The ATPase activities of sulfonylurea receptor 2A and sulfonylurea receptor 2B are influenced by the C-terminal 42 amino acids.
ABSTRACT: Unusually among ATP-binding cassette proteins, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) acts as a channel regulator. ATP-sensitive potassium channels are octameric complexes composed of four pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and four regulatory SUR subunits. Two different genes encode SUR1 (ABCC8) and SUR2 (ABCC9), with the latter being differentially spliced to give SUR2A and SUR2B, which differ only in their C-terminal 42 amino acids. ATP-sensitive potassium channels containing these different SUR2 isoforms are differentially modulated by MgATP, with Kir6.2/SUR2B being activated more than Kir6.2/SUR2A. We show here that purified SUR2B has a lower ATPase activity and a 10-fold lower K(m) for MgATP than SUR2A. Similarly, the isolated nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) 2 of SUR2B was less active than that of SUR2A. We further found that the NBDs of SUR2B interact, and that the activity of full-length SUR cannot be predicted from that of either the isolated NBDs or NBD mixtures. Notably, deletion of the last 42 amino acids from NBD2 of SUR2 resulted in ATPase activity resembling that of NBD2 of SUR2A rather than that of NBD2 of SUR2B: this might indicate that these amino acids are responsible for the lower ATPase activity of SUR2B and the isolated NBD2 of SUR2B. We suggest that the lower ATPase activity of SUR2B may result in enhanced duration of the MgADP-bound state, leading to channel activation.
Project description:ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are composed of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein (SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B) and an inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (Kir6.1 or Kir6.2). Like other ABC proteins, the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of SUR contain a highly conserved "signature sequence" (the linker, LSGGQ) whose function is unclear. Mutation of the conserved serine to arginine in the linker of NBD1 (S1R) or NBD2 (S2R) did not alter the ability of ATP or ADP (100 microM) to displace 8-azido-[(32)P]ATP binding to SUR1, or abolish ATP hydrolysis at NBD2. We co-expressed Kir6.2 with wild-type or mutant SUR in Xenopus oocytes and recorded the resulting currents in inside-out macropatches. The S1R mutation in SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B reduced K(ATP) current activation by 100 microM MgADP, whereas the S2R mutation in SUR1 or SUR2B (but not SUR2A) abolished MgADP activation completely. The linker mutations also reduced (S1R) or abolished (S2R) MgATP-dependent activation of Kir6.2-R50G co-expressed with SUR1 or SUR2B. These results suggest that the linker serines are not required for nucleotide binding but may be involved in transducing nucleotide binding into channel activation.
Project description:1. ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (K(ATP) channels) are composed of pore-forming subunits (Kir6.x) and of regulatory subunits, the sulphonylurea receptors (SURx). Synthetic openers of K(ATP) channels form a chemically heterogeneous class of compounds that are of interest in several therapeutic areas. We have investigated the interaction of a novel dihydropyridine opener, A-312110 ((9R)-9-(4-fluoro-3-iodophenyl)-2,3,5,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrano[3,4-b]thieno [2,3-e]pyridin-8(7H)-one-1,1-dioxide), with SURs and Kir6/SUR channels in comparison to the cyanoguanidine opener P1075. 2. In the presence of 1 mM MgATP, A-312110 bound to SUR2A (the SUR in cardiac and skeletal muscle) and to SUR2B (smooth muscle) with K(i) values of 14 and 18 nM; the corresponding values for P1075 were 16 and 9 nM, respectively. Decreasing the MgATP concentration reduced the affinity of A312110 binding to SUR2A significantly more than that to SUR2B; for P1075, the converse was true. At SUR1 (pancreatic beta-cell), both openers showed little binding up to 100 microM. 3. In the presence of MgATP, both openers inhibited [(3)H]glibenclamide binding to the SUR2 subtypes in a biphasic manner. In the absence of MgATP, the high-affinity component of the inhibition curves was absent. 4. In inside-out patches, the two openers activated the Kir6.2/SUR2A and Kir6.2/SUR2B channels with similar potency (approximately 50 nm). Both were almost 2 x more efficacious in opening the Kir6.2/SUR2B than the Kir6.2/SUR2A channel. 5. The results show that the novel dihydropyridine A-312110 is a potent K(ATP) channel opener with binding and channel-opening properties similar to those of P1075.
