Using supervised classification, we identified a gene expression classifier of 35 genes, which differed between DCIS and invasive breast cancer; a classifier of 43 genes could be identified separating between well- and poorly differentiated DCIS samples.
Project description:There are an estimated 60,000 new cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) each year. A lack of understanding in DCIS pathobiology has led to overtreatment of more than half of patients. We profiled the temporal molecular changes during DCIS transition to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) using in vivo DCIS progression models. These studies identified B cell lymphoma-9 (BCL9) as a potential molecular driver of early invasion. BCL9 is a newly found co-activator of Wnt-stimulated β-catenin-mediated transcription. BCL9 has been shown to promote progression of multiple myeloma and colon carcinoma. However BCL9 role in breast cancer had not been previously recognized.Microarray and RNA sequencing were utilized to characterize the sequential changes in mRNA expression during DCIS invasive transition. BCL9-shRNA knockdown was performed to assess the role of BCL9 in in vivo invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and canonical Wnt-signaling. Immunofluorescence of 28 patient samples was used to assess a correlation between the expression of BCL9 and biomarkers of high risk DCIS. The cancer genome atlas data were analyzed to assess the status of BCL9 gene alterations in breast cancers.Analysis of BCL9, by RNA and protein showed BCL9 up-regulation to be associated with DCIS transition to IDC. Analysis of patient DCIS revealed a significant correlation between high nuclear BCL9 and pathologic characteristics associated with DCIS recurrence: Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negative, high nuclear grade, and high human epidermal growth factor receptor2 (HER2). In vivo silencing of BCL9 resulted in the inhibition of DCIS invasion and reversal of EMT. Analysis of the TCGA data showed BCL9 to be altered in 26 % of breast cancers. This is a significant alteration when compared to HER2 (ERBB2) gene (19 %) and estrogen receptor (ESR1) gene (8 %). A significantly higher proportion of basal like invasive breast cancers compared to luminal breast cancers showed BCL9 amplification.BCL9 is a molecular driver of DCIS invasive progression and may predispose to the development of basal like invasive breast cancers. As such, BCL9 has the potential to serve as a biomarker of high risk DCIS and as a therapeutic target for prevention of IDC.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer unresponsive to traditional receptor-targeted treatments, leading to a disproportionate number of deaths. Invasive breast cancer is believed to evolve from non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Detection of triple-negative DCIS (TN-DCIS) is challenging, therefore strategies to study molecular events governing progression of pre-invasive TN-DCIS to invasive TNBC are needed. Here, we study a canine TN-DCIS progression and investigate the DNA methylation landscape of normal breast tissue, atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), DCIS and invasive breast cancer. We report hypo- and hypermethylation of genes within functional categories related to cancer such as transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, signal transduction, and cell migration. DNA methylation changes associated with cancer-related genes become more pronounced at invasive breast cancer stage. Importantly, we identify invasive-only and DCIS-specific DNA methylation alterations that could potentially determine which lesions progress to invasive cancer and which could remain as pre-invasive DCIS. Changes in DNA methylation during TN-DCIS progression in this canine model correspond with gene expression patterns in human breast tissues. This study provides evidence for utilizing methylation status of gene candidates to define late-stage (DCIS and invasive), invasive stage only or DCIS stage only of TN-DCIS progression.
Project description:The mechanisms by which breast cancers progress from relatively indolent ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) are not well understood. However, this process is critical to the acquisition of metastatic potential. MAPK-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (MNK1) signaling can promote cell invasion. NODAL, a morphogen essential for embryogenic patterning, is often reexpressed in breast cancer. Here we describe a MNK1/NODAL signaling axis that promotes DCIS progression to IDC. We generated MNK1 knockout (KO) or constitutively active MNK1 (caMNK1)-expressing human MCF-10A-derived DCIS cell lines, which were orthotopically injected into the mammary glands of mice. Loss of MNK1 repressed NODAL expression, inhibited DCIS to IDC conversion, and decreased tumor relapse and metastasis. Conversely, caMNK1 induced NODAL expression and promoted IDC. The MNK1/NODAL axis promoted cancer stem cell properties and invasion in vitro. The MNK1/2 inhibitor SEL201 blocked DCIS progression to invasive disease in vivo. In clinical samples, IDC and DCIS with microinvasion expressed higher levels of phospho-MNK1 and NODAL versus low-grade (invasion-free) DCIS. Cumulatively, our data support further development of MNK1 inhibitors as therapeutics for preventing invasive disease. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide new mechanistic insight into progression of ductal carcinoma and support clinical application of MNK1 inhibitors to delay progression of indolent ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive ductal carcinoma.
Project description:Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) accounts for up to half of screen-detected breast cancers and thus constitutes a major public health problem. Despite effective current treatment many patients with DCIS are either over- or undertreated because of the paucity of precise models to predict recurrence or progression. The combination of clinical and molecular factors as already applied for invasive disease may help to build such models also for DCIS. We compared 53 DCIS (36.6 %) and 92 (63.4 %) invasive breast cancer cases and found no significant differences in age, receptor status of ER, PR, and HER2, and the use of radiotherapy. Interestingly, the proportion of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) did also not significantly differ between DCIS and invasive cases (p = 0.57). A negative PR status was associated with the detection of DTCs (p = 0.026). We then compared relationships of clinical parameters and biomarkers with patients' prognosis in 43 DCIS and 40 small invasive tumors ≤ 5 mm (T1a). ER negativity was associated with shorter relapse free survival in the complete cohort (p = 0.004) and showed a trend in both subgroups (p = 0.053 for DCIS and p = 0.046 for T1a, respectively). In conclusion, we found markedly similar properties of both DCIS and small invasive breast cancers with respect to the distribution of several parameters as well as to the prognostic value of biomarkers. DCIS with a luminal phenotype seem to be characterized by a favourable prognosis.