Work routines moderate the association between eveningness and poor psychological well-being.
ABSTRACT: Well-being is a useful screening method for the detection of mood disorders. Evidence associating psychological well-being with sleep-wake patterns exists, as well as associations with sleep-wake patterns, work-related parameters, and perceived self-efficacy. Despite the growing research regarding the relationship between these factors and mental health, there are few studies that analyze them together.To investigate if the association between sleep-wake patterns and psychological well-being is mediated or moderated by perceived self-efficacy, work flexibility and work routines.This cohort study was performed in southern Brazil. A sample of 987 individuals was analyzed (66.9% women; mean age = 43.9 years). Work routines parameters and work schedule flexibility were evaluated, most participants were farmers (46%) and most worked 7 days a week (69.1%). Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) was administered for evaluation of sleep-wake patterns, General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) for assessment the participants' beliefs about how they coped with daily hassles, and World Health Organization Five-item Well-being Index (WHO-5) for evaluation of psychological well-being levels. Moderation and mediation models were tested.The moderation model showed influences of work end time on the relationship between sleep onset time and psychological well-being (R2 = 0.147; F = 24.16; p<0.001). The final regression model showed an association of psychological well-being with sex (Beta = -0.086; p = 0.004), sleep onset time (Beta = -0.086; p = 0.006), and self-efficacy (Beta = 0.316; p<0.001); the work end time showed association in the interaction with sleep onset time (Beta = -0.075; p = 0.016).The findings support the direct association of psychological well-being with sleep-wake patterns and self-efficacy, and show an interaction between work routines and sleep-wake patterns. Our results draw attention to the importance of the interplay between individual and social rhythms in relation to psychological well-being.
Project description:The workers and employees in various institutions are subjected to different shifts and work schedules. The employees work not only at daytime but also during odd hours at night. The biological clock of an individual is often altered during night shifts. This affects the psychosocial well-being and circadian nutritional intake of the worker. Disturbance in circadian rhythm results in the development of metabolic disorders such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, and abdominal obesity. In the present review, we discuss the nature of shift work, sleep/wake cycle of an individual, chrononutrition, dietary habits, and meal changes with regard to timing and frequency, related to shift work. We also discuss the relationship between nutritional intake and psychosocial well-being among shift workers. The review may be beneficial for prevention of metabolic disorders and maintaining sound psychological condition in shift workers.
Project description:In modern societies, human rest-activity rhythms and sleep result from the tensions and dynamics between the conflicting poles of external social time (e.g., work hours and leisure activities) and an individual's internal biological time. A mismatch between the two has been suggested to induce 'social jetlag'  and 'social sleep restriction', that is, shifts in sleep timing and differences in sleep duration between work days and free days. Social jetlag [2,3] and sleep restrictions  have repeatedly been associated with negative consequences on health, mental wellbeing, and performance. In a large-scale quasi-experimental design, we investigated the effects of the phase with the most rigorous COVID-19 restrictions on the relationship between social and biological rhythms as well as sleep during a six-week period (mid-March until end of April 2020) in three European societies (Austria, Germany, Switzerland). We found that, on one hand, the restrictions reduced the mismatch between external (social) and internal (biological) sleep-wake timing, as indexed by significant reductions in social jetlag and social sleep restriction, with a concomitant increase in sleep duration. Sleep quality on the other hand was slightly reduced. The improved individual sleep-wake timing can presumably be attributed to an increased flexibility of social schedules, for instance due to more work being accomplished from home. However, this unprecedented situation also led to a significant increase in self-perceived burden, which was attendant to the decrease in sleep quality. These adverse effects may be alleviated by exposure to natural daylight as well as physical exercise.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Disrupted sleep is common in pediatric cancer, which is associated with psychological distress and may impact neural recovery. Information regarding sleep during pediatric brain tumor treatment is limited. This study aimed to describe objective sleep-wake patterns and examine the sleep-mood relation in youth hospitalized for intensive chemotherapy and stem cell rescue. METHODS:Participants included 37 patients (M age = 9.6 ± 4.2 years) enrolled on a medulloblastoma protocol (SJMB03) and their parents. Respondents completed a mood disturbance measure on 3 days, and patients wore an actigraph for 5 days as an objective estimate of sleep-wake patterns. General linear mixed models examined the relation between nocturnal sleep and next-day mood, as well as mood and that night's sleep. RESULTS:Sleep duration was deficient, sleep efficiency was poor, and daytime napping was common, with large between-subjects variability. There were minimal mood concerns across all days. The sleep and next-day mood relationship was nonsignificant (P > .05). Greater parent-reported child mood disturbance on day 2 was associated with decreased same-night sleep (P < .001) and greater patient-reported mood disturbance was associated with greater same-night sleep latency (P = .036). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with medulloblastoma are vulnerable to disturbed sleep during hospitalization, and mood may be an important correlate to consider. Sleep and mood are modifiable factors that may be targeted to maximize daytime functioning.
