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Low power laser irradiation and human adipose-derived stem cell treatments promote bone regeneration in critical-sized calvarial defects in rats.
ABSTRACT: Both stem cell therapy and physical treatments have been shown to be beneficial in accelerating bone healing. However, the efficacy of combined treatment with stem cells and physical stimuli for large bone defects remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) and human adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) treatments during fracture repair using a comparative rat calvarial defect model. We evaluated the viability of human ADSCs, which were cultured on a porous PLGA scaffold using an MTS assay. The critical-sized calvarial bone defect rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, LPLI group, ADSC group, and ADSC+LPLI group. Bone formation was evaluated using micro-CT. New bone formation areas and osteogenic factor expression levels were then examined by histomorphological analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Our data showed that PLGA had no cytotoxic effect on human ADSCs. Micro-CT analyses revealed that both the LPLI and ADSC groups showed improved calvarial bone defect healing compared to the control group. In addition, the ADSC+LPLI group showed significantly increased bone volume at 16 weeks after surgery. The area of new bone formation ranked as follows: control group < LPLI group < ADSC group < ADSC+LPLI group. There were significant differences between the groups. In addition, both ADSC and ADSC+LPLI groups showed strong signals of vWF expression. ADSC and LPLI treatments improved fracture repair in critical-sized calvarial defects in rats. Importantly, the combined treatment of ADSCs and LPLI further enhances the bone healing process.
Project description:In the present study, we investigated whether both adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) and osteogenic-induced ADSC sheets could promote bone healing in a rat distal femoral metaphysis bone defect model. A through-hole defect of 1 mm diameter was drilled into each distal femur of 12 week old rats. Forty-five rats were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) control group; (2) ADSC sheet group; or (3) osteogenic-induced ADSC sheet group. We evaluated each group by analysis of computerized tomography scans every week after the surgery, histological analysis, and DiI labeling (a method of membrane staining for post implant cell tracing). Radiological and histological evaluations showed that a part of the hole persisted in the control group at four weeks after surgery, whereas the hole was restored almost completely by new bone formation in both sheet groups. The mean value of bone density (in Houndsfield units) for the bone defect area was significantly higher in both sheet groups than that in the control group (p = 0.05) at four weeks postoperative. A large number of osteocalcin positive osteoblasts were observed at the area of bone defect, especially in the osteogenic-induced ADCS sheet group. DiI labeling in the newly formed bone showed that each sheet had differentiated into bone tissue at four weeks after surgery. The ADSC and the osteogenic-induced ADSC sheets promoted significantly quicker bone healing in the bone defect. Moreover, the osteogenic-induced ADSC sheet may be more advantageous for bone healing than the ADSC sheet because of the higher number of osteocalcin positive osteoblasts via the transplantation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Due to its complex pathogenesis and low clinical cure rate, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) poses a substantial challenge for oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Therefore, the treatment of BRONJ should focus on prevention. In clinical studies, primary wound closure can significantly reduce the incidence of BRONJ. Whether local stem cell transplantation can promote primary gingival healing in patients with a medication history and prevent BRONJ has not been reported. METHODS:In this study, animals were divided into a healthy group (non-drug treatment), a BP group, a hydroxyapatite (HA) group, and an adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) group. All groups except the healthy group were treated with BPs and immunosuppressive drugs once per week for 8 weeks, simulating clinical use for the treatment of cancer patients with bone metastasis, to induce BRONJ-like animals. After the sixth drug treatment, the bilateral premolars were extracted in all groups. In contrast to the healthy and BP groups, the extraction sockets in the HA and ADSC groups were filled with HA or HA + ADSCs simultaneously post extraction to observe the preventive effect of ADSCs on the occurrence of BRONJ. At 2 and 8 weeks post extraction, animals from all groups were sacrificed. RESULTS:At 8 weeks post transplantation, ADSCs prevented the occurrence of BRONJ, mainly through accelerating healing of the gingival epithelium at 2 weeks post extraction. We also found that ADSCs could upregulate the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and fibronectin in tissue from animals with a medication history by accelerating gingival healing of the extraction socket. A rescue assay further demonstrated that TGF-β1 and fibronectin expression decreased in TGF-β1-deficient ADSC-treated animals, which partially abolished the preventive effect of ADSCs on the onset of BRONJ. CONCLUSION:ADSCs prevent the onset of BRONJ, mainly by upregulating the expression of TGF-β1 and fibronectin to promote primary gingival healing, ultimately leading to bone regeneration in the tooth extraction socket. Our new findings provide a novel stem cell treatment for the prevention of BRONJ.