Project description:1: ATP-sensitive K(+) channels are composed of pore-forming subunits Kir6.2 and of sulphonylurea receptors (SURs); the latter are the target of the hypoglycaemic sulphonylureas like glibenclamide. Here, we report on the negative allosteric modulation by MgATP and MgADP of glibenclamide binding to SUR1 and to SUR2 mutants with high glibenclamide affinity, SUR2A(Y1206S) and SUR2B(Y1206S). 2: ATP, in the presence of an ATP-regenerating system to oppose hydrolysis during incubation, inhibited glibenclamide binding to SUR1 and SUR2B(Y1206S) by approximately 60%, to SUR2A(Y1206S) by 21%). Inhibition curves for the SUR2(Y1206S) isoforms were monophasic with IC(50) values of 5-10 microM; the curve for SUR1 was biphasic (IC(50) values 4.7 and 1300 microM). 3: Glibenclamide inhibition curves for ADP, performed in the presence of an ATP-consuming system to oppose ATP formation from ADP, were generally shifted rightwards and showed positive cooperativity, in particular with the SUR2(Y1206S) isoforms. 4: In the absence of the coupled enzyme systems, inhibition curves of MgATP or MgADP were generally shifted leftwards. This indicated synergy of MgATP and MgATP in acting together. 5: Coexpression of SUR1 and SUR2B(Y1206S) with Kir6.2 reduced both potency and efficacy of ATP in inhibiting glibenclamide binding; this was particularly marked for Kir6.2/SUR1. 6: The data show (a) that the inhibitory effects of ATP and ADP on glibenclamide binding differ from one another, (b) that they depend on the SUR subtype, and (c) that they are weakened by coexpression with Kir6.2.
Project description:1. We have investigated the mechanism of action of the novel anti-diabetic agent mitiglinide (S 21403) on Kir6.2/SUR1, Kir6.2/SUR2A and Kir6.2/SUR2B types of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel. These possess a common pore-forming subunit, Kir6.2, and different regulatory sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. It is believed that they correspond to native K(ATP) channels in pancreatic beta-cells, heart and non-vascular smooth muscle, respectively. 2. Kir6.2 was coexpressed with SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B in Xenopus oocytes and macroscopic currents were recorded in giant inside-out membrane patches. Mitiglinide was added to the intracellular membrane surface. 3. Mitiglinide inhibited Kir6.2/SUR currents at two sites: a low-affinity site on Kir6.2 and a high-affinity site on SUR. Low-affinity inhibition was similar for all three types of K(ATP) channel but high-affinity inhibition was greater for Kir6.2/SUR1 currents (IC(50), 4 nM) than for Kir6.2/SUR2A or Kir6.2/SUR2B currents (IC(50), 3 and 5 microM, respectively). 4. Inhibition of Kir6.2/SUR1 currents was only slowly reversible on the time scale of electrophysiological experiments. 5. Kir6.2/SUR1-S1237Y currents, which previously have been shown to lack high affinity tolbutamide inhibition, resembled Kir6.2/SUR2 currents in being unaffected by 100 nM but blocked by 10 microM mitiglinide. 6. Our results show that mitiglinide is a high-affinity drug that shows a 1000 fold greater affinity for the beta-cell type than the cardiac and smooth muscle types of K(ATP) channel, when measured in excised patches.
Project description:Nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) secure ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter function. Distinct from traditional ABC transporters, ABCC9-encoded sulfonylurea receptors (SUR2A) form, with Kir6.2 potassium channels, ATP-sensitive K+ (K ATP) channel complexes. SUR2A contains ATPase activity harbored within NBD2 and, to a lesser degree, NBD1, with catalytically driven conformations exerting determinate linkage on the Kir6.2 channel pore. While homodomain interactions typify NBDs of conventional ABC transporters, heterodomain NBD interactions and their functional consequence have not been resolved for the atypical SUR2A protein. Here, nanoscale protein topography mapped assembly of monodisperse purified recombinant SUR2A NBD1/NBD2 domains, precharacterized by dynamic light scattering. Heterodomain interaction produced conformational rearrangements inferred by secondary structural change in circular dichroism, and validated by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. Physical engagement of NBD1 with NBD2 translated into enhanced intrinsic ATPase activity. Molecular modeling delineated a complemental asymmetry of NBD1/NBD2 ATP-binding sites. Mutation in the predicted catalytic base residue, D834E of NBD1, altered NBD1 ATPase activity disrupting potentiation of catalytic behavior in the NBD1/NBD2 interactome. Thus, NBD1/NBD2 assembly, resolved by a panel of proteomic approaches, provides a molecular substrate that determines the optimal catalytic activity in SUR2A, establishing a paradigm for the structure-function relationship within the K ATP channel complex.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels formed by a combination of SUR/Kir6.x subunits play a crucial role in protection against hypoxic or ischemic injuries resulting from cell metabolic disorders. In this study we investigated the effects of Na-azide, a metabolic inhibitor, on KATP channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and explored the structure basis for their sensitivity to cell metabolic disorders.