X-ray-enhanced cancer cell migration requires the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex.
ABSTRACT: The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, including nuclear migration, mechanotransduction, chromatin tethering and DNA damage response. We recently showed that a nuclear envelope protein, Sad1 and UNC84 domain protein 1 (SUN1), a component of the LINC complex, has a critical function in cell migration. Although ionizing radiation activates cell migration and invasion in vivo and in vitro, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here, we examined the involvement of the LINC complex in radiation-enhanced cell migration and invasion. A sublethal dose of X-ray radiation promoted human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasion, whereas carbon ion beam radiation suppressed these processes in a dose-dependent manner. Depletion of SUN1 and SUN2 significantly suppressed X-ray-enhanced cell migration and invasion. Moreover, depletion or overexpression of each SUN1 splicing variant revealed that SUN1_888 containing 888 amino acids of SUN1 but not SUN1_916 was required for X-ray-enhanced migration and invasion. In addition, the results suggested that X-ray irradiation affected the expression level of SUN1 splicing variants and a SUN protein binding partner, nesprins. Taken together, our findings supported that the LINC complex contributed to photon-enhanced cell migration and invasion.
Project description:The LINC complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, such as nuclear migration, mechanotransduction and chromatin tethering in the meiotic phase. However, it remains unknown how these functions are regulated in different cell contexts. An inner nuclear membrane component of the LINC complex, SUN1, is ubiquitously expressed. The human SUN1 gene produces over 10 variants by alternative splicing. Although functions of SUN1 are relatively well characterized, functional differences among SUN1 splice variants are poorly characterized. LINC complex components are associated with a wide range of human diseases; therefore, it is important to understand the functional diversity among SUN1 splice variants. Here, we identified a novel human SUN1 splice variant, SUN1_888. overexpression of the SUN1 splice variants, SUN1_888 or SUN1_785, but not the predominant isoform, SUN1_916, activated directional cell migration. Knockdown of SUN1_888 suppressed cell migration; in contrast depletion of SUN1_916 activated cell migration. In addition, all of investigated SUN1 splicing variants rescued cell migration in SUN1 knock out cell. These results indicate that redundant and non-redundant functions of SUN1 splice variant in directional cell migration and suggest that variable LINC complexes with distinct task may exit. Furthermore, in contrast to previous studies, we showed association between SUN1 and B-type lamins. Interestingly, B-type lamin preferentially interacts with SUN1 but not SUN2. These results suggest that tissue-specific SUN1 variants variably interact with nucleoplasmic partners and allow variable assembly of LINC complexes that can be assigned to distinct tasks.
Project description:LInkers of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes, composed of SUN and KASH-domain proteins, span the nuclear envelope and physically connect the nuclear interior to cytoskeletal elements. Most human cells contain two SUN proteins, Sun1 and Sun2, and several KASH-proteins suggesting that multiple functionally distinct LINC complexes co-exist in the nuclear envelope. We show here, however, that while Sun1 and Sun2 in HeLa cells are each able to bind KASH-domains, Sun1 is more efficiently incorporated into LINC complexes under normal growth conditions. Furthermore, the balance of Sun1 and Sun2 incorporated into LINC complexes is cell type-specific and is correlated with SRF/Mkl1-dependent gene expression. In addition, we found that Sun1 has a LINC complex-independent role in transcriptional control, possibly by regulating the SRF/Mkl1 pathway. Together, these data reveal novel insights into the mechanisms of LINC complex regulation and demonstrate that Sun1 modulates gene expression independently of its incorporation into LINC complexes.
Project description:Mammalian Sun1 belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of inner nuclear membrane proteins, which are known as SUN domain proteins. SUN domain proteins interact with KASH domain partners to form bridging complexes, so-called LINC complexes, that physically connect the nuclear interior to the cytoskeleton. LINC complexes are critical for nuclear integrity and play fundamental roles in nuclear positioning, shaping and movement. The mammalian genome codes for at least five different SUN domain proteins used for the formation of a number of different LINC complexes. Recently, we reported on the identification of several Sun1 isoforms, which tremendously enlarges the alternatives to form functional LINC complexes. We now confirmed that Sun1 actually exists in at least seven distinct splice variants. Besides that, we observed that expression of individual Sun1 isoforms remarkably depends on the cell type, suggesting a cell type-specific adaption of Sun1 dependent LINC complexes to specific cellular and physiological requirements.
