Mindfulness Meditation for Primary Headache Pain: A Meta-Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Several studies have reported that mindfulness meditation has a potential effect in controlling headaches, such as migraine and tension-type headache; however, its role remains controversial. This review assessed the evidence regarding the effects of mindfulness meditation for primary headache pain.Only English databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [the Cochrane Library], PsycINFO, Psychology and behavioral science collection, PsyArticles, Web of Science, and Scopus) were searched from their inception to November 2016 with the keywords ("meditation" or "mindfulness" or "vipassana" or "dzogchen" or "zen" or "integrative body-mind training" or "IBMT" or "mindfulness-based stress reduction" or "MBSR" or "mindfulness-based cognitive therapy" or "MBCT" and "Headache" or "Head pain" or "Cephalodynia" or "Cephalalgia" or "Hemicrania" or "Migraine"). Titles, abstracts, and full-text articles were screened against study inclusion criteria: controlled trials of structured meditation programs for adult patients with primary headache pain. The quality of studies included in the meta-analysis was assessed with the Yates Quality Rating Scale. The meta-analysis was conducted with Revman 5.3.Ten randomized controlled trials and one controlled clinical trial with a combined study population of 315 patients were included in the study. When compared to control group data, mindfulness meditation induced significant improvement in pain intensity (standardized mean difference, -0.89; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.15; P = 0.02) and headache frequency (-0.67; -1.24 to -0.10; P = 0.02). In a subgroup analysis of different meditation forms, mindfulness-based stress reduction displayed a significant positive influence on pain intensity (P < 0.000). Moreover, 8-week intervention had a significant positive effect (P < 0.000).Mindfulness meditation may reduce pain intensity and is a promising treatment option for patients. Clinicians may consider mindfulness meditation as a viable complementary and alternative medical option for primary headache.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the effect of non-pharmacological self-management interventions against usual care, and to explore di?erent components and delivery methods within those interventions PARTICIPANTS: People living with migraine and/or tension-type headache INTERVENTIONS: Non-pharmacological educational or psychological self-management interventions; excluding biofeedback and physical therapy.We assessed the overall effectiveness against usual care on headache frequency, pain intensity, mood, headache-related disability, quality of life and medication consumption in meta-analysis.We also provide preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of intervention components and delivery methods. RESULTS:We found a small overall effect for the superiority of self-management interventions over usual care, with a standardised mean di?erence (SMD) of -0.36 (-0.45 to -0.26) for pain intensity; -0.32 (-0.42 to -0.22) for headache-related disability, 0.32 (0.20 to 0.45) for quality of life and a moderate effect on mood (SMD=0.53 (-0.66 to -0.40)). We did not find an effect on headache frequency (SMD=-0.07 (-0.22 to 0.08)).Assessment of components and characteristics suggests a larger effect on pain intensity in interventions that included explicit educational components (-0.51 (-0.68 to -0.34) vs -0.28 (-0.40 to -0.16)); mindfulness components (-0.50 (-0.82 to -0.18) vs 0.34 (-0.44 to -0.24)) and in interventions delivered in groups vs one-to-one delivery (0.56 (-0.72 to -0.40) vs -0.39 (-0.52 to -0.27)) and larger effects on mood in interventions including a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) component with an SMD of -0.72 (-0.93 to -0.51) compared with those without CBT -0.41 (-0.58 to -0.24). CONCLUSION:Overall we found that self-management interventions for migraine and tension-type headache are more effective than usual care in reducing pain intensity, mood and headache-related disability, but have no effect on headache frequency. Preliminary findings also suggest that including CBT, mindfulness and educational components in interventions, and delivery in groups may increase effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016041291.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Migraine is one of the most common neurological disorders in clinical practice and is a substantial cause of disability worldwide. Current approaches to therapy are primarily based on medication but are often limited by inadequate effectiveness and common side effects. Newer, more effective medications are expensive. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), an 8-week classroom-based meditation intervention, is inexpensive, has no known side effects, and has demonstrated clinically meaningful effectiveness for several chronic-pain syndromes. In addition, MBSR has shown promising results for migraine therapy in a few small case studies and pilot studies. We present here the protocol for a two-arm randomized controlled pilot trial of MBSR for moderate-to-severe episodic migraine, which, if successful, will form the basis for a fully powered clinical trial. METHODS/DESIGN:This study, set in Northern California, is a two-arm parallel-comparison single-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial with the goal of recruiting approximately 60 participants with moderate-to-severe episodic migraine. The feasibility outcomes include ability and time required to recruit, adherence to the MBSR treatment, and ability to measure outcomes using 31-day headache diaries and patient-reported questionnaire data. The active treatment arm consists of an 8-week community-based MBSR class