<h4>Methods</h4>Six subtypes of KATP channels (wild SUR1/Kir6.2, SUR2B/Kir6.2, SUR1/Kir6.1, SUR2B/Kir6.1, SUR2A/Kir6.2 and SUR2A/Kir6.1), as well as eleven subtypes of KATP channels with mutant subunits were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. KATP currents were recorded using a two-electrode voltage clamp recording technique. The drugs were applied through bath.<h4>Results</h4>Except SUR2A/Kir6.1, five subtypes of KATP channels were activated by Na-azide (3 mmol/L) with an order of the responses: SUR1/Kir6.2>SUR2B/Kir6.2>SUR1/Kir6.1>SUR2B/Kir6.1>SUR2A/Kir6.2, and the opening rate (t1/2) was SUR1/Kir6.x>SUR2B/Kir6.x>SUR2A/Kir6.2. Furthermore, Kir6.2, rather than Kir6.1, had intrinsic sensitivity to Na-azide, and the residues involved in ATP-binding (R50 and K185) or pH-sensing (H175) were associated with the sensitivity of the Kir6.2 subunit to Na-azide. Moreover, the residues (K707 and K1348) within the Walker A (WA) motifs of two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) were essential for SUR2B/Kir6.x (especially SUR2B/Kir6.1) channel activation by Na-azide, suggesting a key role for Mg-adenine nucleotide binding and/or hydrolysis in the SUR2B subunit.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Among the six subtypes of KATP channels, SUR1/Kir6.2 is the most sensitive, whereas SUR2A/Kir6.1 is insensitive, to cell metabolic disorders. The Kir6.2 subunit, rather than the Kir6.1 subunit, has intrinsic sensitivity to cell metabolic disorders. The residues (K707 and K1348) within the WA motifs of SUR2B are important for the sensitivity of SUR2B/Kir6.x channels to cell metabolic disorders.
Project description:1. ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (K(ATP) channels) are tetradimeric complexes of inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (Kir6.x) and sulphonylurea receptors (SURs). The SURs SUR2A (cardiac) and SUR2B (smooth muscle) differ only in the last 42 amino acids. In SUR2B, the mutation Y1206S, located at intracellular loop 8, increases the affinity for glibenclamide (GBC) about 10-fold. Here, we examined whether the mutation Y1206S in SUR2A had effects similar to those in SUR2B.2. GBC bound to SUR2A with K(D)=20 nM; the mutation increased affinity approximately 5 x. 3. In cells, coexpression of SUR2A with Kir6.2 increased the affinity for GBC approximately 3 x; with the mutant, the increase was 9 x. 4. The mutation did not affect the affinity of SUR2A for openers; coexpression with Kir6.2 reduced opener affinity of wild-type and mutant SUR2A by about 2 x. 5. The negative allosteric interaction between the opener, P1075, and GBC at wild-type and mutant SUR2A was markedly affected by the presence of MgATP and by coexpression with Kir6.2. 6. In inside-out patches, GBC inhibited the wild-type Kir6.2/SUR2A and 2B channels with IC(50) values of 27 nM; the mutation shifted the IC(50) values to approximately 1 nM. 7. The data show that the mutation Y1206S increased the affinity of SUR2A for GBC and modulated the effects of coexpression. Overall, the changes were similar to those observed with SUR2B(Y1206S), suggesting that the differences in the last 42 carboxy-terminal amino acids of SUR2A and 2B are of limited influence on the binding of GBC and P1075 to the SUR2 isoforms.
Project description:K(ATP) channels are metabolic sensors and targets of potassium channel openers (KCO; e.g., diazoxide and pinacidil). They comprise four sulfonylurea receptors (SUR) and four potassium channel subunits (Kir6) and are critical in regulating insulin secretion. Different SUR subtypes (SUR1, SUR2A, SUR2B) largely determine the metabolic sensitivities and the pharmacological profiles of K(ATP) channels. SUR1- but not SUR2-containing channels are highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition and diazoxide, whereas SUR2 channels are sensitive to pinacidil. It is generally believed that SUR1 and SUR2 are incompatible in channel coassembly. We used triple tandems, T1 and T2, each containing one SUR (SUR1 or SUR2A) and two Kir6.2Delta26 (last 26 residues are deleted) to examine the coassembly of different SUR. When T1 or T2 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, small whole-cell currents were activated by metabolic inhibition (induced by azide) plus a KCO (diazoxide for T1, pinacidil for T2). When coexpressed with any SUR subtype, the activated-currents were increased by 2- to 13-fold, indicating that different SUR can coassemble. Consistent with this, heteromeric SUR1+SUR2A channels were sensitive to azide, diazoxide, and pinacidil, and their single-channel burst duration was 2-fold longer than that of the T1 channels. Furthermore, SUR2A was coprecipitated with SUR1. Using whole-cell recording and immunostaining, heteromeric channels could also be detected when T1 and SUR2A were coexpressed in mammalian cells. Finally, the response of the SUR1+SUR2A channels to azide was found to be intermediate to those of the homomeric channels. Therefore, different SUR subtypes can coassemble into K(ATP) channels with distinct metabolic sensitivities and pharmacological profiles.
