Mortality in long-distance running races in Sweden - 2007-2016.
ABSTRACT: During the last decade, an increasing popularity of marathons has been seen. Although running has been shown to have considerable positive health effects, the risk of sudden death, most often due to sudden cardiac arrests, is also a risk runners expose themselves to. Whilst there are some studies on the mortality amongst long-distance runners, much of the evidence is dated. Given the increased popularity in running during the 21st century as well as the improvements in medical care at marathons, more knowledge is required on the mortality risk.Publicly available racing and news databases were used to identify the number of entrants and finishers in half to full marathons in Sweden between 2007 and 2016 and the number of deaths that occurred in conjunction with the races.A total of 1,156,271 runners entered a long distance (21-42km) running race in Sweden between 2007 and 2016, and 834,412 runners finished the races (72.2%). A large majority of the finishers (677,050 (81%)) competed in distances under a full marathon. Two deaths occurred during the time period, meaning that the death rate was 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.79) per 100,000 finishers.This study can show that death rates in long distance running races between 2007 and 2016 in Sweden are very low, compared to previous studies. When added to the existing literature, the combined picture suggests a general downward trend in the risk of death during marathons since the 1980s.
Project description:PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of all runners' performances in the largest marathons worldwide and to determine which environmental parameters have the maximal impact. METHODS: We analysed the results of six European (Paris, London, Berlin) and American (Boston, Chicago, New York) marathon races from 2001 to 2010 through 1,791,972 participants' performances (all finishers per year and race). Four environmental factors were gathered for each of the 60 races: temperature (°C), humidity (%), dew point (°C), and the atmospheric pressure at sea level (hPA); as well as the concentrations of four atmospheric pollutants: NO(2)-SO(2)-O(3) and PM(10) (?g x m(-3)). RESULTS: All performances per year and race are normally distributed with distribution parameters (mean and standard deviation) that differ according to environmental factors. Air temperature and performance are significantly correlated through a quadratic model. The optimal temperatures for maximal mean speed of all runners vary depending on the performance level. When temperature increases above these optima, running speed decreases and withdrawal rates increase. Ozone also impacts performance but its effect might be linked to temperature. The other environmental parameters do not have any significant impact. CONCLUSIONS: The large amount of data analyzed and the model developed in this study highlight the major influence of air temperature above all other climatic parameter on human running capacity and adaptation to race conditions.
Project description:Background: Beyond the difference in marathon performance when comparing female and male runners, we tested the hypothesis that running strategy does not different according to sex. The goal of the present study is to compare the running strategy between the best female and male marathon performances achieved in the last two years. Methods: Two aspects of the races were analyzed: (i) average speed relative to runner critical speed (CS) with its coefficient of variation and (ii) asymmetry and global tendency of race speed (i.e., the race's Kendall ? ) . Results: The females' best marathons were run at 97.6% ± 3% of CS for the new record (Brigid Kosgei, 2019) and at 96.1% ± 4.4% for the previous record (Paula Radcliffe, 2003). The best male performances (Eliud Kipchoge, 2018 and 2019) were achieved at a lower fraction of CS (94.7% ± 1.7% and 94.1% ± 2.3% in 2018 and 2019, respectively). Eliud Kipchoge (EK) achieved a significant negative split race considering the positive Kendall's ? of pacing (i.e., time over 1 km) ( ? = 0.30; p = 0.007). Furthermore, EK ran more of the average distance below average speed (54% and 55% in 2018 and 2019, respectively), while female runners ran only at 46% below their average speed. Conclusions: The best female and male marathon performances were run differently considering speed time course (i.e., tendency and asymmetry), and fractional use of CS. In addition, this study shows a robust running strategy (or signature) used by EK in two different marathons. Improvement in marathon performance might depend on negative split and asymmetry for female runners, and on higher fractional utilization of CS for male runners.
Project description:Many studies exist on the incidence and related risk factors of running injuries, such as those obtained during marathons. However, in gorge-terrain marathons, an insufficient number of reports exist in the relevant literature. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries occurring in participants in the 2013 to 2018 Taroko Gorge Marathons in Taiwan and the distribution of running injuries and related influencing factors. A total of 718 runners who entered the physiotherapy station presented with records of treatment and injuries and filled out a running-related injury and self-training questionnaire for further statistical analysis. The association between risk factors and injury were evaluated by logistic regression. The injured areas on the lower extremities after the gorge marathon were as follows: 28% in the knees, 20% in the posterior calves, 13% in the thighs, 10% in the ankles, and 8% in the feet. The analysis of injury-related risk factors showed that male athletes demonstrated a higher risk of thigh injury than female athletes (OR = 2.42, p = 0.002). Underweight runners exhibited a higher risk of thigh injury (OR = 3.35, p = 0.006). We conclude that in the gorge marathon the rates of knee, calf, thigh, and foot injuries are significantly increased. Medical professionals, coaches, and runners may use the findings of this study to reduce the potential risk of running injuries in marathons.