Project description:Genes involved in circadian regulation, such as circadian locomotor output cycles kaput [CLOCK], cryptochrome [CRY1] and period [PER], have been associated with sleep outcomes in prior animal and human research. However, it is unclear whether polymorphisms in these genes are associated with the sleep disturbances commonly experienced by adults living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe polymorphisms in selected circadian genes that are associated with sleep duration or disruption as well as the sleep-wake rhythm strength and phase timing among adults living with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 289 adults with HIV/AIDS was recruited from HIV clinics and community sites in the San Francisco Bay Area. A wrist actigraph was worn for 72?h on weekdays to estimate sleep duration or total sleep time (TST), sleep disruption or percentage of wake after sleep onset (WASO) and several circadian rhythm parameters: mesor, amplitude, the ratio of mesor to amplitude (circadian quotient), and 24-h autocorrelation. Circadian phase measures included clock time for peak activity (acrophase) from actigraphy movement data, and bed time and final wake time from actigraphy and self-report. Genotyping was conducted for polymorphisms in five candidate genes involved in circadian regulation: CLOCK, CRY1, PER1, PER2 and PER3. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated as potential covariates. Interactions between genotype and HIV variables (i.e. viral load, years since HIV diagnosis) were also evaluated. Controlling for potentially confounding variables (e.g. race, gender, CD4+ T-cell count, waist circumference, medication use, smoking and depressive symptoms), CLOCK was associated with WASO, 24-h autocorrelation and objectively-measured bed time; CRY1 was associated with circadian quotient; PER1 was associated with mesor and self-reported habitual wake time; PER2 was associated with TST, mesor, circadian quotient, 24-h autocorrelation and bed and wake times; PER3 was associated with amplitude, 24-h autocorrelation, acrophase and bed and wake times. Most of the observed associations involved a significant interaction between genotype and HIV. In this chronic illness population, polymorphisms in several circadian genes were associated with measures of sleep disruption and timing. These findings extend the evidence for an association between genetic variability in circadian regulation and sleep outcomes to include the sleep-wake patterns experienced by adults living with HIV/AIDS. These results provide direction for future intervention research related to circadian sleep-wake behavior patterns.
Project description:The diagnosis of insomnia rests on self-report of difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. However, subjective reports may be unreliable, and possibly may vary by the method of inquiry. We investigated this possibility by comparing within-individual response to direct versus indirect time queries after overnight polysomnography.We obtained self-reported sleep-wake times via morning questionnaires in 879 consecutive adult diagnostic polysomnograms. Responses were compared within subjects (direct versus indirect query) and across groups defined by apnea-hypopnea index and by self-reported insomnia symptoms in pre-sleep questionnaires. Direct queries required a time duration response, while indirect queries required clock times from which we calculated time durations.Direct and indirect queries of sleep latency were the same in only 41% of cases, and total sleep time queries matched in only 5.4%. For both latency and total sleep, the most common discrepancy involved the indirect value being larger than the direct response. The discrepancy between direct and indirect queries was not related to objective sleep metrics. The degree of discrepancy was not related to the presence of insomnia symptoms, although patients reporting insomnia symptoms showed underestimation of total sleep duration by direct response.Self-reported sleep latency and total sleep time are often internally inconsistent when comparing direct and indirect survey queries of each measure. These discrepancies represent substantive challenges to effective clinical practice, particularly when diagnosis and management depends on self-reported sleep patterns, as with insomnia. Although self-reported sleep-wake times remains fundamental to clinical practice, objective measures provide clinically relevant adjunctive information.
