Hearing loss without overt metabolic acidosis in ATP6V1B1 deficient MRL mice, a new genetic model for non-syndromic deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts.
ABSTRACT: Mutations of the human ATP6V1B1 gene cause distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA; OMIM #267300) often associated with sensorineural hearing impairment; however, mice with a knockout mutation of Atp6v1b1 were reported to exhibit a compensated acidosis and normal hearing. We discovered a new spontaneous mutation (vortex, symbol vtx) of Atp6v1b1 in an MRL/MpJ (MRL) colony of mice. In contrast to the reported phenotype of the knockout mouse, which was developed on a primarily C57BL/6 (B6) strain background, MRL-Atp6v1b1vtx/vtx mutant mice exhibit profound hearing impairment, which is associated with enlarged endolymphatic compartments of the inner ear. Mutant mice have alkaline urine but do not exhibit overt metabolic acidosis, a renal phenotype similar to that of the Atpbv1b1 knockout mouse. The abnormal inner ear phenotype of MRL- Atp6v1b1vtx/vtx mice was lost when the mutation was transferred onto the C57BL/6J (B6) background, indicating the influence of strain-specific genetic modifiers. To genetically map modifier loci in Atp6v1b1vtx/vtx mice, we analysed ABR thresholds of progeny from a backcross segregating MRL and B6 alleles. We found statistically significant linkage with a locus on Chr 13 that accounts for about 20% of the hearing threshold variation in the backcross mice. The important effect that genetic background has on the inner ear phenotype of Atp6v1b1 mutant mice provides insight into the hearing loss variability associated with dRTA caused by ATP6V1B1 mutations. Because MRL-Atp6v1b1vxt/vtx mice do not recapitulate the metabolic acidosis of dRTA patients, they provide a new genetic model for nonsyndromic deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA; OMIM #600791).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) caused by mutations in the genes that codify for the H?+?-ATPase pump subunits is a heterogeneous disease with a poor phenotype-genotype correlation. Up to now, large cohorts of dRTA Tunisian patients have not been analyzed, and molecular defects may differ from those described in other ethnicities. We aim to identify molecular defects present in the ATP6V1B1, ATP6V0A4 and SLC4A1 genes in a Tunisian cohort, according to the following algorithm: first, ATP6V1B1 gene analysis in dRTA patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) or unknown hearing status. Afterwards, ATP6V0A4 gene study in dRTA patients with normal hearing, and in those without any structural mutation in the ATP6V1B1 gene despite presenting SNHL. Finally, analysis of the SLC4A1 gene in those patients with a negative result for the previous studies. METHODS:25 children (19 boys) with dRTA from 20 families of Tunisian origin were studied. DNAs were extracted by the standard phenol/chloroform method. Molecular analysis was performed by PCR amplification and direct sequencing. RESULTS:In the index cases, ATP6V1B1 gene screening resulted in a mutation detection rate of 81.25%, which increased up to 95% after ATP6V0A4 gene analysis. Three ATP6V1B1 mutations were observed: one frameshift mutation (c.1155dupC; p.Ile386fs), in exon 12; a G to C single nucleotide substitution, on the acceptor splicing site (c.175-1G?>?C; p.?) in intron 2, and one novel missense mutation (c.1102G?>?A; p.Glu368Lys), in exon 11. We also report four mutations in the ATP6V0A4 gene: one single nucleotide deletion in exon 13 (c.1221delG; p.Met408Cysfs*10); the nonsense c.16C?>?T; p.Arg6*, in exon 3; and the missense changes c.1739 T?>?C; p.Met580Thr, in exon 17 and c.2035G?>?T; p.Asp679Tyr, in exon 19. CONCLUSION:Molecular diagnosis of ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 genes was performed in a large Tunisian cohort with dRTA. We identified three different ATP6V1B1 and four different ATP6V0A4 mutations in 25 Tunisian children. One of them, c.1102G?>?A; p.Glu368Lys in the ATP6V1B1 gene, had not previously been described. Among deaf since childhood patients, 75% had the ATP6V1B1 gene c.1155dupC mutation in homozygosis. Based on the results, we propose a new diagnostic strategy to facilitate the genetic testing in North Africans with dRTA and SNHL.
