Reference ranges for three-dimensional feature tracking cardiac magnetic resonance: comparison with two-dimensional methodology and relevance of age and gender.
ABSTRACT: Myocardial deformation is a sensitive marker of sub-clinical myocardial dysfunction that carries independent prognostic significance across a broad range of cardiovascular diseases. It is now possible to perform 3D feature tracking of SSFP cines on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (FT-CMR). This study provides reference ranges for 3D FT-CMR and assesses its reproducibility compared to 2D FT-CMR. One hundred healthy individuals with 10 men and women in each of 5 age deciles from 20 to 70 years, underwent 2D and 3D FT-CMR of left ventricular myocardial strain and strain rate using SSFP cines. Good health was defined by the absence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, or any cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, haematological and systemic inflammatory disease. Normal values for myocardial strain assessed by 3D FT-CMR were consistently lower compared with 2D FT-CMR measures [global circumferential strain (GCS) 3D -?17.6?±?2.6% vs. 2D -?20.9?±?3.7%, P?
Project description:AIMS:A multitude of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques are used for myocardial strain assessment; however, studies comparing them are limited. We sought to compare global longitudinal (GLS), circumferential (GCS), segmental longitudinal (SLS), and segmental circumferential (SCS) strain values, as well as reproducibility between CMR feature tracking (FT), tagging (TAG), and fast-strain-encoded (fast-SENC) CMR techniques. METHODS AND RESULTS:Eighteen subjects (11 healthy volunteers and seven patients with heart failure) underwent two CMR scans (1.5T, Philips) with identical parameters. Global and segmental strain values were measured using FT (Medis), TAG (Medviso), and fast-SENC (Myocardial Solutions). Friedman's test, linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess differences and correlation in measured GLS and GCS between the techniques. Two-way mixed intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variance (COV), and Bland-Altman analysis were used for reproducibility assessment. All techniques correlated closely for GLS (Pearson's r: 0.86-0.92) and GCS (Pearson's r: 0.85-0.94). Intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility was excellent in all techniques for both GLS (ICC 0.92-0.99, CoV 2.6-10.1%) and GCS (ICC 0.89-0.99, CoV 4.3-10.1%). Inter-study reproducibility was similar for all techniques for GLS (ICC 0.91-0.96, CoV 9.1-10.8%) and GCS (ICC 0.95-0.97, CoV 7.6-10.4%). Combined segmental intra-observer reproducibility was good in all techniques for SLS (ICC 0.914-0.953, CoV 12.35-24.73%) and SCS (ICC 0.885-0.978, CoV 10.76-19.66%). Combined inter-study SLS reproducibility was the worst in FT (ICC 0.329, CoV 42.99%), while fast-SENC performed the best (ICC 0.844, CoV 21.92%). TAG had the best reproducibility for combined inter-study SCS (ICC 0.902, CoV 19.08%), while FT performed the worst (ICC 0.766, CoV 32.35%). Bland-Altman analysis revealed considerable inter-technique biases for GLS (FT vs. fast-SENC 3.71%; FT vs. TAG 8.35%; and TAG vs. fast-SENC 4.54%) and GCS (FT vs. fast-SENC 2.15%; FT vs. TAG 6.92%; and TAG vs. fast-SENC 2.15%). Limits of agreement for GLS ranged from ±3.1 (TAG vs. fast-SENC) to ±4.85 (FT vs. TAG) for GLS and ±2.98 (TAG vs. fast-SENC) to ±5.85 (FT vs. TAG) for GCS. CONCLUSIONS:We found significant differences in measured GLS and GCS between FT, TAG, and fast-SENC. Global strain reproducibility was excellent for all techniques. Acquisition-based techniques had better reproducibility than FT for segmental strain.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Final infarct size following coronary occlusion is determined by the duration of ischemia, the size of myocardium at risk (MaR) and reperfusion injury. The reference method for determining MaR, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before reperfusion, is impractical in an acute setting. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether MaR can be determined from the contrast enhanced myocardium using steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) performed one week after the acute event in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with total coronary occlusion.<h4>Results</h4>Sixteen patients with STEMI (age 64 +/- 8 years) received intravenous 99 m-Tc immediately before primary percutaneous coronary intervention. SPECT was performed within four hours. MaR was defined as the non-perfused myocardial volume derived with SPECT. CMR was performed 7.8 +/- 1.2 days after the myocardial infarction using a protocol in which the contrast agent was administered before acquisition of short-axis SSFP cines. MaR was evaluated as the contrast enhanced myocardial volume in the cines by two blinded observers. MaR determined from the enhanced region on cine CMR correlated significantly with that derived with SPECT (r2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). The difference in MaR determined by CMR and SPECT was 0.5 +/- 5.1% (mean +/- SD). The interobserver variability of contrast enhanced cine SSFP measurements was 1.6 +/- 3.7% (mean +/- SD) of the left ventricle wall volume.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Contrast enhanced SSFP cine CMR performed one week after acute infarction accurately depicts MaR prior to reperfusion in STEMI patients with total occlusion undergoing primary PCI. This suggests that a single CMR examination might be performed for determination of MaR and infarct size.