A Multicomponent, Preschool to Third Grade Preventive Intervention and Educational Attainment at 35 Years of Age.
ABSTRACT: Educational attainment is the leading social determinant of health, but few studies of prevention programs have examined whether the programs are associated with educational attainment outcomes after the mid-20s, especially for large-scale programs that provide a longer duration of services.To examine the association between a preschool to third grade intervention and educational attainment at midlife and differences by program duration, sex, and parental educational level.This matched-group, alternative intervention study assessed 1539 low-income minority children born in 1979 or 1980 who grew up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. The comparison group included 550 children primarily from randomly selected schools participating in the usual early intervention. A total of 989 children who entered preschool in 1983 or 1984 and completed kindergarten in 1986 were included in the Chicago Longitudinal Study and were followed up for 27 to 30 years after the end of a multicomponent intervention. A total of 1398 participants (90.8%) in the original sample had educational attainment records at 35 years of age. The study was performed from January 1, 2002, through May 31, 2015.The Child-Parent Center Program provides school-based educational enrichment and comprehensive family services from preschool to third grade (ages 3-9 years).Educational outcomes from administrative records and self-report included school dropout, 4-year high school graduation, years of education, postsecondary credential, and earned degrees from associate's to master's or higher.A total of 1539 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [0.32] years; 1423 [92.9%] black and 108 [7.1%] Hispanic) were included in the study. After weighting on 2 propensity scores, preschool participants had higher rates of postsecondary degree completion, including associate's degree or higher (15.7% vs 10.7%; difference, 5.0%; 95% CI, 1.0%-9.0%), master's degree (4.2% vs 1.5%; difference, 2.7%; 95% CI, 1.3%-4.1%), and years of education (12.81 vs 12.32; difference, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.20-0.77). Duration of participation showed a consistent linear association with outcomes. Compared with fewer years, preschool to second or third grade participation led to higher rates of associate's degree or higher (18.5% vs 12.5%; difference, 6.0%; 95% CI, 1.0%-11.0%), bachelor's degree (14.3% vs 8.2%; difference, 6.1%; 95% CI, 1.3%-10.9%), and master's degree or higher (5.9% vs 2.3%; difference, 3.6%; 95% CI, 1.4%-5.9%). The pattern of benefits was robust and favored male participants for high school graduation, female participants for college attainment, and those from lower-educated households.This study indicates that an established early and continuing intervention is associated with higher midlife postsecondary attainment. Replication and extension of findings to other locations and populations should further strengthen confidence in the health benefits of large-scale preventive interventions.
Project description:Rising costs of higher education have prompted debate about the value of college degrees. Using mixed effects panel models of data from the Youth Development Study (ages 31-37), we compare occupational outcomes (i.e., weekly hours worked, earnings, employment status, career attainment, and job security) between educational attainment categories within year, and within categories across years, from 2005 to 2011, capturing the period before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Our findings demonstrate the long-term value of post-secondary degrees. Bachelor's and Associate's degree recipients, while experiencing setbacks at the height of recession, were significantly better off than those with some or no college attendance. Vocational-Technical degree holders followed a unique trajectory: pre-recession, they are mostly on par with Associate's and Bachelor's recipients, but they are hit particularly hard by the recession and then rebound somewhat afterwards. Our findings highlight the perils of starting but not finishing post-secondary educational programs.
Project description:Genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies of educational attainment have been linked with a range of positive life course development outcomes. However, it remains unclear whether school environments may moderate these genetic associations. We analyze data from two biosocial surveys that contain both genetic data and follow students from secondary school through mid- to late life. We test if the magnitudes of the associations with educational and occupational attainments varied across the secondary schools that participants attended or with characteristics of those schools. Although we find little evidence that genetic associations with educational and occupational attainment varied across schools or with school characteristics, genetic associations with any postsecondary education and college completion were moderated by school-level socioeconomic status. Along similar lines, we observe substantial between-school variation in the average level of educational attainment students achieved for a fixed genotype. These findings emphasize the importance of social context in the interpretation of genetic associations. Specifically, our results suggest that though existing measures of individual genetic endowment have a linear relationship with years of schooling that is relatively consistent across school environments, school context is crucial in connecting an individual's genotype to his or her likelihood of crossing meaningful educational thresholds.