Project description:Autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare disease characterized by a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap, hypokalemia, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, nephrocalcinosis, and conserved glomerular filtration rate. In some cases, neurosensorial deafness is associated. dRTA is developed during the first months of life and the main manifestations are failure to thrive, vomiting, dehydration, and anorexia.Nine unrelated families were studied: seven children, a teenager, and an adult with dRTA. Hearing was preserved in four children. Coding regions of the genes responsible for recessive dRTA were analysed by Sanger sequencing.Molecular defects were found in the genes ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4. We identified three homozygous variants in ATP6V1B: a frameshift mutation (p.Ile386Hisfs*56), a nucleotide substitution in exon 10 (p.Pro346Arg), and a new splicing mutation in intron 5. Three patients were homozygous for one novel (p.Arg743Trp) and one known (p.Asp411Tyr) missense mutations in the ATP6V0A4 gene. Three patients were compound heterozygous: one proband displayed two novel mutations, the frameshift mutation p.Val52Metfs*25, and a large deletion of exons 18-21; two probands showed the missense mutation p.Asp411Tyr and as a second mutation, p.Arg194Ter and c.1691+2dup, respectively.ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1 genes were involved in recessive dRTA of Mexican families. All ATP6V1B1 mutations detected were homozygous and all patients developed sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) early in infancy. ATP6V0A4 mutations were found in one infant and three children without SNHL, and in one teenager and one adult with SNHL confirming the phenotypic variability in this trait. The mutation p.Asp411Tyr detected in four Mexican families was due to a founder effect. Screening of these mutations could provide a rapid and valuable tool for diagnosis of dRTA in this population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations in different genes involved in the secretion of H+ ions in the intercalated cells of the collecting duct. Both autosomal dominant and recessive forms have been described; the latter is also associated with sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS:Twenty-two Tunisian families were analyzed for mutations in the ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 genes by direct sequencing. Dating of the founder mutations was performed. RESULTS:Two founder mutations in the ATP6V1B1 gene were found in 16/27 dRTA cases. The p.Ile386Hisfs*56 founder mutation was estimated to be older than 2400 years and no correlations were found with deafness. For the remaining patients, two mutations in the ATP6V0A4 gene, one of them being novel, were found in three Tunisian cases. The presence of a heterozygous missense mutation p.T30I, of the ATP6V1B1 gene, was identified in six patients, while no mutations of the second gene were detected. No deleterious mutations of either ATP6V1B1 or ATP6V0A were found for the two probands. CONCLUSION:Our study gives evidence of phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity of dRTA in the Tunisian population. Five different mutations were found, two of them were due to a founder effect, and screening of these mutations could provide a rapid and valuable tool for diagnosis of dRTA.
Project description:Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is characterized by metabolic acidosis due to uric acid dysfunction. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the genetic diagnosis of Chinese children with dRTA by whole-exome sequencing. From Jan. 2010 to Sept. 2015, 16 children with dRTA were recruited to investigate the possibility of genetic diagnosis and to examine any genotype-phenotype relationships in these patients. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm mutations identified by whole-exome sequencing. Clinical and biological features in the patients included hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, impaired growth, hypokalemia, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and rickets or osteomalacia. Seventeen mutations in the solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1), ATPase H+ transporting V0 subunit a4 (ATP6V0A4), ATPase H+ transporting V1 subunit B1 (ATP6V1B1), WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 (WNK1) and the claudin 16 (CLDN16) were identified in 15 patients, and 14 of these mutations are novel. Only 1 patient was negative for any mutations. Our results demonstrate the existence of SLC4A1, ATP6V1B1, ATP6V0A4, WNK1 and CLDN16 mutations in Chinese children with dRTA and indicate that compound heterozygosity at 2 or more different but related genes can be responsible for its pathogenesis. This study also indicates that whole-exome sequencing is a labor and cost-effective means of analyzing dRTA-associated genes.