Project description:The fragile nature of porous bioceramic substitutes cannot match the toughness of bone, which limits the use of these materials in clinical load-bearing applications. Statins can enhance bone healing, but it could show rhabdomyolysis/inflammatory response after overdosing. In this study, the drug-containing bone grafts were developed from poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles encapsulating simvastatin (SIM) (SIM-PP NPs) loaded within an appropriately mechanical bioceramic scaffold (BC). The combination bone graft provides dual functions of osteoconduction and osteoinduction. The mechanical properties of the bioceramic are enhanced mainly based on the admixture of a combustible reverse-negative thermoresponsive hydrogel (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide base). We showed that SIM-PP NPs can increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells. To verify the bone-healing efficacy of this drug-containing bone grafts, a nonunion radial endochondral ossification bone defect rabbit model (N = 3/group) and a nonunion calvarial intramembranous defect Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model (N = 5/group) were used. The results indicated that SIM-PP NPs combined with BC can improve the healing of nonunion bone defects of the radial bone and calvarial bone. Therefore, the BC containing SIM-PP NPs may be appropriate for clinical use as a synthetic alternative to autologous bone grafting that can overcome the problem of determining the clinical dosage of simvastatin drugs to promote bone healing.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transplant has been reported to be a potential treatment for burn wounds. However, the effects of autogenicity and allogenicity of ADSCs on burn wound healing have not been investigated and the method for using ADSCs still needs to be established. This study compared the healing effects of autologous and allogenic ADSCs and determined an optimal method of using ADSCs to treat acute burn wounds. Experiments were performed in 20 male Wistar rats (weight, 176-250 g; age, 6-7 weeks). Two identical full-thickness burn wounds (radius, 4 mm) were created in each rat. ADSCs harvested from inguinal area and characterized by their high multipotency were injected into burn wounds in the original donor rats (autologous ADSCs group) or in other rats (allogenic ADSCs group). The injection site was either the wound center or the four corners 0.5 cm from the wound edge. The reduction of burn surface areas in the two experimental groups and in control group were evaluated with Image J software for 15 days post-wounding to determine the wound healing rates. Wound healing was significantly faster in the autologous ADSCs group compared to both the allogenic ADSCs group (p<0.05) and control group (p<0.05). Wound healing in the allogenic ADSC group did not significantly differ from that in control group. Notably, ADSC injections 0.5cm from the wound edge showed significantly improved healing compared to ADSCs injections in the wound center (p<0.05). This study demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of ADSCs in treating acute burn wounds in rats. However, only autologous ADSCs improved healing in acute burn wounds; allogenic ADSCs did not. This study further determined a superior location of using ADSCs injections to treat burn wounds including the injection site. Future studies will replicate the experiment in a larger and long-term scale burn wounds in higher mammalian models to facilitate ADSCs therapy in burn wound clinical practice.