plus usual care, and the wait-list control group is usual care. Recruitment is underway and expected to be complete by the end of 2018. DISCUSSION:To our knowledge, this is the first pragmatic trial in the U.S. of MBSR for migraine using community-based classes, and if it proves viable, we plan to conduct a fully powered trial to determine the effectiveness of the intervention for reducing headache days for moderate-to-severe episodic migraineurs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02824250 . Registered on 6 July 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Migraine accounts for substantial suffering and disability. Previous studies show cross-sectional associations between higher pain acceptance and lower headache-related disability in individuals with migraine, but none has evaluated this association longitudinally during migraine treatment. PURPOSE:This study evaluated whether changes in pain acceptance were associated with changes in headache-related disability and migraine characteristics in a randomized controlled trial (Women's Health and Migraine) that compared effects of behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment and migraine education (ME) on headache frequency in women with migraine and overweight/obesity. METHODS:This was a post hoc analysis of 110 adult women with comorbid migraine and overweight/obesity who received 16 weeks of either BWL or ME. Linear and nonlinear mixed effects modeling methods were used to test for between-group differences in change in pain acceptance, and also to examine the association between change in pain acceptance and change in headache disability. RESULTS:BWL and ME did not differ on improvement in pain acceptance from baseline across post-treatment and follow-up. Improvement in pain acceptance was associated with reduced headache disability, even when controlling for intervention-related improvements in migraine frequency, headache duration, and pain intensity. CONCLUSIONS:This study is the first to show that improvements in pain acceptance following two different treatments are associated with greater reductions in headache-related disability, suggesting a potential new target for intervention development. CLINICAL TRIALS INFORMATION:NCT01197196.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Migraine has many presumed comorbidities which have rarely been compared between samples with and without migraine. Examining the association between headache pain intensity and monthly headache day (MHD) frequency with migraine comorbidities is novel and adds to our understanding of migraine comorbidity. METHODS:The MAST Study is a prospective, web-based survey that identified US population samples of persons with migraine (using modified International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 beta criteria) and without migraine. Eligible migraine participants averaged ?1 MHDs over the prior 3?months. Comorbidities "confirmed by a healthcare professional diagnosis" were endorsed by respondents from a list of 21 common cardiovascular, neurologic, psychiatric, sleep, respiratory, dermatologic, pain and medical comorbidities. Multivariable binary logistic regression calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for each condition between the two groups adjusting for sociodemographics. Modeling within the migraine cohort assessed rates of conditions as a function of headache pain intensity, MHD frequency, and their combination. RESULTS:Analyses included 15,133 people with migraine (73.0% women, 77.7% White, mean age 43?years) and 77,453 controls (46.4% women, 76.8% White, mean age 52?years). People with migraine were significantly (P <?0.001) more likely to report insomnia (OR 3.79 [3.6, 4.0]), depression (OR 3.18 [3.0, 3.3]), anxiety (OR 3.18 [3.0 3.3]), gastric ulcers/GI bleeding (OR 3.11 [2.8, 3.5]), angina (OR 2.64 [2.4, 3.0]) and epilepsy (OR 2.33 [2.0, 2.8]), among other conditions. Increasing headache pain intensity was associated with comorbidities related to inflammation (psoriasis, allergy), psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety) and sleep conditions (insomnia). Increasing MHD frequency was associated with increased risk for nearly all conditions and most prominent among those with comorbid gastric ulcers/GI bleeding, diabetes, anxiety, depression, insomnia, asthma and allergies/hay fever. CONCLUSIONS:In regression models controlled for sociodemographic variables, all conditions studied were reported more often by those with migraine. Whether entered into the models separately or together, headache pain intensity and MHD frequency were associated with increased risk for many conditions. Future work is required to understand the causal sequence of relationships (direct causality, reverse causality, shared underlying predisposition), the potential confounding role of healthcare professional consultation and treatment, and potential detection bias.
Project description:Chronic pain patients increasingly seek treatment through mindfulness meditation.This study aims to synthesize evidence on efficacy and safety of mindfulness meditation interventions for the treatment of chronic pain in adults.We conducted a systematic review on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with meta-analyses using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Outcomes included pain, depression, quality of life, and analgesic use.Thirty-eight RCTs met inclusion criteria; seven reported on safety. We found low-quality evidence that mindfulness meditation is associated with a small decrease in pain compared with all types of controls in 30 RCTs. Statistically significant effects were also found for depression symptoms and quality of life.While mindfulness meditation improves pain and depression symptoms and quality of life, additional well-designed, rigorous, and large-scale RCTs are needed to decisively provide estimates of the efficacy of mindfulness meditation for chronic pain.