Project description:As long-distance races have substantially increased in popularity over the last few years, the improvement of training programs has become a matter of concern to runners, coaches and health professionals. Triaxial accelerometers have been proposed as a one of the most accurate tools to evaluate physical activity during free-living conditions. In this study, eighty-eight recreational marathon runners, aged 30-45 years, completed a marathon wearing a GENEActiv accelerometer on their non-dominant wrist. Energy consumed by each runner during the marathon was estimated based on both running speed and accelerometer output data, by applying the previously established GENEActiv cut-points for discriminating the six relative-intensity activity levels. Since accelerometry allowed to perform an individualized estimation of energy consumption, higher interpersonal differences in the number of calories consumed by a runner were observed after applying the accelerometry-based approach as compared to the speed-based method. Therefore, pacing analyses should include information of effort intensity distribution in order to adjust race pacing appropriately to achieve the marathon goal time. Several biomechanical and physiological parameters (maximum oxygen uptake, energy cost of running and running economy) were also inferred from accelerometer output data, which is of great value for coaches and doctors.
Project description:Physical inactivity has become a major public health concern and, consequently, the awareness of striving for a healthy lifestyle has increased. As a result, the popularity of recreational sports, such as running, has increased. Running is known for its low threshold to start and its attractiveness for a heterogeneous group of people. Yet, one can still observe high drop-out rates among (novice) runners. To understand the reasons for drop-out as perceived by runners, we investigate potential reasons to quit running among short distance runners (5 km and 10 km) (n = 898). Data used in this study were drawn from the standardized online Eindhoven Running Survey 2016 (ERS16). Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate the relation between reasons to quit running and different variables like socio-demographic variables, running habits and attitudes, interests, and opinions (AIOs) on running. Our results indicate that, not only people of different gender and age show significant differences in perceived reasons to quit running, also running habits, (e.g., running context and frequency) and AIOs are related to perceived reasons to quit running too. With insights into these related variables, potential drop-out reasons could help health professionals in understanding and lowering drop-out rates among recreational runners.
Project description:Objective:To determine whether there is a "dose-dependent" relationship between coronary atherosclerosis and the burden of exercise. Background:Recent data have suggested there may be negative consequences related to strenuous exercise. Previous studies evaluating the presence of coronary atherosclerosis as assessed by coronary calcium scores have been confounded by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to assess whether there was a relationship between the burden of coronary calcium and the amount of running in a local cohort. Patients and Methods:Eighty-five runners were screened on the basis of an exercise questionnaire that was later used to determine the experimental groups from January 2016 through October 2016. Twenty-nine individuals were excluded from the study because of the presence of preexisting cardiovascular risk factors. Runners were divided into 3 categories: Group A comprised runners who had competed in at least 10 ultramarathons and/or Ironman competitions in 10 years. Group B included runners who had participated in more than 9 marathons over 10 years. Group C comprised runners who had competed in more than 9 shorter races over 10 years. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores were assessed by computed tomography. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square analyses. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between runner groups and calcium score greater than 100, calcium score percentile, and calcium score greater than 0. Results:There were no differences between groups A and B for CAC scores greater than 0 or greater than 100, and a similar percentage of group A and B athletes had scores greater than the 50th percentile. Groups A and B were combined for further analysis. Among those runners participating in extreme distance running (groups A and B), 73% of runners had CAC scores greater than 0 whereas only 21% of group C runners had CAC scores greater than 0 (P=.0002). Moreover, 70% of group A + B athletes ranked above the 50th percentile of their age and sex as assessed by a national database (Hoff JA, Chomka EV, Krainik AJ, Daviglus M, Rich S, Kondos GT. Age and gender distributions of coronary artery calcium detected by electron beam tomography in 35,246 adults. Am J Cardiol. 2001;87(12):1335-1339), whereas only 19% of group C runners were ranked above the 50th percentile (P=.0001). One-third of runners in group A + B had CAC scores greater than 100 as compared with only 12% of runners in group C (P=.05). When controlling for age, sex, and number of years running, the study group was not a significant predictor of CAC greater than 100 (P=.12). In contrast, group A + B was 10 times more likely than group C to have CAC scores in the 50th percentile or greater (P=.02) and 8.8 times more likely to have a abnormal calcium score when controlling for covariates (P=.03). Conclusion:A significantly higher rate of coronary artery calcification existed in long-term marathon, ultramarathon, and extreme runners than in submarathon runners. Marathoners and ultramarathoners also had a higher incidence of calcification, as well as higher average plaque burden, as compared to a standard database. Marathoners and ultramarathoners also had above-average coronary calcium scores as compared to a national database.