Project description:Attending school is a multifaceted experience. Students are not only exposed to new knowledge but are also immersed in a structured environment in which they need to respond flexibly in accordance with changing task goals, keep relevant information in mind, and constantly tackle novel problems. To quantify the cumulative effect of this experience, we examined retrospectively and prospectively, the relationships between educational attainment and both cognitive performance and learning. We analyzed data from 196,388 subscribers to an online cognitive training program. These subscribers, ages 15-60, had completed eight behavioral assessments of executive functioning and reasoning at least once. Controlling for multiple demographic and engagement variables, we found that higher levels of education predicted better performance across the full age range, and modulated performance in some cognitive domains more than others (e.g., reasoning vs. processing speed). Differences were moderate for Bachelor's degree vs. High School (d = 0.51), and large between Ph.D. vs. Some High School (d = 0.80). Further, the ages of peak cognitive performance for each educational category closely followed the typical range of ages at graduation. This result is consistent with a cumulative effect of recent educational experiences, as well as a decrement in performance as completion of schooling becomes more distant. To begin to characterize the directionality of the relationship between educational attainment and cognitive performance, we conducted a prospective longitudinal analysis. For a subset of 69,202 subscribers who had completed 100 days of cognitive training, we tested whether the degree of novel learning was associated with their level of education. Higher educational attainment predicted bigger gains, but the differences were small (d = 0.04-0.37). Altogether, these results point to the long-lasting trace of an effect of prior cognitive challenges but suggest that new learning opportunities can reduce performance gaps related to one's educational history.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the association between educational attainment and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) outcomes in China to inform future healthcare interventions. METHODS:We used data from the China Patient-centred Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events-Prospective AMI study of 3369 consecutive patients hospitalised with AMI from 53 hospitals. Educational attainment was categorised as: high (senior high school, college or postgraduate degree), intermediate (junior high school) or low (primary school or illiterate). We used survival models to assess the relationship between education and 1-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), all-cause mortality, both unadjusted and after adjustment for demographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS:The median participant age was 61 (52, 69) years, 23.2% were women, and 33.3% had high, 32.4% intermediate and 34.3% low educational attainment. In unadjusted analysis, compared with high educational attainment, low educational attainment was associated with a higher 1-year risk of MACE (HR 2.41, 95%?CI 1.72 to 3.37) and death (HR for low vs high education 3.09, 95%?CI 1.69 to 5.65). In risk-adjusted analyses, the association between education and death was attenuated and no longer statistically significant (adjusted HR 1.41, 95%?CI 0.74 to 2.69, p=0.30). However, the risk of 1-year MACE (adjusted HR 1.68, 95%?CI 1.18 to 2.41, p=0.004) remained significantly greaterin low educational attainment group. CONCLUSIONS:In a national Chinese cohort of patients hospitalised with AMI, low educational attainment was associated with a higher risk of adverse events in the year following discharge. This association highlights the need to consider interventions to improve AMI outcomes in adults with low levels of education. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01624909; Results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The overall proportion of female physician is increasing worldwide. However, its ratio exhibits a substantial diversity among each member country of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This study aimed to reveal the social factors of countries associated with the percentage of female physicians. METHODS:We retrieved the percentage of female physicians and social characteristic which may affect the ratio of female physicians of 36 OECD countries in 2016 or nearest year from the World Bank Open Data. Multivariate regression analysis was performed after univariate evaluations with Spearman's coefficient to explore correlation of social variables with the proportion of female physicians. RESULTS:The percentages of female adolescents who dropped out of school before lower secondary school, female population that attained or completed Master's or equivalent degree, female labour force, and female academic staff in tertiary education showed statistically significant correlation with proportion of female physicians (Spearman coefficient = -0.527, 0.585, 0.501, and 0.499; P=.01, .001, .002, and .008). Female's educational attainment at least Master's or equivalent and that of female academic staff at tertiary education were selected after multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION:Our study revealed the relationships between advanced education opportunity and female participation in academic positions with the percentage of female physicians. Our research is limited in the difficulty to evaluate physicians' working hours in spite of its possible effect. Further studies with qualitative assessment are warranted to explore the detail reasons to cause gender gap in physician.
Project description:Official sanctioning of students by the criminal justice system is a long-hypothesized source of educational disadvantage, but its explanatory status remains unresolved. Few studies of the educational consequences of a criminal record account for alternative explanations such as low self-control, lack of parental supervision, deviant peers, and neighborhood disadvantage. Moreover, virtually no research on the effect of a criminal record has examined the "black box" of mediating mechanisms or the consequence of arrest for postsecondary educational attainment. Analyzing longitudinal data with multiple and independent assessments of theoretically relevant domains, this paper estimates the direct effect of arrest on later high school dropout and college enrollment for adolescents with otherwise equivalent neighborhood, school, family, peer, and individual characteristics as well as similar frequency of criminal offending. We present evidence that arrest has a substantively large and robust impact on dropping out of high school among Chicago public school students. We also find a significant gap in four-year college enrollment between arrested and otherwise similar youth without a criminal record. We assess intervening mechanisms hypothesized to explain the process by which arrest disrupts the schooling process, and, in turn, produces collateral educational damage. The results imply that institutional responses and disruptions in students' educational trajectories, rather than social psychological factors, are responsible for the arrest-education link.