Project description:Proteins of the nuclear envelope (NE) are associated with a range of inherited disorders, most commonly involving muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy, as exemplified by Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). EDMD is both genetically and phenotypically variable, and some evidence of modifier genes has been reported. Six genes have so far been linked to EDMD, four encoding proteins associated with the LINC complex that connects the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. However, 50% of patients have no identifiable mutations in these genes. Using a candidate approach, we have identified putative disease-causing variants in the SUN1 and SUN2 genes, also encoding LINC complex components, in patients with EDMD and related myopathies. Our data also suggest that SUN1 and SUN2 can act as disease modifier genes in individuals with co-segregating mutations in other EDMD genes. Five SUN1/SUN2 variants examined impaired rearward nuclear repositioning in fibroblasts, confirming defective LINC complex function in nuclear-cytoskeletal coupling. Furthermore, myotubes from a patient carrying compound heterozygous SUN1 mutations displayed gross defects in myonuclear organization. This was accompanied by loss of recruitment of centrosomal marker, pericentrin, to the NE and impaired microtubule nucleation at the NE, events that are required for correct myonuclear arrangement. These defects were recapitulated in C2C12 myotubes expressing exogenous SUN1 variants, demonstrating a direct link between SUN1 mutation and impairment of nuclear-microtubule coupling and myonuclear positioning. Our findings strongly support an important role for SUN1 and SUN2 in muscle disease pathogenesis and support the hypothesis that defects in the LINC complex contribute to disease pathology through disruption of nuclear-microtubule association, resulting in defective myonuclear positioning.
Project description:Nuclear export of messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) can be roughly classified into two forms: bulk and specific export, involving an nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1)-dependent pathway and chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent pathway, respectively. SUN proteins constitute the inner nuclear envelope component of the l I: nker of N: ucleoskeleton and C: ytoskeleton (LINC) complex. Here, we show that mammalian cells require SUN1 for efficient nuclear mRNP export. The results indicate that both SUN1 and SUN2 interact with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) F/H and hnRNP K/J. SUN1 depletion inhibits the mRNP export, with accumulations of both hnRNPs and poly(A)+RNA in the nucleus. Leptomycin B treatment indicates that SUN1 functions in mammalian mRNA export involving the NXF1-dependent pathway. SUN1 mediates mRNA export through its association with mRNP complexes via a direct interaction with NXF1. Additionally, SUN1 associates with the NPC through a direct interaction with Nup153, a nuclear pore component involved in mRNA export. Taken together, our results reveal that the inner nuclear envelope protein SUN1 has additional functions aside from being a central component of the LINC complex and that it is an integral component of the mammalian mRNA export pathway suggesting a model whereby SUN1 recruits NXF1-containing mRNP onto the nuclear envelope and hands it over to Nup153.
Project description:At the onset mitosis in higher eukaryotes, the nuclear envelope (NE) undergoes dramatic deconstruction to allow separation of duplicated chromosomes. Studies have shown that during this process of nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD), the extensive protein networks of the nuclear lamina are disassembled through phosphorylation of lamins and several inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins. The LINC complex, composed of SUN and nesprin proteins, is involved in multiple interactions at the NE and plays vital roles in nuclear and cellular mechanics by connecting the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. Here, we show that SUN1, located in the INM, undergoes mitosis-specific phosphorylation on at least 3 sites within its nucleoplasmic N-terminus. We further identify Cdk1 as the kinase responsible for serine 48 and 333 phosphorylation, while serine 138 is phosphorylated by Plk1. In mitotic cells, SUN1 loses its interaction with N-terminal domain binding partners lamin A/C, emerin, and short nesprin-2 isoforms. Furthermore, a triple phosphomimetic SUN1 mutant displays increased solubility and reduced retention at the NE. In contrast, the central LINC complex interaction between the SUN1 C-terminus and the KASH domain of nesprin-2 is maintained during mitosis. Together, these data support a model whereby mitotic phosphorylation of SUN1 disrupts interactions with nucleoplasmic binding partners, promoting disassembly of the nuclear lamina and, potentially, its chromatin interactions. At the same time, our data add to an emerging picture that the core LINC complex plays an active role in NEBD.