Project description:Purpose:This study aimed to examine differences between track and field (T&F) runners and foot-orienteers (Foot-O) in the walking and running tests in the absence of vision and hearing. We attempted to determine whether experienced foot orienteers show better ability to maintain the indicated direction compared to track and field runners. Methods:This study examined 11 Foot-O and 11 T&F runners. The study consisted of an interview, a field experiment of walking and running in a straight line in the absence of vision and hearing, and coordination skills tests. Results:Participants moved straight min. 20 m and max. 40 m during the walking test and min. 20 m and max. 125 m during the running test and then they moved around in a circle. Significant differences between groups were found for the distance covered by walking. Differences between sexes were documented for the distance covered by running and angular deviations. Relationship between lateralization and tendencies to veer were not found. Differences were observed between Foot-O and T&F groups in terms of coordination abilities. Conclusions:Participants moved in circles irrespective of the type of movement and experience in practicing the sport. Orienteers may use information about their tendencies to turning more often left or right to correct it during their races in dense forests with limited visibility or during night orienteering competition.
Project description:The aim of this work is to analyse the commitment to running among urban runners by identifying groups regarding commitment to this sport and by defining their sociodemographic profile and their sports habits. A sample of 1806 participants in popular urban races in the city of Valencia was interviewed using an 11-item questionnaire on commitment to running, sociodemographic characteristics, and sports habits. The psychometric properties of the running-commitment scale allowed for the identification of two factors in commitment to running: enthusiasm for running (6 items) and affliction from running (5 items). Subsequently, a cluster analysis combining hierarchical and non-hierarchical methods was performed, identifying three groups of runners: highly committed (n = 650), moderately committed (n = 749), and slightly committed (n = 407). Highly committed runners positively rate all aspects of running enthusiasm (M = 4.15), while moderately committed runners show a more neutral attitude (M = 3.41) and slightly committed runners disagree on these aspects (M = 2.41). Both highly (M = 1.32) and moderately (M = 2.04) committed runners disagree on the affliction-related aspects of running, while slightly committed runners show a trend towards neutrality on some affliction indicators. The variables referring to age, level of studies, sports habits, and running addiction contributed to differentiating the identified groups.
Project description:This paper presents a novel application of Bayesian nonparametrics (BNP) for marathon data modeling. We make use of two well-known BNP priors, the single-p dependent Dirichlet process and the hierarchical Dirichlet process, in order to address two different problems. First, we study the impact of age, gender and environment on the runners' performance. We derive a fair grading method that allows direct comparison of runners regardless of their age and gender. Unlike current grading systems, our approach is based not only on top world records, but on the performances of all runners. The presented methodology for comparison of densities can be adopted in many other applications straightforwardly, providing an interesting perspective to build dependent Dirichlet processes. Second, we analyze the running patterns of the marathoners in time, obtaining information that can be valuable for training purposes. We also show that these running patterns can be used to predict finishing time given intermediate interval measurements. We apply our models to New York City, Boston and London marathons.
Project description:Research on hyponatremia during mountain marathons is scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia during a 44-km trail running race that reached an altitude of 2780 m (Olympus Marathon). Sixty-two runners (five women) who completed the race participated in the study (age: 34.4 ± 8.6 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m; and weight: 75.3 ± 10.0 kg). Anthropometric characteristics, blood, and urine samples were collected pre- and post-race. Food and fluid intake were recorded at each checkpoint. Due to race regulations, the runners could not carry any additional food and fluids besides the ones provided at specific checkpoints. Five runners (8%) exhibited asymptomatic hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mmol?L-1). Serum sodium in the hyponatremic runners decreased from 138.4 ± 0.9 (pre) to 131.4 ± 5.0 mmol?L-1 (post), p < 0.05. Plasma osmolality increased only in the eunatremic runners (pre: 290 ± 3; post: 295 ± 6 mmol?kg-1; p < 0.05). Plasma volume decreased more in the hyponatremic compared to eunatremic runners (-4.4 ± 2.0 vs. -3.2 ± 1.4%, p < 0.05). Lastly, dietary sodium intake was lower in the hyponatremic runners compared to eunatremic (789 ± 813 vs. 906 ± 672 mg; p < 0.05). The incidence of hyponatremia among the athletes was relatively low, possibly due to race conditions.