Project description:Peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (PBMSCs) may be easily harvested from patients, permitting autologous grafts for bone tissue engineering in the future. However, the PBMSC's capabilities of survival, osteogenesis and production of new bone matrix in the defect area are still unclear. Herein, PBMSCs were seeded into a nanofiber scaffold of self-assembling peptide (SAP) and cultured in osteogenic medium. The results indicated SAP can serve as a promising scaffold for PBMSCs survival and osteogenic differentiation in 3D conditions. Furthermore, the SAP seeded with the induced PBMSCs was splinted by two membranes of poly(lactic)-glycolic acid (PLGA) to fabricate a composited scaffold which was then used to repair a critical-size calvarial bone defect model in rat. Twelve weeks later the defect healing and mineralization were assessed by H&E staining and microcomputerized tomography (micro-CT). The osteogenesis and new bone formation of grafted cells in the scaffold were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. To our knowledge this is the first report with solid evidence demonstrating PBMSCs can survive in the bone defect area and directly contribute to new bone formation. Moreover, the present data also indicated the tissue engineering with PBMSCs/SAP/PLGA scaffold can serve as a novel prospective strategy for healing large size cranial defects.
Project description:Increasing evidence has indicated that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) coordinates with microRNAs (miRNAs) to form intracellular networks regulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) osteogenesis. This study aimed to identify specific miRNAs in rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) during BMP2-induced osteogenesis, we selected the most significantly down-regulated miRNA, miR-146a, to systematically investigate its role in regulating osteogenesis and bone regeneration. Overexpressing miR-146a notably repressed ADSC osteogenesis, whereas knocking down miR-146a greatly promoted this process. Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein 4 (SMAD4), an important co-activator in the BMP signaling pathway, was miR-146a's direct target and miR-146a exerted its repressive effect on SMAD4 through interacting with 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of SMAD4 mRNA. Furthermore, knocking down SMAD4 attenuated the ability of miR-146a inhibitor to promote ADSC osteogenesis. Next, transduced ADSCs were incorporated with poly(sebacoyl diglyceride) (PSeD) porous scaffolds for repairing critical-sized cranial defect, the treatment of miR-146a inhibitor greatly enhanced ADSC-mediated bone regeneration with higher expression levels of SMAD4, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix in newly formed bone. In summary, our study showed that miR-146a negatively regulates the osteogenesis and bone regeneration from ADSCs both in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive cell source for bone tissue engineering and have great potential for bone regeneration and defect repair. The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) has been demonstrated to modulate osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, its roles during ADSC differentiation and therapeutic potentials for bone regeneration have as yet not been well established.TAZ expression was measured during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs in vitro. Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches by TAZ knockdown or enforced overexpression were utilized to determine its functions during osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. TM-25659, a chemical activator of TAZ, was used to determine whether pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in animal models. The molecular mechanisms underlying TAZ in promoting osteogenesis of ADSCs were also explored.Increased TAZ expression was observed during osteogenic differentiation of human ADSCs. TAZ knockdown resulted in compromised osteogenic differentiation and enhanced adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. In contrast, enforced TAZ overexpression yielded increased osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vivo, and impaired adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Pharmacological activation of TAZ by its chemical activator TM-25659 facilitated osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Noticeably, transient treatment of ADSCs with TM-25659 or intraperitoneal injection of TM-25659 significantly enhanced bone regeneration of ADSCs loaded with porous ?-TCP in vivo. Mechanistically, TM-25659 exposure significantly promoted TAZ phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, and potentiated the assembly of the TAZ-Runx2 complex. Subsequently, the TAZ-Runx2 complex was further recruited to the promoter of osteocalcin and in turn enhanced its transcription.Our findings indicate that TAZ is a key mediator that promotes ADSC commitment to the osteoblast lineage. Pharmacological activation of TAZ in ADSCs might become a feasible and promising approach to enhance bone regeneration and repair.