Project description:The human melanopsin gene has been reported to mediate risk for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is hypothesized to be caused by decreased photic input during winter when light levels fall below threshold, resulting in differences in circadian phase and/or sleep. However, it is unclear if melanopsin increases risk of SAD by causing differences in sleep or circadian phase, or if those differences are symptoms of the mood disorder. To determine if melanopsin sequence variations are associated with differences in sleep-wake behavior among those not suffering from a mood disorder, the authors tested associations between melanopsin gene polymorphisms and self-reported sleep timing (sleep onset and wake time) in a community sample (N = 234) of non-Hispanic Caucasian participants (age 30-54 yrs) with no history of psychological, neurological, or sleep disorders. The authors also tested the effect of melanopsin variations on differences in preferred sleep and activity timing (i.e., chronotype), which may reflect differences in circadian phase, sleep homeostasis, or both. Daylength on the day of assessment was measured and included in analyses. DNA samples were genotyped for melanopsin gene polymorphisms using fluorescence polarization. P10L genotype interacted with daylength to predict self-reported sleep onset (interaction p < .05). Specifically, sleep onset among those with the TT genotype was later in the day when individuals were assessed on longer days and earlier in the day on shorter days, whereas individuals in the other genotype groups (i.e., CC and CT) did not show this interaction effect. P10L genotype also interacted in an analogous way with daylength to predict self-reported morningness (interaction p < .05). These results suggest that the P10L TT genotype interacts with daylength to predispose individuals to vary in sleep onset and chronotype as a function of daylength, whereas other genotypes at P10L do not seem to have effects that vary by daylength. A better understanding of how melanopsin confers heightened responsivity to daylength may improve our understanding of a broad range of behavioral responses to light (i.e., circadian, sleep, mood) as well as the etiology of disorders with seasonal patterns of recurrence or exacerbation.
Project description:The circadian clock governs virtually all processes in the human body, including sleep-wake behaviour. Circadian misalignment describes the off-set between sleep-wake cycles and clock-regulated physiology. This strain is predominantly caused by external (societal) demands including shift work, early school start times and fast travels across time zones. Sleeping at the 'wrong' internal time can jeopardise health and safety, and we therefore need a good quantification of this phenomenon. Here, we propose a novel method to quantify the mistiming of sleep-wake rhythms and demonstrate its versatility in day workers and shift workers. Based on a single time series, our Composite Phase Deviation method unveils distinct, subject- and schedule-specific geometries ('islands and pancakes') that illustrate how modern work times interfere with sleep. With increasing levels of circadian strain, the resulting shapes change systematically from small, connected forms to large and fragmented patterns. Our method shows good congruence with published measures of circadian misalignment (i.e., Inter-daily Stability and 'Behavioural Entrainment'), but offers added value as to its requirements, e.g., being computable for sleep logs and questionnaires. Composite Phase Deviations will help to understand the mechanisms that link 'living against the clock' with health and disease on an individual basis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Workplace programs designed to improve the health and psychological well-being of employees are becoming increasingly popular. However, there are mixed reports regarding the effectiveness of such programs and little analysis of what helps people to engage with such programs. OBJECTIVE:This evaluation of a particularly broad, team-based, digital health and well-being program uses mixed methods to identify the elements of the program that reduce work stress and promote psychological well-being, sleep quality, and productivity of employees. METHODS:Participation in the Virgin Pulse Global Challenge program during May to September 2016 was studied. Self-reported stress, sleep quality, productivity, and psychological well-being data were collected both pre- and postprogram. Participant experience data were collected through a third final survey. However, the response rates for the last 2 surveys were only 48% and 10%, respectively. A random forest was used to estimate the probability of the completion of the last 2 surveys based on the preprogram assessment data and the demographic data for the entire sample (N=178,350). The inverse of these estimated probabilities were used as weights in hierarchical linear models in an attempt to address any estimation bias caused by the low response rates. These linear models described changes in psychological well-being, stress, sleep, and productivity over the duration of the program in relation to gender and age, engagement with each of the modules, each of the program features, and participant descriptions of the Virgin Pulse Global Challenge. A 0.1% significance level was used due to the large sample size for the final survey (N=18,653). RESULTS:The final analysis suggested that the program is more beneficial for older people, with 2.9% greater psychological well-being improvements observed on average in the case of women than men (P<.001). With one exception, all the program modules contributed significantly to the outcome measures with the following average improvements observed: psychological well-being, 4.1%-6.0%; quality of sleep, 3.2%-6.9%; work-related stress, 1.7%-6.8%; and productivity, 1.9%-4.2%. However, only 4 of the program features were found to have significant associations with the outcome measures with the following average improvements observed: psychological well-being, 3.7%-5.6%; quality of sleep, 3.4%-6.5%; work-related stress, 4.1%-6.4%; and productivity, 1.6%-3.2%. Finally, descriptions of the Virgin Pulse Global Challenge produced 5 text topics that were related to the outcome measures. Healthy lifestyle descriptions showed a positive association with outcomes, whereas physical activity and step count tracking descriptions showed a negative association with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:The complementary use of qualitative and quantitative survey data in a mixed-methods analysis provided rich information that will inform the development of this and other programs designed to improve employee health. However, the low response rates and the lack of a control group are limitations, despite the attempts to address these problems in the analysis.