Project description:Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by impaired distal acidification due to a failure of type A intercalated cells (A-ICs) in the collecting tubule. dRTA is characterized by persistent hyperchloremia, a normal plasma anion gap, and the inability to maximally lower urinary pH in the presence of systemic metabolic acidosis. Common clinical features of dRTA include vomiting, failure to thrive, polyuria, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, growth delay, and rickets. Mutations in genes encoding three distinct transport proteins in A-ICs have been identified as causes of dRTA, including the B1/ATP6V1B1 and a4/ATP6V0A4 subunits of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (H+-ATPase) and the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger AE1/SLC4A1. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 lead to autosomal recessive (AR) dRTA. dRTA caused by SLC4A1 mutations can occur with either autosomal dominant or AR transmission. Red blood cell abnormalities have been associated with AR dRTA due to SLC4A1 mutations, including hereditary spherocytosis, Southeast Asia ovalocytosis, and others. Some patients with dRTA exhibit atypical clinical features, including transient and reversible proximal tubular dysfunction and hyperammonemia. Incomplete dRTA presents with inadequate urinary acidification, but without spontaneous metabolic acidosis and recurrent urinary stones. Heterozygous mutations in the AE1 or H+-ATPase genes have recently been reported in patients with incomplete dRTA. Early and sufficient doses of alkali treatment are needed for patients with dRTA. Normalized serum bicarbonate, urinary calcium excretion, urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels, and growth rate are good markers of adherence to and/or efficacy of treatment. The prognosis of dRTA is generally good in patients with appropriate treatment. However, recent studies showed an increased frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with dRTA during long-term follow-up. The precise pathogenic mechanisms of CKD in patients with dRTA are unknown.
Project description:Inactivation of the B1 proton pump subunit (ATP6V1B1) in intercalated cells (ICs) leads to type I distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease associated with salt- and potassium-losing nephropathy. Here we show that mice deficient in ATP6V1B1 (Atp6v1b1-/- mice) displayed renal loss of NaCl, K+, and water, causing hypovolemia, hypokalemia, and polyuria. We demonstrated that NaCl loss originated from the cortical collecting duct, where activity of both the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the pendrin/Na(+)-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (pendrin/NDCBE) transport system was impaired. ENaC was appropriately increased in the medullary collecting duct, suggesting a localized inhibition in the cortex. We detected high urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and ATP levels in Atp6v1b1-/- mice. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in vivo restored ENaC protein levels specifically in the cortex. It also normalized protein levels of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel and the water channel aquaporin 2, and improved polyuria and hypokalemia in mutant mice. Furthermore, pharmacological inactivation of the proton pump in ?-ICs induced release of PGE2 through activation of calcium-coupled purinergic receptors. In the present study, we identified ATP-triggered PGE2 paracrine signaling originating from ?-ICs as a mechanism in the development of the hydroelectrolytic imbalance associated with dRTA. Our data indicate that in addition to principal cells, ICs are also critical in maintaining sodium balance and, hence, normal vascular volume and blood pressure.
