A Non-Heme Iron Photocatalyst for Light-Driven Aerobic Oxidation of Methanol.
ABSTRACT: Non-heme (L)FeIII and (L)FeIII -O-FeIII (L) complexes (L=1,1-di(pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethan-1-amine) underwent reduction under irradiation to the FeII state with concomitant oxidation of methanol to methanal, without the need for a secondary photosensitizer. Spectroscopic and DFT studies support a mechanism in which irradiation results in charge-transfer excitation of a FeIII -?-O-FeIII complex to generate [(L)FeIV =O]2+ (observed transiently during irradiation in acetonitrile), and an equivalent of (L)FeII . Under aerobic conditions, irradiation accelerates reoxidation from the FeII to the FeIII state with O2 , thus closing the cycle of methanol oxidation to methanal.
Project description:The activation of dioxygen by FeII(Me3TACN)(S2SiMe2) (1) is reported. Reaction of 1 with O2 at -135 °C in 2-MeTHF generates a thiolate-ligated (peroxo)diiron complex FeIII2(O2)(Me3TACN)2(S2SiMe2)2 (2) that was characterized by UV-vis (?max = 300, 390, 530, 723 nm), Mössbauer (? = 0.53, |?EQ| = 0.76 mm s-1), resonance Raman (RR) (?(O-O) = 849 cm-1), and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. Complex 2 is distinct from the outer-sphere oxidation product 1ox (UV-vis (?max = 435, 520, 600 nm), Mössbauer (? = 0.45, |?EQ| = 3.6 mm s-1), and EPR (S = 5/2, g = [6.38, 5.53, 1.99])), obtained by one-electron oxidation of 1. Cleavage of the peroxo O-O bond can be initiated either photochemically or thermally to produce a new species assigned as an FeIV(O) complex, FeIV(O)(Me3TACN)(S2SiMe2) (3), which was identified by UV-vis (?max = 385, 460, 890 nm), Mössbauer (? = 0.21, |?EQ| = 1.57 mm s-1), RR (?(FeIV?O) = 735 cm-1), and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, as well as reactivity patterns. Reaction of 3 at low temperature with H atom donors gives a new species, FeIII(OH)(Me3TACN)(S2SiMe2) (4). Complex 4 was independently synthesized from 1 by the stoichiometric addition of a one-electron oxidant and a hydroxide source. This work provides a rare example of dioxygen activation at a mononuclear nonheme iron(II) complex that produces both FeIII-O-O-FeIII and FeIV(O) species in the same reaction with O2. It also demonstrates the feasibility of forming Fe/O2 intermediates with strongly donating sulfur ligands while avoiding immediate sulfur oxidation.
Project description:Oxidation of 5,10,15,20-tetramesitylporphyrinatoiron(III) perchlorate, (TMP)FeIII(ClO4), with ferric perchlorate in acetonitrile gave a metastable species identified as (TMP)FeIV(ClO4)2 that decayed within seconds to the known isomeric species (TMP*+)FeIII(ClO4)2. Irradiation of the metastable species with 355 nm laser light gave a highly reactive transient that reacts with simple organic reductants (alkenes and arylalkanes) 5 orders of magnitude faster than known Compound I analogues, (TMP*+)FeIV(O)(X-).
Project description:Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) or CeIV (NH4 )2 (NO3 )6 is often used in artificial water oxidation and generally considered to be an outer-sphere oxidant. Herein we report the spectroscopic and crystallographic characterization of [(N4Py)FeIII -O-CeIV (OH2 )(NO3 )4 ]+ (3), a complex obtained from the reaction of [(N4Py)FeII (NCMe)]2+ with 2?equiv CAN or [(N4Py)FeIV =O]2+ (2) with CeIII (NO3 )3 in MeCN. Surprisingly, the formation of 3 is reversible, the position of the equilibrium being dependent on the MeCN/water ratio of the solvent. These results suggest that the FeIV and CeIV centers have comparable reduction potentials. Moreover, the equilibrium entails a change in iron spin state, from S=1 FeIV in 2 to S=5/2 in 3, which is found to be facile despite the formal spin-forbidden nature of this process. This observation suggests that FeIV =O complexes may avail of reaction pathways involving multiple spin states having little or no barrier.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We investigated whether red cell infiltration of atheromatous lesions promotes the later stages of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS:We find that oxidation of ferro (FeII) hemoglobin in ruptured advanced lesions occurs generating ferri (FeIII) hemoglobin and via more extensive oxidation ferrylhemoglobin (FeIII/FeIV=O). The protein oxidation marker dityrosine accumulates in complicated lesions, accompanied by the formation of cross-linked hemoglobin, a hallmark of ferrylhemoglobin. Exposure of normal red cells to lipids derived from atheromatous lesions causes hemolysis and oxidation of liberated hemoglobin. In the interactions between hemoglobin and atheroma lipids, hemoglobin and heme promote further lipid oxidation and subsequently endothelial reactions such as upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 and cytotoxicity to endothelium. Oxidative scission of heme leads to release of iron and a feed-forward process of iron-driven plaque lipid oxidation. The inhibition of heme release from globin by haptoglobin and sequestration of heme by hemopexin suppress hemoglobin-mediated oxidation of lipids of atheromatous lesions and attenuate endothelial cytotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS:The interior of advanced atheromatous lesions is a prooxidant environment in which erythrocytes lyse, hemoglobin is oxidized to ferri- and ferrylhemoglobin, and released heme and iron promote further oxidation of lipids. These events amplify the endothelial cell cytotoxicity of plaque components.