Project description:Optimism and self-efficacy have been associated with psychological health. Empathy has also been found to have a unique role in community health volunteering and promote positive functioning. This study investigated whether self-efficacy and optimism were associated with psychological health in terms of psychological and subjective well-being in healthcare volunteers. It also investigated whether empathy added to the explanation of psychological health, over and above that accounted for by self-efficacy and optimism. A convenience sample of 160 Italian clown doctors volunteering in various hospitals completed self-report measures of self-efficacy, optimism, empathy, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy and optimism were associated with both outcomes and that aspects of empathy, such as others' perspective taking and personal distress for others' difficulties, added to the explanation of psychological health with opposite effects. The present study adds to previous research on the role of self-efficacy, optimism, and empathy for community health volunteers' psychological health. It also offers suggestions regarding the training for this type of volunteer.
Project description:Importance:Digital cognitive behavioral therapy (dCBT) is a scalable and effective intervention for treating insomnia. Most people with insomnia, however, seek help because of the daytime consequences of poor sleep, which adversely affects quality of life. Objectives:To investigate the effect of dCBT for insomnia on functional health, psychological well-being, and sleep-related quality of life and to determine whether a reduction in insomnia symptoms was a mediating factor. Design, Setting, and Participants:This online, 2-arm, parallel-group randomized trial comparing dCBT for insomnia with sleep hygiene education (SHE) evaluated 1711 participants with self-reported symptoms of insomnia. Participants were recruited between December 1, 2015, and December 1, 2016, and dCBT was delivered using web and/or mobile channels plus treatment as usual; SHE comprised a website and a downloadable booklet plus treatment as usual. Online assessments took place at 0 (baseline), 4 (midtreatment), 8 (posttreatment), and 24 (follow-up) weeks. Programs were completed within 12 weeks after inclusion. Main Outcomes and Measures:Primary outcomes were scores on self-reported measures of functional health (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System: Global Health Scale; range, 10-50; higher scores indicate better health); psychological well-being (Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale; range, 14-70; higher scores indicate greater well-being); and sleep-related quality of life (Glasgow Sleep Impact Index; range, 1-100; higher scores indicate greater impairment). Secondary outcomes comprised mood, fatigue, sleepiness, cognitive failures, work productivity, and relationship satisfaction. Insomnia was assessed with the Sleep Condition Indicator (range: 0-32; higher scores indicate better sleep). Results:Of the 1711 participants included in the intention-to-treat analysis, 1329 (77.7%) were female, mean (SD) age was 48.0 (13.8) years, and 1558 (91.1%) were white. Use of dCBT was associated with a small improvement in functional health compared with SHE (adjusted difference [95% CI] at week 4, 0.90 [0.40-1.40]; week 8, 1.76 [1.24-2.28]; week 24, 1.76 [1.22-2.30]) and psychological well-being (adjusted difference [95% CI] at week 4, 1.04 [0.28-1.80]; week 8, 2.68 [1.89-3.47]; week 24, 2.95 [2.13-3.76]), and with a large improvement in sleep-related quality of life (at week 4, -8.76 [-11.83 to -5.69]; week 8, -17.60 [-20.81 to -14.39]; week 24, -18.72 [-22.04 to -15.41]) (all P < .01). A large improvement in insomnia mediated these outcomes (range mediated, 45.5%-84.0%). Conclusions and Relevance:Use of dCBT is effective in improving functional health, psychological well-being, and sleep-related quality of life in people reporting insomnia symptoms. A reduction in insomnia symptoms mediates these improvements. These results confirm that dCBT improves both daytime and nighttime aspects of insomnia, strengthening existing recommendations of CBT as the treatment of choice for insomnia. Trial Registration:isrctn.org identifier: ISRCTN60530898.