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AVP-825, a drug-device combination of low-dose sumatriptan powder (22 mg loaded dose) delivered intranasally through a targeted Breath Powered device vs an identical device containing lactose powder (placebo device) in the treatment of migraine headache.Early treatment of migraine headaches is associated with improved outcome, but medication absorption after oral delivery may be delayed in migraineurs because of reduced gastric motility. Sumatriptan powder administered with an innovative, closed-palate, Bi-Directional, Breath Powered intranasal delivery mechanism is efficiently absorbed across the nasal mucosa and produces fast absorption into the circulation. Results from a previously conducted placebo-controlled study of AVP-825 showed a high degree of headache relief with an early onset of action (eg, 74% AVP-825 vs 38% placebo device at 1 hour, P<.01).In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in adults with a history of migraine with or without aura, participants were randomized via computer-generated lists to AVP-825 or placebo device to treat a single migraine headache of moderate or severe intensity. The primary endpoint was headache relief (defined as reduction of headache pain intensity from severe or moderate migraine headache to mild or none) at 2 hours post-dose.Two hundred and thirty patients (116 AVP-825 and 114 placebo device) were randomized, of whom 223 (112 and 111, respectively) experienced a qualifying migraine headache (their next migraine headache that reached moderate or severe intensity). A significantly greater proportion of AVP-825 patients reported headache relief at 2 hours post-dose compared with those using the placebo device (68% vs 45%, P=.002, odds ratio 2.53, 95% confidence interval [1.45, 4.42]). Between-group differences in headache relief were evident as early as 15 minutes, reached statistical significance at 30 minutes post-dose (42% vs 27%, P=.03), and were sustained at 24 hours (44% vs 24%, P=.002) and 48 hours (34% vs 20%, P=.01). Thirty-four percent of patients treated with AVP-825 were pain-free at 2 hours compared with 17% using the placebo device (P=.008). More AVP-825 patients reported meaningful pain relief (patient interpretation) of migraine within 2 hours of treatment vs placebo device (70% vs 45%, P<.001), and fewer required rescue medication (37% vs 52%, P=.02). Total migraine freedom (patients with no headache, nausea, phonophobia, photophobia, or vomiting) reached significance following treatment with AVP-825 at 1 hour (19% vs 9%; P=.04). There were no serious adverse events (AEs), and no systemic AEs occurred in more than one patient. Chest pain or pressure was not reported, and only one patient taking AVP-825 reported mild paresthesia. No other triptan sensations were reported.Targeted delivery of a low-dose of sumatriptan powder via a novel, closed-palate, Breath Powered, intranasal device (AVP-825) provided fast relief of moderate or severe migraine headache in adults that reached statistical significance over placebo by 30 minutes. The treatment was well tolerated with a low incidence of systemic AEs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Interoception refers to the conscious perception of body signals. Mindfulness is a meditation practice that encourages individuals to focus on their internal experiences such as bodily sensations, thoughts, and emotions. In this study, we selected a behavioral measure of interoceptive sensitivity (heartbeat detection task, HBD) to compare the effect of meditation practice on interoceptive sensitivity among long term practitioners (LTP), short term meditators (STM, subjects that completed a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program) and controls (non-meditators). All participants were examined with a battery of different tasks including mood state, executive function and social cognition tests (emotion recognition, empathy and theory of mind). FINDINGS: Compared to controls, both meditators' groups showed lower levels of anxiety and depression, but no improvement in executive function or social cognition performance was observed (except for lower scores compared to controls only in the personal distress dimension of empathy). More importantly, meditators' performance did not differ from that of nonmeditators regarding cardiac interoceptive sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Results suggest no influence of meditation practice in cardiac interoception and in most related social cognition measures. These negative results could be partially due to the fact that awareness of heartbeat sensations is not emphasized during mindfulness/vipassana meditation and may not be the best index of the awareness supported by the practice of meditation.
Project description:Pain catastrophizing (PC) is associated with more severe and disabling migraine attacks. However, factors that moderate this relationship are unknown. Failure of inhibitory control (IC), or the ability to suppress automatic or inappropriate responses, may be one such factor given previous research showing a relationship between higher PC and lower IC in non-migraine samples, and research showing reduced IC in migraine. Therefore, we examined whether lower IC interacts with increased PC to predict greater migraine severity as measured by pain intensity, attack frequency, and duration.Women (n?=?105) aged 18-50 years old (M?=?38.0?