PAWS1 controls Wnt signalling through association with casein kinase 1?.
ABSTRACT: The BMP and Wnt signalling pathways determine axis specification during embryonic development. Our previous work has shown that PAWS1 (also known as FAM83G) interacts with SMAD1 and modulates BMP signalling. Here, surprisingly, we show that overexpression of PAWS1 in Xenopus embryos activates Wnt signalling and causes complete axis duplication. Consistent with these observations in Xenopus, Wnt signalling is diminished in U2OS osteosarcoma cells lacking PAWS1, while BMP signalling is unaffected. We show that PAWS1 interacts and co-localises with the ? isoform of casein kinase 1 (CK1), and that PAWS1 mutations incapable of binding CK1 fail both to activate Wnt signalling and to elicit axis duplication in Xenopus embryos.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Two recessive mutations in the <i>FAM83G</i> gene, causing A34E and R52P amino acid substitutions in the DUF1669 domain of the PAWS1 protein, are associated with palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) in humans and dogs respectively. We have previously reported that PAWS1 associates with the Ser/Thr protein kinase CK1α through the DUF1669 domain to mediate canonical Wnt signalling. <b>Methods:</b> Co-immunoprecipitation was used to investigate possible changes to PAWS1 interactors caused by the mutations. We also compared the stability of wild-type and mutant PAWS1 in cycloheximide-treated cells. Effects on Wnt signalling were determined using the TOPflash luciferase reporter assay in U2OS cells expressing PAWS1 mutant proteins. The ability of PAWS1 to induce axis duplication in <i>Xenopus</i> embryos was also tested. Finally, we knocked-in the A34E mutation at the native gene locus and measured Wnt-induced AXIN2 gene expression by RT-qPCR. <b>Results:</b> We show that these PAWS1 <sup>A34E</sup> and PAWS1 <sup>R52P</sup> mutants fail to interact with CK1α but, like the wild-type protein, do interact with CD2AP and SMAD1. Like cells carrying a PAWS1 <sup>F296A</sup> mutation, which also abolishes CK1α binding, cells carrying the A34E and R52P mutants respond poorly to Wnt signalling to an extent resembling that observed in <i>FAM83G</i> gene knockout cells. Consistent with this observation, these mutants, in contrast to the wild-type protein, fail to induce axis duplication in <i>Xenopus</i> embryos. We also found that the A34E and R52P mutant proteins are less abundant than the native protein and appear to be less stable, both when overexpressed in <i>FAM83G</i>-knockout cells and when knocked-in at the native <i>FAM83G</i> locus. Ala <sup>34</sup> of PAWS1 is conserved in all FAM83 proteins and mutating the equivalent residue in FAM83H (A31E) also abolishes interaction with CK1 isoforms. <b>Conclusions:</b> We propose that mutations in PAWS1 cause PPK pathogenesis through disruption of the CK1α interaction and attenuation of Wnt signalling.
Project description:The function of the FAM83F protein, like the functions of many members of the FAM83 family, is poorly understood. Here, we show that injection of Fam83f mRNA into <i>Xenopus</i> embryos causes axis duplication, a phenotype indicative of enhanced Wnt signalling. Consistent with this, overexpression of FAM83F activates Wnt signalling, whereas ablation of FAM83F from human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells attenuates it. We demonstrate that FAM83F is farnesylated and interacts and co-localises with CK1? at the plasma membrane. This interaction with CK1? is essential for FAM83F to activate Wnt signalling, and FAM83F mutants that do not interact with CK1? fail to induce axis duplication in <i>Xenopus</i> embryos and to activate Wnt signalling in cells. FAM83F acts upstream of GSK-3? because the attenuation of Wnt signalling caused by loss of FAM83F can be rescued by GSK-3 inhibition. Introduction of a farnesyl-deficient mutant of FAM83F in cells through CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing redirects the FAM83F-CK1? complex away from the plasma membrane and significantly attenuates Wnt signalling, indicating that FAM83F exerts its effects on Wnt signalling at the plasma membrane.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) control multiple cellular processes in embryos and adult tissues. BMPs signal through the activation of type I BMP receptor kinases, which then phosphorylate SMADs 1/5/8. In the canonical pathway, this triggers the association of these SMADs with SMAD4 and their translocation to the nucleus, where they regulate gene expression. BMPs can also signal independently of SMAD4, but this pathway is poorly understood. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of PAWS1/FAM83G as a novel SMAD1 interactor. PAWS1 forms a complex with SMAD1 in a SMAD4-independent manner, and BMP signalling induces the phosphorylation of PAWS1 through BMPR1A. The phosphorylation of PAWS1 in response to BMP is essential for activation of the SMAD4-independent BMP target genes NEDD9 and ASNS. Our findings identify PAWS1 as the first non-SMAD substrate for type I BMP receptor kinases and as a novel player in the BMP pathway. We also demonstrate that PAWS1 regulates the expression of several non-BMP target genes, suggesting roles for PAWS1 beyond the BMP pathway.
