A Rapid CRISPR/Cas-based Mutagenesis Assay in Zebrafish for Identification of Genes Involved in Thyroid Morphogenesis and Function.
ABSTRACT: The foregut endoderm gives rise to several organs including liver, pancreas, lung and thyroid with important roles in human physiology. Understanding which genes and signalling pathways regulate their development is crucial for understanding developmental disorders as well as diseases in adulthood. We exploited unique advantages of the zebrafish model to develop a rapid and scalable CRISPR/Cas-based mutagenesis strategy aiming at the identification of genes involved in morphogenesis and function of the thyroid. Core elements of the mutagenesis assay comprise bi-allelic gene invalidation in somatic mutants, a non-invasive monitoring of thyroid development in live transgenic fish, complementary analyses of thyroid function in fixed specimens and quantitative analyses of mutagenesis efficiency by Illumina sequencing of individual fish. We successfully validated our mutagenesis-phenotyping strategy in experiments targeting genes with known functions in early thyroid morphogenesis (pax2a, nkx2.4b) and thyroid functional differentiation (duox, duoxa, tshr). We also demonstrate that duox and duoxa crispants phenocopy thyroid phenotypes previously observed in human patients with bi-allelic DUOX2 and DUOXA2 mutations. The proposed combination of efficient mutagenesis protocols, rapid non-invasive phenotyping and sensitive genotyping holds great potential to systematically characterize the function of larger candidate gene panels during thyroid development and is applicable to other organs and tissues.
Project description:Duox NADPH oxidases generate hydrogen peroxide at the air-liquid interface of the respiratory tract and at apical membranes of thyroid follicular cells. Inactivating mutations of Duox2 have been linked to congenital hypothyroidism, and epigenetic silencing of Duox is frequently observed in lung cancer. To study Duox regulation by maturation factors in detail, its association with these factors, differential use of subunits and localization was analyzed in a lung cancer cell line and undifferentiated or polarized lung epithelial cells. We show here that Duox proteins form functional heterodimers with their respective DuoxA subunits, in close analogy to the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Characterization of novel DuoxA1 isoforms and mispaired Duox-DuoxA complexes revealed that heterodimerization is a prerequisite for reactive oxygen species production. Functional Duox1 and Duox2 localize to the leading edge of migrating cells, augmenting motility and wound healing. DuoxA subunits are responsible for targeting functional oxidases to distinct cellular compartments in lung epithelial cells, including Duox2 expression in ciliated cells in an ex vivo differentiated lung epithelium. As these locations probably define signaling specificity of Duox1 versus Duox2, these findings will facilitate monitoring Duox isoform expression in lung disease, a first step for early screening procedures and rational drug development.
Project description:Thyroid hormone (TH) plays a key role in the developing brain, including the cerebellum. TH deficiency induces organizational changes of the cerebellum, causing cerebellar ataxia. However, the mechanisms causing these abnormalities are poorly understood. Various animal models have been used to study the mechanism. Lacking dual oxidase (DUOX) and its maturation factor (DUOXA) are major inducers of congenital hypothyroidism. Thus, this study examined the organizational changes of the cerebellum using knockout mice of the Duoxa gene (Duoxa-/-).The morphological, behavioral, and electrophysiological changes were analyzed in wild type (Wt) and Duoxa-deficient (Duoxa-/-) mice from postnatal day (P) 10 to P30. To detect the changes in the expression levels of presynaptic proteins, Western blot analysis was performed.The proliferation and migration of granule cells was delayed after P15 in Duoxa-/- mice. However, these changes disappeared by P25. Although the cerebellar structure of Duoxa-/- mice was not significantly different from that of Wt mice at P25, motor coordination was impaired. It was also found that the amplitude of paired-pulse facilitation at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses decreased in Duoxa-/- mice, particularly at P15. There were no differences between expression levels of presynaptic proteins regulating neurotransmitter release at P25.These results indicate that the anatomical catch-up growth of the cerebellum did not normalize its function because of the disturbance of neuronal circuits by the combined effect of hypothyroidism and functional disruption of the DUOX/DUOXA complex.