±?1.2) with overweight/obesity and migraine who were seeking behavioral treatment for weight loss and migraine reduction completed a 28-day smartphone-based headache diary assessing migraine headache severity. Participants then completed a modified computerized Stroop task as a measure of IC and self-report measures of PC (Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]), anxiety, and depression. Linear regression was used to examine independent and joint associations of PC and IC with indices of migraine severity after controlling for age, body mass index (BMI) depression, and anxiety.Participants on average had BMI of 35.1?±?6.5 kg/m2and reported 5.3?±?2.6 migraine attacks (8.3?±?4.4 migraine days) over 28 days that produced moderate pain intensity (5.9?±?1.4 out of 10) with duration of 20.0?±?14.2 h. After adjusting for covariates, higher PCS total (??=?.241, SE?=?.14, p?=?.03) and magnification subscale (??=?.311, SE?=?.51, p?<?.01) scores were significant independent correlates of longer attack duration. IC interacted with total PCS (??=?1.106, SE?=?.001, p?=?.03) rumination (??=?1.098, SE?=?.001, p?=?.04), and helplessness (??=?1.026, SE?=?.001, p?=?.04) subscale scores to predict headache pain intensity, such that the association between PC and pain intensity became more positive at lower levels of IC.Results showed that lower IC interacted with higher PC, both overall and specific subcomponents, to predict higher pain intensity during migraine attacks. Future studies are needed to determine whether interventions to improve IC could lead to less painful migraine attacks via improvements in PC.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the safety and efficacy of external trigeminal nerve stimulation for acute pain relief during migraine attacks with or without aura via a sham-controlled trial. METHODS:This was a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study conducted across three headache centers in the United States. Adult patients who were experiencing an acute migraine attack with or without aura were recruited on site and randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either verum or sham external trigeminal nerve stimulation treatment (CEFALY Technology) for 1 hour. Pain intensity was scored using a visual analogue scale (0?=?no pain to 10?=?maximum pain). The primary outcome measure was the mean change in pain intensity at 1 hour compared to baseline. RESULTS:A total of 109 participants were screened between February 1, 2016 and March 31, 2017. Of these, 106 patients were randomized and included in the intention-to-treat analysis (verum: n?=?52; sham: n?=?54). The primary outcome measure was significantly more reduced in the verum group than in the sham group: -3.46?±?2.32 versus -1.78?±?1.89 ( p?<?0.0001), or -59% versus -30% ( p?<?0.0001). With regards to migraine subgroups, there was a significant difference in pain reduction between verum and sham for 'migraine without aura' attacks: mean visual analogue scale reduction at 1 hour was -3.3?±?2.4 for the verum group versus -1.7?±?1.9 for the sham group ( p?=?0.0006). For 'migraine with aura' attacks, pain reduction was numerically greater for verum versus sham, but did not reach significance: mean visual analogue scale reduction at 1 hour was -4.3?±?1.8 for the verum group versus -2.6?±?1.9 for the sham group ( p?=?0.060). No serious adverse events were reported and five minor adverse events occurred in the verum group. CONCLUSION:One-hour treatment with external trigeminal nerve stimulation resulted in significant headache pain relief compared to sham stimulation and was well tolerated, suggesting it may be a safe and effective acute treatment for migraine attacks. STUDY PROTOCOL:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02590939.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the efficacy and safety of a remote electrical neuromodulation (REN) device for the acute treatment of migraine. BACKGROUND:There is a significant unmet need for novel effective well-tolerated acute migraine treatments. REN is a novel acute migraine treatment that stimulates upper arm peripheral nerves to induce conditioned pain modulation - an endogenous analgesic mechanism in which conditioning stimulation inhibits pain in remote body regions. A recent pilot study showed that REN can significantly reduce headache. We have conducted a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of REN for the acute treatment of migraine. METHODS:This was a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, multicenter study conducted at 7 sites in the United States and 5 sites in Israel. Two hundred and fifty-two adults meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for migraine with 2-8 migraine headaches per month were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to active or sham stimulation. A smartphone-controlled wireless device was applied for 30-45 minutes on the upper arm within 1 hour of attack onset; electrical stimulation was at a perceptible but non-painful intensity level. Migraine pain levels were recorded at baseline, 2, and 48 hours post-treatment. Most bothersome symptoms (MBS) were also recorded. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of participants achieving pain relief at 2 hours post-treatment (improvement from severe or moderate pain to mild or none, or from mild pain to none). Relief of MBS and pain-free at 2 hours were key secondary endpoints. RESULTS:Active stimulation was more effective than sham stimulation in achieving pain relief (66.7% [66/99] vs 38.8% [40/103]; therapeutic gain of 27.9% [CI95% , 15.6-40.2]; P < .0001), pain-free (37.4% vs 18.4%, P = .003), and MBS relief (46.3% vs 22.2%, P = .0008) at 2 hours post-treatment. The pain relief and pain-free superiority of the active treatment was sustained 48 hours post-treatment. The incidence of device-related adverse events was low and similar between treatment groups (4.8% [6/126] vs 2.4% [3/126], P = .499). CONCLUSIONS:REN provides superior clinically meaningful relief of migraine pain and MBS compared to placebo, offering a safe and effective non-pharmacological alternative for acute migraine treatment.