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) is increasingly used for myocardial deformation assessment including ventricular strain, showing prognostic value beyond established risk markers if used in experienced centres. Little is known about the impact of appropriate training on CMR-FT performance. Consequently, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of training on observer variance using different commercially available CMR-FT software. METHODS:Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed prior to and after dedicated one-hour observer training. Employed FT software included 3 different commercially available platforms (TomTec, Medis, Circle). Left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular global longitudinal as well as LV circumferential and radial strains (GLS, GCS and GRS) were studied in 12 heart failure patients and 12 healthy volunteers. RESULTS:Training improved intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. GCS and LV GLS showed the highest reproducibility before (ICC >0.86 and >0.81) and after training (ICC >0.91 and >0.92). RV GLS and GRS were more susceptible to tracking inaccuracies and reproducibility was lower. Inter-observer reproducibility was lower than intra-observer reproducibility prior to training with more pronounced improvements after training. Before training, LV strain reproducibility was lower in healthy volunteers as compared to patients with no differences after training. Whilst LV strain reproducibility was sufficient within individual software solutions inter-software comparisons revealed considerable software related variance. CONCLUSION:Observer experience is an important source of variance in CMR-FT derived strain assessment. Dedicated observer training significantly improves reproducibility with most profound benefits in states of high myocardial contractility and potential to facilitate widespread clinical implementation due to optimized robustness and diagnostic performance.
Project description:Myocardial deformation assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is increasingly used for diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis in patients with clinical and pre-clinical cardiovascular diseases. Feature tracking cardiac magnetic resonance (FT-CMR) also allows myocardial deformation analysis. To clarify whether the two modalities can be used interchangeably, we compared myocardial deformation analysis by FT-CMR with STE in patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases and healthy subjects. We included 40 patients and 10 healthy subjects undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance and echocardiographic examination for left ventricular volumetric assessment. We studied patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (n = 10), acute perimyocarditis (n = 10), aortic valve stenosis (n = 10), and previous heart transplantation (n = 10) by global longitudinal (GLS), radial (GRS) and circumferential strain (GCS). Myocardial deformation analysis by FT-CMR was feasible in all but one participant. While GLS, GRS and GCS measured by FT-CMR correlated overall with STE (r = 0.74 and p < 0.001, r = 0.58 and p < 0.001, and r = 0.76 and p < 0.001), the correlations were not consistent within subgroups. GLS was systematically lower, whereas GRS and GCS were higher by FT-CMR compared to STE (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001). Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility were comparable for FT-CMR and STE overall and across subgroups. In conclusion, myocardial deformation can be evaluated using FT-CMR applied to routine cine-CMR images in patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, correlation between FT-CMR and STE was modest and agreement was not optimal due to systematic bias regarding GLS and GCS. Consequently, FT-CMR and STE should not be used interchangeably for myocardial strain evaluation.
Project description:Myocardial strain is a well-validated parameter for evaluating myocardial contraction. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT) is a novel method for the quantitative measurements of myocardial strain from routine cine acquisitions. In this study, we investigated the influence of temporal resolution on tracking accuracy of CMR-FT and the intraobserver, interobserver, and interstudy reproducibilities for biventricular strain analysis in mice from self-gated CMR at 11.7?T. 12 constitutive nexilin knockout (Nexn-KO) mice, heterozygous (Het, <i>N</i> = 6) and wild-type (WT, <i>N</i> = 6), were measured with a well-established self-gating sequence twice within two weeks. CMR-FT measures of biventricular global and segmental strain parameters were derived. Interstudy, intraobserver, and interobserver reproducibilities were investigated. For the assessment of the impact of the temporal resolution for the outcome in CMR-FT, highly oversampled semi-4 chamber and midventricular short-axis data were acquired and reconstructed with 10 to 80 phases per cardiac cycle. A generally reduced biventricular myocardial strain was observed in Nexn-KO Het mice. Excellent intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility was achieved in all global strains (ICC range from 0.76 to 0.99), where global right ventricle circumferential strain (RCS<sub>SAX</sub>) showed an only good interobserver reproducibility (ICC 0.65, 0.11-0.89). For interstudy reproducibility, left ventricle longitudinal strain (LLS<sub>LAX</sub>) was the most reproducible measure of strain (ICC 0.90, 0.71-0.97). The left ventricle radial strain (LRS<sub>SAX</sub>) (ICC 0.50, 0.10-0.83) showed fair reproducibility and RCS<sub>SAX</sub> (ICC 0.36, 0.14-0.74) showed only poor reproducibility. In general, compared with global strains, the segmental strains showed relatively lower reproducibility. A minimal temporal resolution of 20 phases per cardiac cycle appeared sufficient for CMR-FT strain analysis. The analysis of myocardial strain from high-resolution self-gated cine images by CMR-FT provides a highly reproducible method for assessing myocardial contraction in small rodent animals. Especially, global LV longitudinal and circumferential strain revealed excellent reproducibility of intra- and interobserver and interstudy measurements.