Project description:This study explored how chronic stress influences the activity of signaling pathways that regulate inflammation in the human monocyte transcriptome. The sample consisted of 33 adults caring for a family member with glioblastoma, a terminal brain cancer, and 47 control subjects whose lives were free of major stressors. The subjects were assessed on four occasions across an eight-month period. Relative to controls, caregivers’ monocytes showed increased expression of genes bearing response elements for nuclear-factor kappa B, a key pro-inflammatory transcription factor in monocytes. Simultaneously, caregivers showed reduced expression of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, a transcription factor that conveys anti-inflammatory signals to monocytes. These transcriptional disparities were not attributable to demographic or behavioral confounds. They also were not attributable to differences in diurnal cortisol output, or the abundance of glucocorticoid receptor expressed by monocytes. In ex vivo studies of monocytes stimulated with the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide, caregivers showed increased production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6, and were less sensitive to cortisol-mediated inhibition of this response. These findings suggest a scenario wherein chronic stressors engender functional changes that hamper monocytes’ capacity to transduce cortisol’s anti-inflammatory signals. These changes occur in parallel with, and perhaps enable, greater inflammatory signaling via nuclear-factor kappa B. The resulting inflammatory milieu could serve as a pathogenic mechanism through which chronic stressors like caregiving accentuate vulnerability to later health problems. series type: Risk prediction Individual differences in basal leukocyte gene expression profiles as a function of chronic caregiving stress Characteristics included in statistical analyses of gene expression data are provided in each sample records. Please note that educational attainment is scored as following; 0=less than high school, 1=high school diploma or equivalent, 2=associate's degree, 3=bachelor's degree, 4=masters degree, 5=doctoral degree
Project description:Community colleges are controversial educational institutions, often said to simultaneously expand college opportunities and diminish baccalaureate attainment. We assess the seemingly contradictory functions of community colleges by attending to effect heterogeneity and to alternative counterfactual conditions. Using data on postsecondary outcomes of high school graduates of Chicago Public Schools, we find that enrolling at a community college penalizes more advantaged students who otherwise would have attended four-year colleges, particularly highly selective schools; however, these students represent a relatively small portion of the community college population, and these estimates are almost certainly biased. On the other hand, enrolling at a community college has a modest positive effect on bachelor's degree completion for disadvantaged students who otherwise would not have attended college; these students represent the majority of community college goers. We conclude that discussions among scholars, policymakers, and practitioners should move beyond considering the pros and cons of community college attendance for students in general to attending to the implications of community college attendance for targeted groups of students.
Project description:<b>Introduction: </b>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is greatly affected by social determinants of health. Whether low educational attainment is associated with incident CKD in young adults is unclear.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>We evaluated the association of education with incident CKD in 3139 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults participants. We categorized education into low (high school and less), medium (college), and high (master's and professional studies) groups. Incident CKD was defined as new development of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> or urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) ?30 mg/g. Change in eGFR over 20 years was a secondary outcome.<br><br><b>Results: </b>At baseline, mean age was 35.0 ± 3.6 years, 47% were Black, and 55% were women. Participants with lower educational attainment were less likely to have high income and health insurance and to engage in a healthy lifestyle. Over 20 years, 407 participants developed CKD (13%). Compared with individuals with low educational attainment, those with medium and high educational attainment had an unadjusted hazard ratios for CKD of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.97) and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.30-0.63), respectively. This association was no longer significant after adjusting for income, health insurance, lifestyle, and health status. Low educational attainment was significantly associated with a change in eGFR in crude and adjusted analyses, although the association was attenuated in the multivariable models (low: -0.83 [95% CI, -0.91 to -0.75], medium: -0.80 (95% CI, -0.95 to -0.64), and high: -0.70 (95% CI, -0.89 to -0.52) ml/min per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> per yr).<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Health care access, lifestyle, and comorbid conditions likely help explain the association between low educational attainment and incident CKD in young adults.
Project description:The degree of social reproduction varies considerably between industrialized countries, raising the question of which institutional regulations promote or restrict this process. Education is considered the main mediator of social reproduction. Because school tracking - the sorting of children according to ability and interest at different ages - is known to affect educational attainment and the degree of tracking varies strongly across countries, it may thus account for differences in social reproduction. However, empirical studies are scarce, and the total impact of tracking on social reproduction remains ambiguous. Using the European Social Survey (ESS) 2012 and 2014 from 24 countries, we demonstrate that school tracking is strongly associated with higher degrees of social reproduction. Decomposing the process of social reproduction into educational inheritance, educational returns and direct effects of social origin, we find that although all channels contribute to social reproduction, the impact of tracking seems to be exerted through educational inheritance and to a similar degree through direct effects of social origin, whereas educational returns do not seem to be affected. Even net of educational attainment, social origin thus has a stronger effect on social status in tracked systems. We ascribe this effect to differences in qualitative choices within educational tracks, such as fields of study.