Pore closure in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks under mechanical pressure.
ABSTRACT: We investigate the pressure-dependent mechanical behaviour of the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 (M(im)2; M2+ = Co2+ or Zn2+, im- = imidazolate) with high pressure, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion measurements. A displacive phase transition from a highly compressible open pore (op) phase with continuous porosity (space group Pbca, bulk modulus ?1.4 GPa) to a closed pore (cp) phase with inaccessible porosity (space group P21/c, bulk modulus ?3.3-4.9 GPa) is triggered by the application of mechanical pressure. Over the course of the transitions, both ZIF-4 materials contract by about 20% in volume. However, the threshold pressure, the reversibility and the immediate repeatability of the phase transition depend on the metal cation. ZIF-4(Zn) undergoes the op-cp phase transition at a hydrostatic mechanical pressure of only 28 MPa, while ZIF-4(Co) requires about 50 MPa to initiate the transition. Interestingly, ZIF-4(Co) fully returns to the op phase after decompression, whereas ZIF-4(Zn) remains in the cp phase after pressure release and requires subsequent heating to switch back to the op phase. These variations in high pressure behaviour can be rationalised on the basis of the different electron configurations of the respective M2+ ions (3d10 for Zn2+ and 3d7 for Co2+). Our results present the first examples of op-cp phase transitions (i.e. breathing transitions) of ZIFs driven by mechanical pressure and suggest potential applications of these functional materials as shock absorbers, nanodampers, or in mechanocalorics.
Project description:We present an in situ powder X-ray diffraction study on the phase stability and polymorphism of the metal-organic framework ZIF-4, Zn(imidazolate)2, at simultaneous high pressure and high temperature, up to 8 GPa and 600 °C. The resulting pressure-temperature phase diagram reveals four, previously unknown, high-pressure-high-temperature ZIF phases. The crystal structures of two new phases-ZIF-4-cp-II and ZIF-hPT-II-were solved by powder diffraction methods. The total energy of ZIF-4-cp-II was evaluated using density functional theory calculations and was found to lie in between that of ZIF-4 and the most thermodynamically stable polymorph, ZIF- zni. ZIF-hPT-II was found to possess a doubly interpenetrated diamondoid topology and is isostructural with previously reported Cd(Imidazolate)2 and Hg(Imidazolate)2 phases. This phase exhibited extreme resistance to both temperature and pressure. The other two new phases could be assigned with a unit cell and space group, although their structures remain unknown. The pressure-temperature phase diagram of ZIF-4 is strikingly complicated when compared with that of the previously investigated, closely related ZIF-62 and demonstrates the ability to traverse complex energy landscapes of metal-organic systems using the combined application of pressure and temperature.
Project description:Twelve zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs; termed ZIF-1 to -12) have been synthesized as crystals by copolymerization of either Zn(II) (ZIF-1 to -4, -6 to -8, and -10 to -11) or Co(II) (ZIF-9 and -12) with imidazolate-type links. The ZIF crystal structures are based on the nets of seven distinct aluminosilicate zeolites: tetrahedral Si(Al) and the bridging O are replaced with transition metal ion and imidazolate link, respectively. In addition, one example of mixed-coordination imidazolate of Zn(II) and In(III) (ZIF-5) based on the garnet net is reported. Study of the gas adsorption and thermal and chemical stability of two prototypical members, ZIF-8 and -11, demonstrated their permanent porosity (Langmuir surface area = 1,810 m(2)/g), high thermal stability (up to 550 degrees C), and remarkable chemical resistance to boiling alkaline water and organic solvents.
Project description:Zinc (Zn) holds great promise as a desirable anode material for next-generation rechargeable batteries. However, the uncontrollable dendrite growth and low coulombic efficiency of the Zn plating/stripping process severely impede further practical applications of Zn-based batteries. Here, these roadblocks are removed by using in situ grown zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as the ion modulation layer to tune the diffusion behavior of Zn2+ ions on Zn anodes. The well-ordered nanochannels and N species of ZIF-8 can effectively homogenize Zn2+ flux distribution and modulate the plating/stripping rate, ensuring uniform Zn deposition without dendrite growth. The Zn corrosion and hydrogen evolution are also alleviated by the insulating nature of ZIF-8, resulting in high coulombic efficiency. Therefore, the Zn@ZIF anode shows highly reversible, dendrite-free Zn plating/stripping behavior under a broad range of current densities, and a symmetric cell using this anode can work correctly up to 1200 h with a low polarization at 2 mA cm-2. Moreover, this ultrastable Zn@ZIF anode also enables a full Zn ion battery with outstanding cyclic stability (10 000 cycles).
Project description:Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 shares the same topology with sodalite zeolite but consists of Zn nodes bridged by imidazolate linkers to form a neutral open-framework structure. ZIF-8 has been recognized as a unique molecular sieving material with a flexible framework enabling interesting "gate-opening" functionality. Controlling the crystal size and shape is crucial for regulating the structural flexibilities and mass transport properties. The present study demonstrates that an aqueous-system-enabled spray-drying process enables the shape engineering of ZIF-8 with a hollow polycrystalline structure. It is notable that our synthesis route produces an amorphous zinc complex compound, which possesses a continuous random network partially with crystalline fillers, after spray drying followed by an amorphous-to-crystal transition via activation treatment using polar organic solvents. The size of primary ZIF-8 crystals consisting of secondary polycrystals depends on the kind of the organic solvent. The macro-/microscopic structures of hollow polycrystalline ZIF-8 significantly structurally enhanced the adsorption capacity and uptake rate. The large-scale, rapid production and enhanced adsorption performances make this continuous method a very promising candidate for industrial applications and shaping of MOF.