Project description:Pathway dependence is common in self-assembly. Herein, the importance of pathway dependence for redox-driven gels is shown by constructing a FeII /FeIII redox-based metal-organic gel system is shown. In situ oxidation of the FeII ions at different rates results in conversion of a FeII gel into a FeIII organic gel, which controls the material properties, such as gel stiffness, gel strength, and an unusual swelling behaviour, is described. The rate of formation of FeIII ions determines the extent of intermolecular interactions and so whether gelation or precipitation occurs.
Project description:The photochemical oxidation of a (TAML)FeIII complex 1 using visible light generated Ru(bpy)33+ produces valence tautomers (TAML)FeIV (1+ ) and (TAML?+)FeIII (1-TAML?+ ), depending on the exogenous anions. The presence of labile Cl- or Br- results in a ligand-based oxidation and stabilisation of a radical-cationic (TAML?+)FeIII complex, which subsequently leads to unprecedented C-H activation followed by nucleophilic substitution on the TAML aryl ring. In contrast, exogenous cyanide culminates in metal-based oxidation, yielding the first example of a crystallographically characterised S = 1 [(TAML)FeIV(CN)2]2- species. This is a rare report of an anion-dependent valence tautomerisation in photochemically accessed high valent (TAML)Fe systems with potential applications in the oxidation of pollutants, hydrocarbons, and water. Furthermore, the nucleophilic aromatic halogenation reaction mediated by (TAML?+)FeIII represents a novel domain for high-valent metal reactivity and highlights the possible intramolecular ligand or substrate modification pathways under highly oxidising conditions. Our findings therefore shine light on high-valent metal oxidants based on TAMLs and other potential non-innocent ligands and open new avenues for oxidation catalyst design.
Project description:A reactive hydroxoferric porphyrazine complex, [(PyPz)FeIII(OH) (OH2)]4+ (1, PyPz = tetramethyl-2,3-pyridino porphyrazine), has been prepared via one-electron oxidation of the corresponding ferrous species [(PyPz)FeII(OH2)2]4+ (2). Electrochemical analysis revealed a pH-dependent and remarkably high FeIII-OH/FeII-OH2 reduction potential of 680 mV vs Ag/AgCl at pH 5.2. Nernstian behavior from pH 2 to pH 8 indicates a one-proton, one-electron interconversion throughout that range. The O-H bond dissociation energy of the FeII-OH2 complex was estimated to be 84 kcal mol-1. Accordingly, 1 reacts rapidly with a panel of substrates via C-H hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), reducing 1 to [(PyPz)FeII(OH2)2]4+ (2). The second-order rate constant for the reaction of [(PyPz)FeIII(OH) (OH2)]4+ with xanthene was 2.22 × 103 M-1 s-1, 5-6 orders of magnitude faster than other reported FeIII-OH complexes and faster than many ferryl complexes.
Project description:The synthesis and reactivity of a series of mononuclear nonheme iron complexes that carry out intramolecular aromatic C-F hydroxylation reactions is reported. The key intermediate prior to C-F hydroxylation, [FeIV(O)(N4Py2Ar1)](BF4)2 (1-O, Ar1 = -2,6-difluorophenyl), was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure revealed a nonbonding C-H···O?Fe interaction with a CH3CN molecule. Variable-field Mössbauer spectroscopy of 1-O indicates an intermediate-spin (S = 1) ground state. The Mössbauer parameters for 1-O include an unusually small quadrupole splitting for a triplet FeIV(O) and are reproduced well by density functional theory calculations. With the aim of investigating the initial step for C-F hydroxylation, two new ligands were synthesized, N4Py2Ar2 (L2, Ar2 = -2,6-difluoro-4-methoxyphenyl) and N4Py2Ar3 (L3, Ar3 = -2,6-difluoro-3-methoxyphenyl), with -OMe substituents in the meta or ortho/para positions with respect to the C-F bonds. FeII complexes [Fe(N4Py2Ar2)(CH3CN)](ClO4)2 (2) and [Fe(N4Py2Ar3)(CH3CN)](ClO4)2 (3) reacted with isopropyl 2-iodoxybenzoate to give the C-F hydroxylated FeIII-OAr products. The FeIV(O) intermediates 2-O and 3-O were trapped at low temperature and characterized. Complex 2-O displayed a C-F hydroxylation rate similar to that of 1-O. In contrast, the kinetics (via stopped-flow UV-vis) for complex 3-O displayed a significant rate enhancement for C-F hydroxylation. Eyring analysis revealed the activation barriers for the C-F hydroxylation reaction for the three complexes, consistent with the observed difference in reactivity. A terminal FeII(OH) complex (4) was prepared independently to investigate the possibility of a nucleophilic aromatic substitution pathway, but the stability of 4 rules out this mechanism. Taken together the data fully support an electrophilic C-F hydroxylation mechanism.
Project description:Determining the requirements for efficient oxygen (O2) activation is key to understanding how enzymes maintain efficacy and mitigate unproductive, often detrimental reactivity. For the ?-ketoglutarate (?KG)-dependent nonheme iron enzymes, both a concerted mechanism (both cofactor and substrate binding prior to reaction with O2) and a sequential mechanism (cofactor binding and reaction with O2 precede substrate binding) have been proposed. Deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) is an ?KG-dependent nonheme iron enzyme for which both of these mechanisms have been invoked to generate an intermediate that catalyzes oxidative ring expansion of penicillin substrates in cephalosporin biosynthesis. Spectroscopy shows that, in contrast to other ?KG-dependent enzymes (which are six coordinate when only ?KG is bound to the FeII), ?KG binding to FeII-DAOCS results in ?45% five-coordinate sites that selectively react with O2 relative to the remaining six-coordinate sites. However, this reaction produces an FeIII species that does not catalyze productive ring expansion. Alternatively, simultaneous ?KG and substrate binding to FeII-DAOCS produces five-coordinate sites that rapidly react with O2 to form an FeIV=O intermediate that then reacts with substrate to produce cephalosporin product. These results demonstrate that the concerted mechanism is operative in DAOCS and by extension, other nonheme iron enzymes.
Project description:Spectroscopic and electronic structure studies of the class I Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) intermediate X and three computationally derived model complexes are presented, compared, and evaluated to determine the electronic and geometric structure of the FeIII-FeIV active site of intermediate X. Rapid freeze-quench (RFQ) EPR, absorption, and MCD were used to trap intermediate X in R2 wild-type (WT) and two variants, W48A and Y122F/Y356F. RFQ-EPR spin quantitation was used to determine the relative contributions of intermediate X and radicals present, while RFQ-MCD was used to specifically probe the FeIII/FeIV active site, which displayed three FeIV d-d transitions between 16,700 and 22,600 cm(-1), two FeIV d-d spin-flip transitions between 23,500 and 24,300 cm(-1), and five oxo to FeIV and FeIII charge transfer (CT) transitions between 25,000 and 32,000 cm(-1). The FeIV d-d transitions were perturbed in the two variants, confirming that all three d-d transitions derive from the d-pi manifold. Furthermore, the FeIV d-pi splittings in the WT are too large to correlate with a bis-mu-oxo structure. The assignment of the FeIV d-d transitions in WT intermediate X best correlates with a bridged mu-oxo/mu-hydroxo [FeIII(mu-O)(mu-OH)FeIV] structure. The mu-oxo/mu-hydroxo core structure provides an important sigma/pi superexchange pathway, which is not present in the bis-mu-oxo structure, to promote facile electron transfer from Y122 to the remote FeIV through the bent oxo bridge, thereby generating the tyrosyl radical for catalysis.