Project description:Parameters using myocardial strain analysis may predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). As the agreement between currently available strain imaging modalities is unknown, three different modalities were compared. Twenty-seven CRT-candidates, prospectively included in the MARC study, underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and echocardiographic examination. Left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain was analysed with CMR tagging (CMR-TAG), CMR feature tracking (CMR-FT), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Basic strain values and parameters of dyssynchrony and discoordination obtained with CMR-FT and STE were compared to CMR-TAG. Agreement of CMR-FT and CMR-TAG was overall fair, while agreement between STE and CMR-TAG was often poor. For both comparisons, agreement on discoordination parameters was highest, followed by dyssynchrony and basic strain parameters. For discoordination parameters, agreement on systolic stretch index was highest, with fair intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) (CMR-FT: 0.58, STE: 0.55). ICC of septal systolic rebound stretch (SRSsept) was poor (CMR-FT: 0.41, STE: 0.30). Internal stretch factor of septal and lateral wall (ISFsep-lat) showed fair ICC values (CMR-FT: 0.53, STE: 0.46), while the ICC of the total LV (ISFLV) was fair for CMR-FT (0.55) and poor for STE (ICC: 0.32). The CURE index had a fair ICC for both comparisons (CMR-FT: 0.49, STE 0.41). Although comparison of STE to CMR-TAG was limited by methodological differences, agreement between CMR-FT and CMR-TAG was overall higher compared to STE and CMR-TAG. CMR-FT is a potential clinical alternative for CMR-TAG and STE, especially in the detection of discoordination in CRT-candidates.
Project description:Background:Strain analysis with speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is considered superior to ejection fraction for ventricular function assessment in different clinical scenarios. Feature tracking (FT) permits cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) strain analysis in routinely acquired cine images. This study evaluated the feasibility of CMR-FT and its agreement with STE in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods:An echocardiogram and CMR were performed in 128 patients who underwent primary percutaneous revascularisation after a STEMI. Adequate strain analysis was obtained by both techniques in 98 patients and peak systolic longitudinal strain (LS) was assessed with STE and CMR-FT. Results:Of 1568 myocardial segments, 97.2% were correctly tracked with STE and 97.7% with CMR-FT. For global LS, STE showed a mean of -14.8?±?3.3% and CMR-FT -13.7?±?3.0%, with good agreement between modalities [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.826; bias -1.09%; limits of agreement (LOA)?±?4.2%]. On the other hand, segmental LS agreement was only moderate, with an ICC of 0.678 (bias -1.14%; LOA?±?11.76%) and the ICC ranged from 0.538 at the basal antero-lateral segment to 0.815 at the apical lateral segment. Finally, both STE and CMR-FT showed excellent intra- and inter-observer reproducibility (ICC?>?0.9). Conclusions:CMR-FT provides LS with similar feasibility to STE and both techniques showed good agreement for global LS, although agreement at segmental level was only moderate. CMR-FT showed excellent reproducibility, strengthening its robustness and potential for both research and clinical applications.