Project description:Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) has received wide attention in recent years as a potential drug vehicle for the treatment of cancer due to its acid-responsiveness and moderate biocompatibility. However, its congenital deficiency of intrinsic imaging capability limits its wider applications; therefore, a postsynthetic exchange approach was utilized to introduce paramagnetic manganese(II) ions into the ZIF-8 matrix. As a result, bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (Mn-Zn-ZIF) were thus fabricated and exhibited pH-responsive T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast effect. Remarkably, we also found its own fluorescence derived from 2-methylimidazole, which is the first report of the intrinsic two-photon fluorescence imaging of ZIFs to our knowledge. Mn-Zn-ZIF still preserves the original properties of ZIF-8 of high surface areas, microporosity, and acid sensitivity. After further PEGylation of Mn-Zn-ZIF, the nanoparticles showed no obvious toxicity and its MRI contrast effect has also been enhanced. Our work highlights the promise of modified zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as potential cancer theranostic platforms.
Project description:The preparation and characterization of composite polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes containing zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF-8) and zeolitic imidazolate framework 67 (ZIF-67) is reported. The phosphoric acid doped composite membranes display proton conductivity values that increase with increasing temperatures, maintaining their conductivity under anhydrous conditions. The addition of ZIF to the polymeric matrix enhances proton transport relative to the values observed for PBI and ZIFs alone. For example, the proton conductivity of PBI@ZIF-8 reaches 3.1 × 10-3 S·cm-1 at 200 °C and higher values were obtained for PBI@ZIF-67 membranes, with proton conductivities of up to 4.1 × 10-2 S·cm-1. Interestingly, a composite membrane containing a 5 wt.% binary mixture of ZIF-8 and ZIF-67 yielded a proton conductivity of 9.2 × 10-2 S·cm-1, showing a synergistic effect on the proton conductivity.
Project description:The mechanical properties of seven zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) based on five unique network topologies have been systematically characterized by single-crystal nanoindentation studies. We demonstrate that the elastic properties of ZIF crystal structures are strongly correlated to the framework density and the underlying porosity. For the systems considered here, the elastic modulus was found to range from 3 to 10 GPa, whereas the hardness property lies between 300 MPa and 1.1 GPa. Notably, these properties are superior to those of other metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), such as MOF-5. In substituted imidazolate frameworks, our results show that their mechanical properties are mainly governed by the rigidity and bulkiness of the substituted organic linkages. The framework topology and the intricate pore morphology can also influence the degree of mechanical anisotropy. Our findings present the previously undescribed structure-mechanical property relationships pertaining to hybrid open frameworks that are important for the design and application of new MOF materials.
Project description:Metal-organic framework glasses feature unique thermal, structural, and chemical properties compared to traditional metallic, organic, and oxide glasses. So far, there is a lack of knowledge of their mechanical properties, especially toughness and strength, owing to the challenge in preparing large bulk glass samples for mechanical testing. However, a recently developed melting method enables fabrication of large bulk glass samples (>25 mm3) from zeolitic imidazolate frameworks. Here, fracture toughness (KIc) of a representative glass, namely ZIF-62 glass (Zn(C3H3N2)1.75(C7H5N2)0.25), is measured using single-edge precracked beam method and simulated using reactive molecular dynamics. KIc is determined to be ~0.1?MPa m0.5, which is even lower than that of brittle oxide glasses due to the preferential breakage of the weak coordinative bonds (Zn-N). The glass is found to exhibit an anomalous brittle-to-ductile transition behavior, considering its low fracture surface energy despite similar Poisson's ratio to that of many ductile metallic and organic glasses.
Project description:Metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes show great promise for propene/propane separation, yet a sharp molecular sieving has not been achieved due to their inherent linker mobility. Here, zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8-type membranes with suppressed linker mobility are prepared by a fast current-driven synthesis (FCDS) strategy within 20 min, showing sharpened molecular sieving for propene/propane separation with a separation factor above 300. During membrane synthesis, the direct current promotes the metal ions and ligands to assemble into inborn-distorted and stiffer frameworks with ZIF-8_Cm (a newly discovered polymorph of ZIF-8) accounting for 60 to 70% of the membrane composition. Molecular dynamics simulations further verify that ZIF-8_Cm is superior to ZIF-8_I 4¯3m (the common cubic phase) for propene/propane separation. FCDS holds great potential to produce high-quality, ultrathin MOF membranes on a large scale.
Project description:Protein therapeutics are prone to lose their structure and bioactivity under various environmental stressors. This study reports a facile approach using a nanoporous material, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8), as an encapsulant for preserving the prototypic protein therapeutic, insulin, against different harsh conditions that may be encountered during storage, formulation, and transport, including elevated temperatures, mechanical agitation, and organic solvent. Both immunoassay and spectroscopy analyses demonstrate the preserved chemical stability and structural integrity of insulin offered by the ZIF-8 encapsulation. Biological activity of ZIF-8-preserved insulin after storage under accelerated degradation conditions (i.e., 40 °C) is evaluated in vivo using a diabetic mouse model, and shows comparable bioactivity to refrigeration-stored insulin (-20 °C). It is also demonstrated that ZIF-8-preserved insulin has low cytotoxicity in vitro and does not cause side effects in vivo. Furthermore, ZIF-8 residue can be completely removed by a simple purification step before insulin administration. This biopreservation approach is potentially applicable to diverse protein therapeutics, thus extending the benefits of advanced biologics to resource-limited settings and underserved populations/regions.