Project description:Autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (rdRTA) is characterised by severe hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis in childhood, hypokalaemia, decreased urinary calcium solubility, and impaired bone physiology and growth. Two types of rdRTA have been differentiated by the presence or absence of sensorineural hearing loss, but appear otherwise clinically similar. Recently, we identified mutations in genes encoding two different subunits of the renal alpha-intercalated cell's apical H(+)-ATPase that cause rdRTA. Defects in the B1 subunit gene ATP6V1B1, and the a4 subunit gene ATP6V0A4, cause rdRTA with deafness and with preserved hearing, respectively. We have investigated 26 new rdRTA kindreds, of which 23 are consanguineous. Linkage analysis of seven novel SNPs and five polymorphic markers in, and tightly linked to, ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 suggested that four families do not link to either locus, providing strong evidence for additional genetic heterogeneity. In ATP6V1B1, one novel and five previously reported mutations were found in 10 kindreds. In 12 ATP6V0A4 kindreds, seven of 10 mutations were novel. A further nine novel ATP6V0A4 mutations were found in "sporadic" cases. The previously reported association between ATP6V1B1 defects and severe hearing loss in childhood was maintained. However, several patients with ATP6V0A4 mutations have developed hearing loss, usually in young adulthood. We show here that ATP6V0A4 is expressed within the human inner ear. These findings provide further evidence for genetic heterogeneity in rdRTA, extend the spectrum of disease causing mutations in ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4, and show ATP6V0A4 expression within the cochlea for the first time.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by distal tubular dysfunction leading to metabolic acidosis and alkaline urine. Growth retardation is a major concern in these children. The disease is caused by defects in at least three genes (SLC4A1, ATP6V0A4, and ATP6V1B1) involved in urinary distal acidification. Several series of dRTA patients from different ethnic backgrounds have been genetically studied, but genetic studies regarding Chinese population is rare. Our aim was to investigate the clinical features and genetic basis of primary dRTA in Chinese children. METHODS:Three unrelated patients with dRTA participated in our study. Next-generation sequencing was performed, and the findings were validated using the Sanger sequencing method. RESULTS:All patients exhibited hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis, abnormally high urine pH, hypokalemia, and nephrocalcinosis. Growth retardation was observed in all patients. During the follow-up (range 1-4 years), alkali replacement therapy corrected the systemic metabolic acidosis, and two patients demonstrated normal growth. rhGH therapy was administered to patient-3 at the age of 6 years, and his growth rate was significantly improved (growth velocity 9.6 cm/yr). In total, 5 mutations were identified in our cohort of three patients, and four mutations were novel. CONCLUSIONS:We report the clinical and molecular characteristics of dRTA patients from China. The four novel mutations detected in our study extend the spectrum of gene mutations associated with primary dRTA. Furthermore, our study confirms the effect of early treatment in improving growth for dRTA patient and provides insight into the effects of rhGH on dRTA patients who were diagnosed late and exhibiting a persistent growth delay despite appropriate therapy.
Project description:Autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a severe disorder of acid-base homeostasis, often accompanied by sensorineural deafness. We and others have previously shown that mutations in the tissue-restricted a4 and B1 subunits of the H(+)-ATPase underlie this syndrome. Here, we describe an Atp6v0a4 knockout mouse, which lacks the a4 subunit. Using ?-galactosidase as a reporter for the null gene, developmental a4 expression was detected in developing bone, nose, eye, and skin, in addition to that expected in kidney and inner ear. By the time of weaning, Atp6v0a4(-/-) mice demonstrated severe metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and early nephrocalcinosis. Null mice were hypocitraturic, but hypercalciuria was absent. They were severely hearing-impaired, as shown by elevated auditory brainstem response thresholds and absent endocochlear potential. They died rapidly unless alkalinized. If they survived weaning with alkali supplementation, treatment could later be withdrawn, but -/- animals remained acidotic with alkaline urine. They also had an impaired sense of smell. Heterozygous animals were biochemically normal until acid-challenged, when they became more acidotic than +/+ animals. This mouse model recapitulates the loss of H(+)-ATPase function seen in human disease and can provide additional insights into dRTA and the physiology of the a4 subunit.
Project description:We describe a 7-month-old male with atypical features of autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) with sensorineural hearing loss. Uncharacteristically, he presented with mild acidosis, hypokalaemia and hypocalciuria as well as unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Subsequent investigations led to the discovery of both hyperoxaluria and beta2-microglobulinuria, thereby expanding the differential diagnosis to include both primary hyperoxaluria and Dent disease. Two mutations in the ATPV1B1 gene, one of which was novel, confirmed the diagnosis of dRTA. We consider the overlapping features of and diagnostic dilemmas involved in making a diagnosis of dRTA, primary hyperoxaluria and Dent disease in patients with infantile nephrocalcinosis. We highlight the occurrence of hyperoxaluria and low-molecular-weight proteinuria in patients with dRTA and propose that the phenotype of autosomal recessive dRTA with sensorineural hearing loss be broadened to include both hyperoxaluria and increased urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin.