ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes, and they perform as key regulators in cell-to-cell communication in normal as well as diseased states. EVs contain natural cargo molecules, such as miRNA, mRNA and proteins, and transfer these functional cargos to neighboring cells or more distant cells through circulation. These functionally active molecules then affect distinct signaling cascades. The message conveyed to the recipient cells is dependent upon the composition of the EV, which is determined by the parent cell and the EV biogenesis. Because of their properties such as increased stability in circulation, biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and toxicity, EVs have drawn attention as attractive delivery systems for therapeutics. This review focuses on the functional use of exosomes in therapy and the potential advantages and challenges in using exosomes for therapeutic purposes.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mammalian cell-derived nano-scale structures enclosed by a lipid bilayer that were previously considered to be cell debris with little biological value. However, EVs are now recognized to possess biological function, acting as a packaging, transport and delivery mechanisms by which functional molecules (i.e., miRNAs) can be transferred to target cells over some distance. To examine the miRNA from keratinocyte-derived EVs, we isolated three distinct populations of EVs from both HaCaT and primary human keratinocytes (PKCs) and characterized their biophysical, biochemical and functional features by using microscopy, immunoblotting, nanoparticle tracking, and next generation sequencing. We identified 1,048; 906; and 704 miRNAs, respectively, in apoptotic bodies (APs), microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXs) released from HaCaT, and 608; 506; and 622 miRNAs in APs, MVs and EXs released from PKCs. In which, there were 623 and 437 identified miRNAs common to three HaCaT-derived EVs and PKC-derived EVs, respectively. In addition, we found hundreds of exosomal miRNAs that were previously un-reported. Differences in the abundance levels of the identified EV miRNAs could discriminate between the three EV populations. These data contribute substantially to knowledge within the EV-identified miRNA database, especially with regard to keratinocyte-derived EV miRNA content.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mammalian cell-derived nano-scale structures enclosed by a lipid bilayer that were previously considered to be cell debris with little biological value. However, EVs are now recognized to possess biological function, acting as a packaging, transport and delivery mechanism by which functional molecules (i.e. miRNAs) can be transferred to target cells over some distance. To examine the miRNA from keratinocyte-derived EVs, we isolated three distinct populations of EVs from both HaCaT and primary human keratinocytes (PKCs) and characterized their biophysical, biochemical and functional features by using microscopy, immunoblotting, nanoparticle tracking, and next generation sequencing. We identified 1048; 906; and, 704 miRNAs, respectively, in apoptotic bodies (APs), microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXs) released from HaCaT, and 608; 506; and, 622 miRNAs in APs, MVs and EXs released from PKCs. In which, there were 623 and 437 identified miRNAs common to three HaCaT-derived EVs and PKC-derived EVs, respectively. In addition, we found hundreds of exosomal miRNAs that were previously un-reported and that differences in the abundance levels of the identified EV miRNAs could discriminate between the three EV populations. These data contribute to EV-identified miRNA database, especially keratinocyte-derived EV miRNA content. Overall design: miRNAs were profiled in extracellular vesicles (exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) derived from primary keratinocytes.
Project description:Flow cytometry is a powerful method, which is widely used for high-throughput quantitative and qualitative analysis of cells. However, its straightforward applicability for extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mainly exosomes is hampered by several challenges, reflecting mostly the small size of these vesicles (exosomes: ~80-200 nm, microvesicles: ~200-1,000 nm), their polydispersity, and low refractive index. The current best and most widely used protocol for beads-free flow cytometry of exosomes uses ultracentrifugation (UC) coupled with floatation in sucrose gradient for their isolation, labeling with lipophilic dye PKH67 and antibodies, and an optimized version of commercial high-end cytometer for analysis. However, this approach requires an experienced flow cytometer operator capable of manual hardware adjustments and calibration of the cytometer. Here, we provide a novel and fast approach for quantification and characterization of both exosomes and microvesicles isolated from cell culture media as well as from more complex human samples (ascites of ovarian cancer patients) suitable for multiuser labs by using a flow cytometer especially designed for small particles, which can be used without adjustments prior to data acquisition. EVs can be fluorescently labeled with protein-(Carboxyfluoresceinsuccinimidyl ester, CFSE) and/or lipid- (FM) specific dyes, without the necessity of removing the unbound fluorescent dye by UC, which further facilitates and speeds up the characterization of microvesicles and exosomes using flow cytometry. In addition, double labeling with protein- and lipid-specific dyes enables separation of EVs from common contaminants of EV preparations, such as protein aggregates or micelles formed by unbound lipophilic styryl dyes, thus not leading to overestimation of EV numbers. Moreover, our protocol is compatible with antibody labeling using fluorescently conjugated primary antibodies. The presented methodology opens the possibility for routine quantification and characterization of EVs from various sources. Finally, it has the potential to bring a desired level of control into routine experiments and non-specialized labs, thanks to its simple bead-based standardization.
Project description:Gliomas including glioblastoma (GBM) are the most common primary malignant brain tumors. Glioma extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes have biological effects (e.g., immunosuppression) and contain tumor-specific cargo that could facilitate liquid biopsies. We aimed to develop a simple, reproducible technique to isolate plasma exosomes in glioma patients. Glioma patients' and normal donors' plasma exosomes underwent brief centrifugation to remove cells/debris followed by serial density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU). EV size/concentration was determined by nanoparticle tracking. Protein cargo was screened by array, western blot, and ELISA. Nanoscale flow cytometry analysis quantified exosome and microvesicle populations pre- and post-DGU. One-step DGU efficiently isolates exosomes for nanoparticle tracking. Wild type isocitrate dehydrogenase glioma patients' (i.e., more aggressive tumors) plasma exosomes are smaller but higher concentration than normal donors. A second DGU efficiently concentrates exosomes for subsequent cargo analysis but results in vesicle aggregation that skews nanoparticle tracking. Cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules are readily detected but appeared globally reduced in GBM patients' exosomes. Surprisingly, immunosuppressive programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is present in both patients' and normal donors' exosomes. Nanoscale flow cytometry confirms efficient exosome (<100 nm) isolation post-DGU but also demonstrates increase in microvesicles (>100 nm) in GBM patients' plasma pre-DGU. Serial DGU efficiently isolates plasma exosomes with distinct differences between GBM patients and normal donors, suggesting utility for non-invasive biomarker assessment. Initial results suggest global immunosuppression rather than increased circulating tumor-derived immunosuppressive exosomes, though further assessment is needed. Increased glioma patients' plasma microvesicles suggest these may also be a key source for biomarkers.
Project description:Differential mortality rates remain a significant health disparity in the United States, suggesting the need to investigate novel potential molecular markers associated with mortality. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies, are lipid-bound vesicles secreted by cells into the circulation. EVs mediate intercellular communication by shuttling functional signaling molecules as cargo. EV characteristics by race in the context of mortality risk factors have not been described. We isolated plasma EVs from a cross-sectional cohort of African Americans (AA) and whites and found no significant differences in EV size, distribution or concentration between race or by sex. However, EV cargo showed increased levels of phospho-p53, total p53, cleaved caspase 3, ERK1/2 and phospho-AKT in white individuals compared to AAs. phospho-IGF-1R levels were significantly higher in females compared to males. EV concentration was significantly associated with several clinical mortality risk factors: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alkaline phosphatase, body mass index, waist circumference and pulse pressure. The association of EV proteins with mortality markers were dependent on race. These data suggest that EV cargo can differ by race and sex and is associated with mortality risk factors.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EV), including exosomes and microvesicles (MV), represent a rapidly expanding field of research with diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although many aspects of EV function remain to be revealed and broad investigations are warranted, most published findings focus on only one vesicle category or a non-separated mix of EVs. In this paper, we investigated both MVs and exosomes from Ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed dendritic cells for their immunostimulatory potential side-by-side in vivo. Only exosomes induced antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells, and were more efficient than MVs in eliciting antigen-specific IgG production. Further, mainly exosome-primed mouse splenocytes showed significant ex vivo interferon gamma production in response to antigen restimulation. Exosomes carried high levels of OVA, while OVA in MVs was barely detectable, which could explain the more potent antigen-specific response induced by exosomes. Moreover, exosomes induced increased germinal center B cell proportions, whereas MVs had no such effect. Immunisation with both vesicle types combined showed neither inhibitory nor synergistic effects. We conclude that DC-derived MVs and exosomes differ in their capacity to incorporate antigen and induce immune responses. The results are of importance for understanding the role of EVs in vivo, and for future design of vesicle-based immunotherapies and vaccines.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are traditionally divided into two major groups: (i) large vesicles originating from plasma membrane and called microvesicles, and (ii) small vesicles originating from the endoplasmic membrane and called exosomes. However, it is increasingly clear that the actual composition of a particular EV preparation cannot be adequately described with these two simple terms and is much more complex. Since the cell membrane origin of EVs predetermines their biological functions, the understanding of EV biogenesis is important for accurate interpretation of observed results. In the present study, we propose to take advantage of selective expression of some proteins in plasma or endosomal membranes and to use these proteins as plasma membrane-specific or endosomal membrane-specific markers. We have demonstrated that a quantitative mass spectrometry analysis allows simultaneous measurement of plasma membrane-specific and endosomal membrane-specific proteins in microvesicles and exosomes obtained after differential ultracentrifugation. Before mass spectrometry analysis, we also used sonicated platelets as a model of mixed EVs and multidetector asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation as an analytical method to verify a possible cross contamination of obtained microvesicles and exosomes. Based on the quantitative appearance of membrane-specific protein markers in EV preparations from human plasma and from human ARPE-19 cell medium, we concluded that there is no actual size limitation and both microvesicles and exosomes can be represented by large and small vesicles.