Project description:Enhanced reactive oxygen species production in allergic airways is well described and correlates with increased airway contractions, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell metaplasia, and mucus hypersecretion. There is also an abundance of interleukin-4/interleukin-13 (IL-4/IL-13)- or interleukin-5-secreting cells that are thought to be central to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. We postulated that the dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2), members of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase family that release hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the respiratory tract, are critical proteins in the pathogenesis of allergic airways. DUOX activity is regulated by cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-13, and DUOX-mediated H2O2 influences several important features of allergic asthma: mucin production, IL-8 secretion, and wound healing. The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of DUOXs to the development of allergic asthma in a murine model. To accomplish this goal, we utilized a DUOXA-deficient mouse model (Duoxa(-/-)) that lacked maturation factors for both DUOX1 and DUOX2. Our results are the first to demonstrate evidence of DUOX protein and DUOX functional activity in murine airway epithelium. We also demonstrate that DUOXA maturation factors are required for airway-specific H2O2 production and localization of DUOX to cilia of fully differentiated airway epithelial cells. We compared wild-type and Duoxa(-/-) mice in an ovalbumin exposure model to determine the role of DUOX in allergic asthma. In comparison to DUOX-intact mice, Duoxa(-/-) mice had reduced mucous cell metaplasia and lower levels of TH2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, increased airway resistance in response to methacholine was observed in Duoxa(+/+) mice, as expected, but was absent in Duoxa(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, Duoxa(-/-) mice had decreased influx of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar fluid and lung tissue sections associated with a lower level of the chemotactic cytokine IL-6. These findings suggest that DUOX-derived H2O2 has an important role in signaling neutrophils into allergic airways.
Project description:Dual oxidases (DUOX) are conserved reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases that produce H2O2 at the epithelial cell surface. The DUOX enzyme comprises the DUOX and DUOX maturation factor (DUOXA) subunits. Mammalian genomes encode 2 DUOX isoenzymes (DUOX1/DUOXA1 and DUOX2/DUOXA2). Expression of these genes is up-regulated during bacterial infections and chronic inflammatory diseases of the luminal gastrointestinal tract. The roles of DUOX in cellular interactions with microbes have not been determined in higher vertebrates.Mice with disruptions of Duoxa1 and Duoxa2 genes (Duoxa(-/-) mice) and control mice were infected with Helicobacter felis to create a model of Helicobacter pylori infection--the most common human chronic infection.Infection with H. felis induced expression of Duox2 and Duoxa2 in the stomachs of wild-type mice, and DUOX protein specifically localized to the apical surface of epithelial cells. H. felis colonized the mucus layer in the stomachs of Duoxa(-/-) mice to a greater extent than in control mice. The increased colonization persisted into the chronic phase of infection and correlated with an increased, yet ineffective, inflammatory response. H. felis colonization also was increased in Duoxa(+/-) mice, compared with controls. We observed reduced expression of the H2O2-inducible katA gene in H. felis that colonized Duoxa(-/-) mice, compared with that found in controls (P = .0002), indicating that Duox causes oxidative stress in these bacteria. In vitro, induction of oxidative defense by H. felis failed to prevent a direct bacteriostatic effect at sustained levels of H2O2 as low as 30 ?mol/L.Based on studies of Duoxa(-/-) mice, the DUOX enzyme complex prevents gastric colonization by H. felis and the inflammatory response. These findings indicate the nonredundant function of epithelial production of H2O2 in restricting microbial colonization.
Project description:Dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2) play a crucial role in the generation of hydrogen peroxide required in the oxidation of iodide and the synthesis of thyroid hormone. Heterodimerization with specific maturation factors (DUOXA1 and DUOXA2) is essential for the maturation and function of the DUOX enzyme complexes. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations of DUOX2 result in congenital hypothyroidism (CH), whereas a single reported case of homozygous DUOXA2 mutation (Y246X) has been associated with mild CH.We now report an infant with transient CH due to a complex genetic alteration of the DUOX/DUOXA system.Our patient was born to euthyroid nonconsanguineous parents and presented with an elevated TSH and enlarged thyroid gland at neonatal screening. Genetic analysis revealed a missense mutation (C189R) on the maternal DUOXA2 allele. The mutant DUOXA2 protein showed complete loss-of-function in reconstituting DUOX2 in vitro. The apparent C189R homozygosity of the proband in the absence of the same mutation in the father led to detailed gene mapping, revealing an approximately 43-kb pair deletion encompassing DUOX2, DUOXA1, and DUOXA2. Thus, in addition to being deficient in DUOXA2, the proband lacks one allele of DUOX2 and DUOXA1 but has two functioning DUOX1 alleles.The transient CH in the presence of only one functional maturation factor allele indicates a high level of functional redundancy in the DUOX/DUOXA system.
Project description:Oxidant production from DUOX1 has been proposed to lead to neutrophil recruitment into the airways when lung homeostasis is compromised. The objective of this study was to determine whether DUOX-derived hydrogen peroxide is required for LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment, using a functional DUOX knock out mouse model. We found that LPS induced profound neutrophilic lung inflammation in both Duoxa(+/+)and Duoxa(-/-) mice between 3h and 24h. Duoxa(-/-) mice had significantly higher neutrophil influx 24h after LPS instillation despite similar cytokine levels (KC, MIP-2, or TGF-?) between the two groups. These findings suggest that LPS-TLR-4-induced KC or MIP-2 cytokine induction and subsequent neutrophil recruitment in the airway does not require DUOX-derived hydrogen peroxide from airway epithelium.