Project description:Our previous studies of PAWS1 (protein associated with SMAD1; also known as FAM83G) have suggested that this molecule has roles beyond BMP signalling. To investigate these roles, we have used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate PAWS1-knockout U2OS osteosarcoma cells. Here, we show that PAWS1 plays a role in the regulation of the cytoskeletal machinery, including actin and focal adhesion dynamics, and cell migration. Confocal microscopy and live cell imaging of actin in U2OS cells indicate that PAWS1 is also involved in cytoskeletal dynamics and organization. Loss of PAWS1 causes severe defects in F-actin organization and distribution as well as in lamellipodial organization, resulting in impaired cell migration. PAWS1 interacts in a dynamic fashion with the actin/cytoskeletal regulator CD2AP at lamellae, suggesting that its association with CD2AP controls actin organization and cellular migration. Genetic ablation of CD2AP from U2OS cells instigates actin and cell migration defects reminiscent of those seen in PAWS1-knockout cells.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first authors of the paper.
Project description:Immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs) bind CRBN, a substrate receptor of the Cul4A E3 ligase complex, enabling the recruitment of neo-substrates, such as CK1?, and their degradation via the ubiquitinproteasome system. Here, we report FAM83F as such a neo-substrate. The eight FAM83 proteins (A-H) interact with and regulate the subcellular distribution of CK1?. We demonstrate that IMiD-induced FAM83F degradation requires its association with CK1?. However, no other FAM83 protein is degraded by IMiDs. We have recently identified FAM83F as a mediator of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. The IMiD-induced degradation of FAM83F attenuated Wnt signalling in colorectal cancer cells and removed CK1? from the plasma membrane, mirroring the phenotypes observed with genetic ablation of FAM83F. Intriguingly, the expression of FAM83G, which also binds to CK1?, appears to attenuate the IMiD-induced degradation of CK1?, suggesting a protective role for FAM83G on CK1?. Our findings reveal that the efficiency and extent of target protein degradation by IMiDs depends on the nature of inherent multiprotein complex in which the target protein is part of.
Project description:The function of the FAM83F protein, like the functions of many members of the FAM83 family, is poorly understood. Here we show that injection of Fam83f mRNA into Xenopus embryos causes axis duplication, a phenotype indicative of enhanced Wnt signalling. Consistent with this, overexpression of FAM83F activates Wnt signalling, whilst ablation of FAM83F from human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells attenuates it. We demonstrate that FAM83F is farnesylated and interacts and co-localises with CK1α at the plasma membrane. This interaction with CK1α is essential for FAM83F to activate Wnt signalling, and FAM83F mutants that do not interact with CK1α fail to induce axis duplication in Xenopus embryos and to activate Wnt signalling in cells. FAM83F acts upstream of GSK-3β, because the attenuation of Wnt signalling caused by loss of FAM83F can be rescued by GSK-3 inhibition. Introduction of a farnesyl-deficient mutant of FAM83F in cells through CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing redirects the FAM83F-CK1α complex away from the plasma membrane and significantly attenuates Wnt signalling, indicating that FAM83F exerts its effects on Wnt signalling at the plasma membrane.
Project description:The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is crucial for proper embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. The phosphoprotein dishevelled (Dvl) is an integral part of Wnt signaling and has recently been shown to interact with the multifunctional scaffolding protein beta-arrestin. Using Dvl deletion constructs, we found that beta-arrestin binds a region N-terminal of the PDZ domain of Dvl, which contains casein kinase 1 (CK1) phosphorylation sites. Inhibition of Wnt signaling by CK1 inhibitors reduced the binding of beta-arrestin to Dvl. Moreover, mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking beta-arrestins were able to phosphorylate LRP6 in response to Wnt-3a but decreased the activation of Dvl and blocked beta-catenin signaling. In addition, we found that beta-arrestin can bind axin and forms a trimeric complex with axin and Dvl. Furthermore, treatment of Xenopus laevis embryos with beta-arrestin morpholinos reduced the activation of endogenous beta-catenin, decreased the expression of the beta-catenin target gene, Xnr3, and blocked axis duplication induced by X-Wnt-8, CK1epsilon, or DshDeltaDEP, but not by beta-catenin. Thus, our results identify beta-arrestin as a necessary component for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, linking Dvl and axin, and open a vast array of signaling avenues and possibilities for cross-talk with other beta-arrestin-dependent signaling pathways.