Project description:Urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, play several important roles in cell biology and serve as potential biomarkers in various kidney diseases. Although they have differential biophysical properties, specific biomarkers are required to discriminate these EVs during isolation/purification. The present study aimed to define differential lipidome profiles of urinary microvesicles vs. exosomes. Urine samples collected from eight healthy individuals were pooled and underwent lipid extraction using 2:1(v/v) chloroform/methanol. The recovered lipids were resolved by thin layer liquid chromatography (TLC) and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. From three and five TLC bands observed in microvesicles and exosomes, respectively, several fatty acids, glycerolipids and phospholipids were identified from both EVs without clear differential patterns. However, their sphingolipid profiles were unique. Ceramide phosphates (CerP), hexosyl sphingoid bases (HexSph), lactosyl ceramides (LacCer), mannosyl di-PI-ceramides (M(IP)2?C), sulfatides hexosyl ceramide (SHexCer) and sulfatides hexoxyl sphingoid bases (SHexSph) were detectable only in urinary exosomes, whereas phosphatidylinositol ceramides (PI-Cer) were detectable only in urinary microvesicles. The presence of CerP only in urinary exosomes was successfully validated by dot blot analysis. Our extensive lipidome analyses of urinary microvesicles vs. exosomes provide potential lipidome markers to discriminate exosomes from microvesicles and may lead to better understanding of EVs biogenesis.
Project description:During the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes, have emerged as important players in cell-to-cell communication in normal physiology and pathological conditions. EVs encapsulate and convey various bioactive molecules that are further transmitted to neighboring or more distant cells, where they induce various signaling cascades. The message delivered to the target cells is dependent on EV composition, which, in turn, is determined by the cell of origin and the surrounding microenvironment during EV biogenesis. Among their multifaceted role in the modulation of biological responses, the involvement of EVs in vascular development, growth, and maturation has been widely documented and their potential therapeutic application in regenerative medicine or angiogenesis-related diseases is drawing increasing interest. EVs derived from various cell types have the potential to deliver complex information to endothelial cells and to induce either pro- or antiangiogenic signaling. As dynamic systems, in response to changes in the microenvironment, EVs adapt their cargo composition to fine-tune the process of blood vessel formation. This article reviews the current knowledge on the role of microvesicles and exosomes from various cellular origins in angiogenesis, with a particular emphasis on the underlying mechanisms, and discusses the main challenges and prerequisites for their therapeutic applications.
Project description:Exosomes and microvesicles (i.e., extracellular vesicles: EVs) have been identified within ovarian follicular fluid and recent evidence suggests that EVs are able to elicit profound effects on ovarian cell function. While existence of miRNA within EVs has been reported, whether EV size and concentration as well as their cargos (i.e., proteins and RNA) change during antral follicle growth remains unknown. Extracellular vesicles isolated from follicular fluid of small, medium and large bovine follicles were similar in size, while concentration of EVs decreased progressively as follicle size increased. Electron microscopy indicated a highly purified population of the lipid bilayer enclosed vesicles that were enriched in exosome biomarkers including CD81 and Alix. Small RNA sequencing identified a large number of known and novel miRNAs that changed in the EVs of different size follicles. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that miRNA abundant in small follicle EV preparations were associated with cell proliferation pathways, while those miRNA abundant in large follicle preparations were related to inflammatory response pathways. These studies are the first to demonstrate that EVs change in their levels and makeup during antral follicle development and point to the potential for a unique vesicle-mediated cell-to-cell communication network within the ovarian follicle.