Project description:Dual oxidases (DUOXs) produce hydrogen peroxide by transferring electrons from intracellular NADPH to extracellular oxygen. They are involved in many crucial biological processes and human diseases, especially in thyroid diseases. DUOXs are protein complexes co-assembled from the catalytic DUOX subunits and the auxiliary DUOXA subunits and their activities are regulated by intracellular calcium concentrations. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of human DUOX1-DUOXA1 complex in both high-calcium and low-calcium states. These structures reveal the DUOX1 complex is a symmetric 2:2 hetero-tetramer stabilized by extensive inter-subunit interactions. Substrate NADPH and cofactor FAD are sandwiched between transmembrane domain and the cytosolic dehydrogenase domain of DUOX. In the presence of calcium ions, intracellular EF-hand modules might enhance the catalytic activity of DUOX by stabilizing the dehydrogenase domain in a conformation that allows electron transfer.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic but essential molecules responsible for host defense and cellular signaling. Conserved NADPH oxidase (NOX) family enzymes direct the regulated production of ROS. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generated by dual oxidases (DUOXs), a member of the NOX family, is crucial for innate mucosal immunity. In addition, H(2)O(2) is required for cellular signaling mediated by protein modifications, such as the thyroid hormone biosynthetic pathway in mammals. In contrast to other NOX isozymes, the regulatory mechanisms of DUOX activity are less understood. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we demonstrate that the tetraspanin protein is required for induction of the DUOX signaling pathway in conjunction with the dual oxidase maturation factor (DUOXA). In the current study, we show that genetic mutation of DUOX (bli-3), DUOXA (doxa-1), and peroxidase (mlt-7) in C. elegans causes the same defects as a tetraspanin tsp-15 mutant, represented by exoskeletal deficiencies due to the failure of tyrosine cross-linking of collagen. The deficiency in the tsp-15 mutant was restored by co-expression of bli-3 and doxa-1, indicating the involvement of tsp-15 in the generation of ROS. H(2)O(2) generation by BLI-3 was completely dependent on TSP-15 when reconstituted in mammalian cells. We also demonstrated that TSP-15, BLI-3, and DOXA-1 form complexes in vitro and in vivo. Cell-fusion-based analysis suggested that association with TSP-15 at the cell surface is crucial for BLI-3 activation to release H(2)O(2). This study provides the first evidence for an essential role of tetraspanin in ROS generation.
Project description:Dual oxidases were initially identified as NADPH oxidases producing H(2)O(2) necessary for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. The crucial role of Duox2 has been demonstrated in patients suffering from partial iodide organification defect caused by bi-allelic mutations in the DUOX2 gene. However, the Duox1 function in thyroid remains elusive. We optimized a functional assay by co-expressing Duox1 or Duox2 with their respective maturation factors, DuoxA1 and DuoxA2, to compare their intrinsic enzymatic activities under stimulation of the major signaling pathways active in the thyroid in relation to their membrane expression. We showed that basal activity of both Duox isoenzymes depends on calcium and functional EF-hand motifs. However, the two oxidases are differentially regulated by activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Duox1 but not Duox2 activity is stimulated by forskolin (EC(50) = 0.1 microm) via protein kinase A-mediated Duox1 phosphorylation on serine 955. In contrast, phorbol esters induce Duox2 phosphorylation via protein kinase C activation associated with high H(2)O(2) generation (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate EC(50) = 0.8 nm). These results were confirmed in human thyroid cells, suggesting that Duox1 is also involved in thyroid hormonogenesis. Our data provide, for the first time, detailed insights into the mechanisms controlling the activation of Duox1-2 proteins and reveal additional phosphorylation-mediated regulation.
Project description:Dual oxidases (Duox1 and Duox2) are plasma membrane-targeted hydrogen peroxide generators that support extracellular hemoperoxidases. Duox activator 2 (Duoxa2), initially described as an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein, functions as a maturation factor needed to deliver active Duox2 to the cell surface. However, less is known about the Duox1/Duoxa1 homologues. We identified four alternatively spliced Duoxa1 variants and explored their roles in Duox subcellular targeting and reconstitution. Duox1 and Duox2 are functionally rescued by Duoxa2 or the Duoxa1 variants that contain the third coding exon. All active maturation factors are cotransported to the cell surface when coexpressed with either Duox1 or Duox2, consistent with detection of endogenous Duoxa1 on apical plasma membranes of the airway epithelium. In contrast, the Duoxa proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum when expressed without Duox. Duox1/Duoxa1alpha and Duox2/Duoxa2 pairs produce the highest levels of hydrogen peroxide, as they undergo Golgi-based carbohydrate modifications and form stable cell surface complexes. Cross-functioning pairs that do not form stable complexes produce less hydrogen peroxide and leak superoxide. These findings suggest Duox activators not only promote Duox maturation, but they function as part of the hydrogen peroxide-generating enzyme.