Project description:Dishevelled-3 (Dvl3), a key component of the Wnt signaling pathways, acts downstream of Frizzled (Fzd) receptors and gets heavily phosphorylated in response to pathway activation by Wnt ligands. Casein kinase 1? (CK1?) was identified as the major kinase responsible for Wnt-induced Dvl3 phosphorylation. Currently it is not clear which Dvl residues are phosphorylated and what is the consequence of individual phosphorylation events. In the present study we employed mass spectrometry to analyze in a comprehensive way the phosphorylation of human Dvl3 induced by CK1?. Our analysis revealed >50 phosphorylation sites on Dvl3; only a minority of these sites was found dynamically induced after co-expression of CK1?, and surprisingly, phosphorylation of one cluster of modified residues was down-regulated. Dynamically phosphorylated sites were analyzed functionally. Mutations within PDZ domain (S280A and S311A) reduced the ability of Dvl3 to activate TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor)-driven transcription and induce secondary axis in Xenopus embryos. In contrast, mutations of clustered Ser/Thr in the Dvl3 C terminus prevented ability of CK1? to induce electrophoretic mobility shift of Dvl3 and its even subcellular localization. Surprisingly, mobility shift and subcellular localization changes induced by Fzd5, a Wnt receptor, were in all these mutants indistinguishable from wild type Dvl3. In summary, our data on the molecular level (i) support previous the assumption that CK1? acts via phosphorylation of distinct residues as the activator as well as the shut-off signal of Wnt/?-catenin signaling and (ii) suggest that CK1? acts on Dvl via different mechanism than Fzd5.
Project description:Recent advances in understanding beta-catenin-independent WNT (non-canonical) signalling suggest an increasing complexity, raising the question of how individual non-canonical pathways are induced and regulated. Here, we examine whether intracellular signalling components such as beta-arrestin (beta-arr) and casein kinases 1 and 2 (CK1 and CK2) can contribute to determining signalling specificity in beta-catenin-independent WNT signalling to the small GTPase RAC-1. Our findings indicate that beta-arr is sufficient and required for WNT/RAC-1 signalling, and that casein kinases act as a switch that prevents the activation of RAC-1 and promotes other non-canonical WNT pathways through the phosphorylation of dishevelled (DVL, xDSH in Xenopus). Thus, our results indicate that the balance between beta-arr and CK1/2 determines whether WNT/RAC-1 or other non-canonical WNT pathways are activated.
Project description:Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNKs) regulate convergent extension movements in Xenopus embryos through the noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway. In addition, there is a high level of maternal JNK activity spanning from oocyte maturation until the onset of gastrulation that has no defined functions. Here, we show that maternal JNK activation requires Dishevelled and JNK is enriched in the nucleus of Xenopus embryos. Although JNK activity is not required for the glycogen synthase kinase-3-mediated degradation of beta-catenin, inhibition of the maternal JNK signaling by morpholino-antisense oligos causes hyperdorsalization of Xenopus embryos and ectopic expression of the Wnt/beta-catenin target genes. These effects are associated with an increased level of nuclear and nonmembrane-bound beta-catenin. Moreover, ventral injection of the constitutive-active Jnk mRNA blocks beta-catenin-induced axis duplication, and dorsal injection of active Jnk mRNA into Xenopus embryos decreases the dorsal marker gene expression. In mammalian cells, activation of JNK signaling reduces Wnt3A-induced and beta-catenin-mediated gene expression. Furthermore, activation of JNK signaling rapidly induces the nuclear export of beta-catenin. Taken together, these results suggest that JNK antagonizes the canonical Wnt pathway by regulating the nucleocytoplasmic transport of beta-catenin rather than its cytoplasmic stability. Thus, the high level of sustained maternal JNK activity in early Xenopus embryos may provide a timing mechanism for controlling the dorsal axis formation.