Project description:Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates.Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated.Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ?0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ?0.61).The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available.• Myocardial strain analysis could potentially improve patient selection for CRT. • Currently a well validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains is lacking. • The novel SLICE technique derives segmental strains from standard CMR cine images. • SLICE-derived strain markers of CRT response showed close agreement with CMR-TAG. • Future studies will focus on the prognostic value of SLICE in CRT candidates.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Left ventricular segmental wall motion analysis is important for clinical decision making in cardiac diseases. Strain analysis with myocardial tissue tagging is the non-invasive gold standard for quantitative assessment, however, it is time-consuming. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature-tracking (CMR-FT) can rapidly perform strain analysis, because it can be employed with standard CMR cine-imaging. The aim is to validate segmental peak systolic circumferential strain (peak SCS) and time to peak systolic circumferential strain (T2P-SCS) analysed by CMR-FT against tissue tagging, and determine its intra and inter-observer variability. METHODS: Patients in whom both cine CMR and tissue tagging has been performed were selected. CMR-FT analysis was done using endocardial (CMR-FTendo) and mid-wall contours (CMR-FTmid). The Intra Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Pearson correlation were calculated. RESULTS: 10 healthy volunteers, 10 left bundle branch block (LBBB) and 10 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients were selected. With CMR-FT all 480 segments were analyzable and with tissue tagging 464 segments.Significant differences in mean peak SCS values of the total study group were present between CMR-FTendo and tissue tagging (-23.8 ± 9.9% vs -13.4 ± 3.3%, p<0.001). Differences were smaller between CMR-FTmid and tissue tagging (-16.4 ± 6.1% vs -13.4 ± 3.3%, p=0.001). The ICC of the mean peak SCS of the total study group between CMR-FTendo and tissue tagging was low (0.19 (95%-CI-0.10-0.49), p=0.02). Comparable results were seen between CMR-FTmid and tissue tagging. In LBBB patients, mean T2P-SCS values measured with CMR-FTendo and CMR-FTmid were 418 ± 66 ms, 454 ± 60 ms, which were longer than with tissue tagging, 376 ± 55 ms, both p<0.05. ICC of the mean T2P-SCS between CMR-FTendo and tissue tagging was 0.64 (95%-CI-0.36-0.81), p<0.001, this was better in the healthy volunteers and LBBB group, whereas the ICC between CMR-FTmid and tissue tagging was lower.The intra and inter-observer agreement of segmental peak SCS with CMR-FTmid was lower compared with tissue tagging; similar results were seen for segmental T2P-SCS. CONCLUSIONS: The intra and inter-observer agreement of segmental peak SCS and T2P-SCS is substantially lower with CMR-FTmid compared with tissue tagging. Therefore, current segmental CMR-FTmid techniques are not yet applicable for clinical and research purposes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) is associated with increased mortality in aging and disease. Several studies have shown the accuracy of applanation tonometry carotid-femoral PWV (Cf-PWV) and the relevance of evaluating central aorta stiffness using 2D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to estimate PWV, and aortic distensibility-derived PWV through the theoretical Bramwell-Hill model (BH-PWV). Our aim was to compare various methods of aortic PWV (aoPWV) estimation from 4D flow CMR, in terms of associations with age, Cf-PWV, BH-PWV and left ventricular (LV) mass-to-volume ratio while evaluating inter-observer reproducibility and robustness to temporal resolution. METHODS:We studied 47 healthy subjects (49.5?±?18?years) who underwent Cf-PWV and CMR including aortic 4D flow CMR as well as 2D cine SSFP for BH-PWV and LV mass-to-volume ratio estimation. The aorta was semi-automatically segmented from 4D flow data, and mean velocity waveforms were estimated in 25 planes perpendicular to the aortic centerline. 4D flow CMR aoPWV was calculated: using velocity curves at two locations, namely ascending aorta (AAo) and distal descending aorta (DAo) aorta (S1, 2D-like strategy), or using all velocity curves along the entire aortic centreline (3D-like strategies) with iterative transit time (TT) estimates (S2) or a plane fitting of velocity curves systolic upslope (S3). For S1 and S2, TT was calculated using three approaches: cross-correlation (TTc), wavelets (TTw) and Fourier transforms (TTf). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman biases (BA) were used to evaluate inter-observer reproducibility and effect of lower temporal resolution. RESULTS:4D flow CMR aoPWV estimates were significantly (p?<?0.05) correlated to the CMR-independent Cf-PWV, BH-PWV, age and LV mass-to-volume ratio, with the strongest correlations for the 3D-like strategy using wavelets TT (S2-TTw) (R?=?0.62, 0.65, 0.77 and 0.52, respectively, all p?<?0.001). S2-TTw was also highly reproducible (ICC?=?0.99, BA?=?0.09?m/s) and robust to lower temporal resolution (ICC?=?0.97, BA?=?0.15?m/s). CONCLUSIONS:Reproducible 4D flow CMR aoPWV estimates can be obtained using full 3D aortic coverage. Such 4D flow CMR stiffness measures were significantly associated with Cf-PWV, BH-PWV, age and LV mass-to-volume ratio, with a slight superiority of the 3D strategy using wavelets transit time (S2-TTw).