Project description:Cutaneous wound is a soft tissue injury that is difficult to heal during aging. It has been demonstrated that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and its secreted exosomes exert crucial functions in cutaneous wound healing. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of exosomes derived from ADSCs (ADSC-Exos) containing MALAT1 in wound healing. ADSCs were isolated from human normal subcutaneous adipose tissues and identified by flow cytometry analysis. Exosomes were extracted from ADSC supernatants and MALAT1 expression was determined using qRT-PCR analysis. HaCaT and HDF cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for simulating the skin lesion model. Subsequently, CCK-8, flow cytometry, wound healing and transwell assays were employed to validate the role of ADSC-Exos containing MALAT1 in the skin lesion model. Besides, cells were transfected with sh-MALAT1 to verify the protective role of MALAT1 in wound healing. The binding relationship between MALAT1 and miR-124 were measured by dual-luciferase reporter assay. ADSC-Exos promoted cell proliferation, migration, and inhibited cell apoptosis of HaCaT and HDF cells impaired by H2O2. However, the depletion of MALAT1 in ADSC-Exos lose these protective effects on HaCaT and HDF cells. Moreover, miR-124 was identified to be a target of MALAT1. Furthermore, ADSC-Exos containing MALAT1 could mediate H2O2-induced wound healing by targeting miR-124 and activating Wnt/?-catenin pathway. ADSC-Exos containing MALAT1 play a positive role in cutaneous wound healing possibly via targeting miR-124 through activating the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, which may provide novel insights into the therapeutic target for cutaneous wound healing.
Project description:BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of three-dimensional (3D) printed titanium (3DTi) scaffolds on osteogenic differentiation and new bone formation by 3D cultured adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro, and the effects of bone regeneration in vivo using a full-thickness mandibular defect rat model, and the mechanisms involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS Alpha-beta titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) 3DTi scaffolds were prepared with Cellmatrix hydrogel and 3D culture medium. ADSCs were impregnated into the 3DTi scaffolds. ADSC viability and proliferation were assessed using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were measured. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were performed to assess the expression of osteogenesis-related mRNA for RUNX2, OPN, OCN, and IGF-1 genes and proteins. A rat model of full-thickness mandibular defect was evaluated with micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning, and histochemistry with Alizarin red and von Giesen's stain were used to evaluate osteogenesis. RESULTS ADSC viability and proliferation were not affected by culture with 3DTi scaffolds. Expression of osteogenesis-related mRNA and proteins for RUNX2, OPN, OCN, and IGF-1, expression of ALP, and histochemical findings showed that the use of 3DTi scaffolds enhanced osteogenic differentiation and new bone formation by ADSCs, with upregulation of components of the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway. CONCLUSIONS The 3D culture of ADSCs with 3DTi scaffolds enhanced osteogenic differentiation and new bone formation through the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway. This improved method of osteointegration may have clinical application in the preparation of bone grafts before implantation for improved repair of mandibular bone defects.
Project description:Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) represent a multipotent cell stromal cell type with proven capacity to differentiate along an osteogenic lineage. This suggests that they may be used to heal defects of the craniofacial or appendicular skeleton. We sought to substantiate the use of undifferentiated hASCs in the regeneration of a non-healing mouse skeletal defect.Human ASCs were harvested from female lipoaspirate. Critical-sized (4 mm) calvarial defects were created in the parietal bone of adult male nude mice. Defects were either left empty, treated with an apatite coated PLGA scaffold alone, or a scaffold with human ASCs. MicroCT scans were obtained at stratified time points post-injury. Histology, in situ hybridization, and histomorphometry were performed. Near complete healing was observed among hASC engrafted calvarial defects. This was in comparison to control groups that showed little healing (*P<0.01). Human ASCs once engrafted differentiate down an osteogenic lineage, determined by qRT-PCR and histological co-expression assays using GFP labeled cells. ASCs were shown to persist within a defect site for two weeks (shown by sex chromosome analysis and quantified using Luciferase+ ASCs). Finally, rBMP-2 was observed to increase hASC osteogenesis in vitro and osseous healing in vivo.Human ASCs ossify critical sized mouse calvarial defects without the need for pre-differentiation. Recombinant differentiation factors such as BMP-2 may be used to supplement hASC mediated repair. Interestingly, ASC presence gradually dissipates from the calvarial defect site. This study supports the potential translation for ASC use in the treatment of human skeletal defects.