Project description:1. We examined the effect of the sulphonylurea glimepiride on three types of recombinant ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels. 2. K(ATP) channels share a common pore-forming subunit, Kir6.2, which associates with different sulphonylurea receptor isoforms (SUR1 in beta-cells, SUR2A in heart and SUR2B in smooth muscle). 3. Kir6.2 was coexpressed with SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B in Xenopus oocytes and macroscopic K(ATP) currents were recorded from giant inside-out membrane patches. Glimepiride was added to the intracellular membrane surface. 4. Glimepiride inhibited Kir6.2/SUR currents by interaction with two sites: a low-affinity site on Kir6.2 (IC(50)= approximately 400 microM) and a high-affinity site on SUR (IC(50)=3.0 nM for SUR1, 5.4 nM for SUR2A and 7.3 nM for SUR2B). The potency of glimepiride at the high-affinity site is close to that observed for glibenclamide (4 nM for SUR1, 27 nM for SUR2A), which has a similar structure. 5. Glimepiride inhibition of Kir6.2/SUR2A and Kir6.2/SUR2B currents, but not Kir6.2/SUR1 currents, reversed rapidly. 6. Our results indicate that glimepiride is a high-affinity sulphonylurea that does not select between the beta-cell, cardiac and smooth muscle types of recombinant K(ATP) channel, when measured in inside-out patches. High-affinity inhibition is mediated by interaction of the drug with the sulphonylurea receptor subunit of the channel.
Project description:Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is used as a bone-specific antiresorptive drug with antimyeloma effects. Adverse drug reactions (A.D.R.) are associated with ZOL-therapy, whose mechanics are unknown. ZOL is a nitrogen-containing molecule whose structure shows similarities with nucleotides, ligands of ATP-sensitive K<sup>+</sup> (KATP) channels. We investigated the action of ZOL by performing in vitro patch-clamp experiments on native KATP channels in murine skeletal muscle fibers, bone cells, and recombinant subunits in cell lines, and by in silico docking the nucleotide site on KIR and SUR, as well as the glibenclamide site. ZOL fully inhibited the KATP currents recorded in excised macro-patches from Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and Soleus (SOL) muscle fibers with an IC<sub>50</sub> of 1.2 ± 1.4 × 10<sup>-6</sup> and 2.1 ± 3.7 × 10<sup>-10</sup> M, respectively, and the KATP currents recorded in cell-attached patches from primary long bone cells with an IC<sub>50</sub> of 1.6 ± 2.8 × 10<sup>-10</sup> M. ZOL fully inhibited a whole-cell KATP channel current of recombinant KIR6.1-SUR2B and KIR6.2-SUR2A subunits expressed in HEK293 cells with an IC<sub>50</sub> of 3.9 ± 2.7 × 10<sup>-10</sup> M and 7.1 ± 3.1 × 10<sup>-6</sup> M, respectively. The rank order of potency in inhibiting the KATP currents was: KIR6.1-SUR2B/SOL-KATP/osteoblast-KATP > KIR6.2-SUR2A/EDL-KATP >>> KIR6.2-SUR1 and KIR6.1-SUR1. Docking investigation revealed that the drug binds to the ADP/ATP sites on KIR6.1/2 and SUR2A/B and on the sulfonylureas site showing low binding energy <6 Kcal/mol for the KIR6.1/2-SUR2 subunits vs. the <4 Kcal/mol for the KIR6.2-SUR1. The IC<sub>50</sub> of ZOL to inhibit the KIR6.1/2-SUR2A/B channels were correlated with its musculoskeletal and cardiovascular risks. We first showed that ZOL blocks at subnanomolar concentration musculoskeletal KATP channels and cardiac and vascular KIR6.2/1-SUR2 channels.