Project description:Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are the predominant cell type in the blood vessel wall. Changes in VSMC actomyosin activity and morphology are prevalent in cardiovascular disease. The actin cytoskeleton actively defines cellular shape and the LInker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, comprised of nesprin and the Sad1p, UNC-84 (SUN)-domain family members SUN1/2, has emerged as a key regulator of actin cytoskeletal organisation. Although SUN1 and SUN2 function is partially redundant, they possess specific functions and LINC complex composition is tailored for cell-type-specific functions. We investigated the importance of SUN1 and SUN2 in regulating actomyosin activity and cell morphology in VSMCs. We demonstrate that siRNA-mediated depletion of either SUN1 or SUN2 altered VSMC spreading and impaired actomyosin activity and RhoA activity. Importantly, these findings were recapitulated using aortic VSMCs isolated from wild-type and SUN2 knockout (SUN2 KO) mice. Inhibition of actomyosin activity, using the rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase1/2 (ROCK1/2) inhibitor Y27632 or blebbistatin, reduced SUN2 mobility in the nuclear envelope and decreased the association between SUN2 and lamin A, confirming that SUN2 dynamics and interactions are influenced by actomyosin activity. We propose that the LINC complex exists in a mechanical feedback circuit with RhoA to regulate VSMC actomyosin activity and morphology.
Project description:A supervised machine learning algorithm, which is qualified for image classification and analyzing similarities, is based on multiple discriminative morphological features that are automatically assembled during the learning processes. The algorithm is suitable for population-based analysis of images of biological materials that are generally complex and heterogeneous. Here we used the algorithm wndchrm to quantify the effects on nucleolar morphology of the loss of the components of nuclear envelope in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, an assembly of nuclear envelope proteins comprising mainly members of the SUN and nesprin families, connects the nuclear lamina and cytoskeletal filaments. The components of the LINC complex are markedly deficient in breast cancer tissues. We found that a reduction in the levels of SUN1, SUN2, and lamin A/C led to significant changes in morphologies that were computationally classified using wndchrm with approximately 100% accuracy. In particular, depletion of SUN1 caused nucleolar hypertrophy and reduced rRNA synthesis. Further, wndchrm revealed a consistent negative correlation between SUN1 expression and the size of nucleoli in human breast cancer tissues. Our unbiased morphological quantitation strategies using wndchrm revealed an unexpected link between the components of the LINC complex and the morphologies of nucleoli that serves as an indicator of the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells.
Project description:SUN1, a component of the LINC (Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton) complex, functions in mammalian mRNA export through the NXF1-dependent pathway. It associates with mRNP complexes by direct interaction with NXF1. It also binds to the NPC through association with the nuclear pore component Nup153, which is involved in mRNA export. The SUN1-NXF1 association is at least partly regulated by a protein kinase C (PKC) which phosphorylates serine 113 (S113) in the N-terminal domain leading to reduced interaction. The phosphorylation appears to be important for the SUN1 function in nuclear mRNA export since GFP-SUN1 carrying a S113A mutation was less efficient in restoring mRNA export after SUN1 knockdown as compared to the wild type protein. By contrast, GFP-SUN1-S113D resembling the phosphorylated state allowed very efficient export of poly(A)+RNA. Furthermore, probing a possible role of the LINC complex component Nesprin-2 in this process we observed impaired mRNA export in Nesprin-2 knockdown cells. This effect might be independent of SUN1 as expression of a GFP tagged SUN-domain deficient SUN1, which no longer can interact with Nesprin-2, did not affect mRNA export.
Project description:The nuclear envelope (NE) LINC complex, in mammals comprised of SUN domain and nesprin proteins, provides a direct connection between the nuclear lamina and the cytoskeleton, which contributes to nuclear positioning and cellular rigidity. SUN1 and SUN2 interact with lamin A, but lamin A is only required for NE localization of SUN2, and it remains unclear how SUN1 is anchored. Here, we identify emerin and short nesprin-2 isoforms as novel nucleoplasmic binding partners of SUN1/2. These have overlapping binding sites distinct from the lamin A binding site. However, we demonstrate that tight association of SUN1 with the nuclear lamina depends upon a short motif within residues 209-228, a region that does not interact significantly with known SUN1 binding partners. Moreover, SUN1 localizes correctly in cells lacking emerin. Importantly then, the major determinant of SUN1 NE localization has yet to be identified. We further find that a subset of lamin A mutations, associated with laminopathies Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), disrupt lamin A interaction with SUN1 and SUN2. Despite this, NE localization of SUN1 and SUN2 is not impaired in cell lines from either class of patients. Intriguingly, SUN1 expression at the NE is instead enhanced in a significant proportion of HGPS but not EDMD cells and strongly correlates with pre-lamin A accumulation due to preferential interaction of SUN1 with pre-lamin A. We propose that these different perturbations in lamin A-SUN protein interactions may underlie the opposing effects of EDMD and HGPS mutations on nuclear and cellular mechanics.