Hybrid BisQACs: Potent Biscationic Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Merging the Structures of Two Commercial Antiseptics.
ABSTRACT: Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) are two of the most common household antiseptics, but show weaker efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria as well as against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, relative to other S.?aureus strains. We prepared 28 novel quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) that represent a hybrid of these two structures, using 1- to 2-step synthetic sequences. The biscationic (bisQAC) species prepared show uniformly potent activity against six bacterial strains tested, with nine novel antiseptics displaying single-digit micromolar activity across the board. Effects of unequal chain lengths of two installed side chains had less impact than the overall number of side chain carbon atoms present, which was optimal at 22-25 carbons. This is further indication that simple refinements to multiQAC architectures can show improvement over current household antiseptics.
Project description:Twenty-one mono- and biscationic quaternary ammonium amphiphiles (monoQACs and bisQACs) were rapidly prepared in order to investigate the effects of rigidity of a diamine core structure on antiseptic activity. As anticipated, the bioactivity against a panel of six bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains was strong for bisQAC structures, and is clearly correlated with the length of non-polar side chains. Modest advantages were noted for amide-containing side chains, as compared with straight-chained alkyl substituents. Surprisingly, antiseptics with more rigidly disposed side chains, such as those in DABCO-12,12, showed the highest level of antimicrobial activity, with single-digit MIC values or better against the entire bacterial panel, including sub-micromolar activity against an MRSA strain.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus-associated infections can be difficult to treat due to multidrug resistance. Thus, infection prevention is critical. Cationic antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine (CHX) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC), are liberally used in health care and community settings to prevent infection. However, increased administration of antiseptics has selected for S. aureus strains that show reduced susceptibilities to cationic antiseptics. This increased resistance has been associated with carriage of specific efflux pumps (QacA, QacC, and NorA). Since prior published studies focused on different strains and on strains carrying only a single efflux gene, the relative importance of these various systems to antiseptic resistance is difficult to ascertain. To overcome this, we engineered a collection of isogenic S. aureus strains that harbored norA, qacA, and qacC, individually or in combination. MIC assays showed that qacA was associated with increased resistance to CHX, cetrimide (CT), and BKC, qacC was associated with resistance to CT and BKC, and norA was necessary for basal-level resistance to the majority of tested antiseptics. When all three pumps were present in a single strain, an additive effect was observed in the MIC for CT. Transcriptional analysis revealed that expression of qacA and norA was significantly induced following exposure to BKC. Alarmingly, in a strain carrying qacA and norA, preexposure to BKC increased CHX tolerance. Overall, our results reveal increased antiseptic resistance in strains carrying multiple efflux pumps and indicate that preexposure to BKC, which is found in numerous daily-use products, can increase CHX tolerance.IMPORTANCE S. aureus remains a significant cause of disease within hospitals and communities. To reduce the burden of S. aureus infections, antiseptics are ubiquitously used in our daily lives. Furthermore, many antiseptic compounds are dual purpose and are found in household products. The increased abundance of antiseptic compounds has selected for S. aureus strains that carry efflux pumps that increase resistance to antiseptic compounds; however, the effect of carrying multiple pumps within S. aureus is unclear. We demonstrated that an isogenic strain carrying multiple efflux pumps had an additive resistance phenotype to cetrimide. Moreover, in a strain carrying qacA and norA, increased chlorhexidine tolerance was observed after the strain was preexposed to subinhibitory concentrations of a different common-use antiseptic. Taken together, our findings demonstrate cooperation between antiseptic resistance efflux pumps and suggest that their protective phenotype may be exacerbated by priming with subinhibitory concentrations of household antiseptics.
Project description:Quaternary ammonium surfactants (QACs) are microbicides, whereas poly (acrylates) are biocompatible polymers. Here, the physical and antimicrobial properties of two QACs, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) or dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DODAB) in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles (NPs) are compared to those of QACs alone. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) polymerization using DODAB or CTAB as emulsifiers and initiator azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) yielded cationic, nanometric, homodisperse, and stable NPs. NPs' physical and antimicrobial properties were assessed from dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy, and viability curves of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans determined as log(colony-forming unities counting) over a range of [QACs]. NPs were spherical and homodisperse but activity for free QACs was higher than those for QACs in NPs. Inhibition halos against bacteria and yeast were observed only for free or incorporated CTAB in NPs because PMMA/CTAB NPs controlled the CTAB release. DODAB displayed fungicidal activity against C. albicans since DODAB bilayer disks could penetrate the outer glycoproteins fungus layer. The physical properties and stability of the cationic NPs highlighted their potential to combine with other bioactive molecules for further applications in drug and vaccine delivery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are a frequent complication of Diabetes mellitus and a major cause of nontraumatic limb amputations. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, known for its resilient biofilms and antibiotic resistant profile, is the most frequent DFI pathogen. It is urgent to develop innovative treatments for these infections, being the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) nisin a potential candidate. We have previously proposed the use of a guar gum biogel as a delivery system for nisin. Here, we evaluated the potential of the nisin-biogel to enhance the efficacy of conventional antibiotics and antiseptics against DFIs S. aureus clinical isolates. METHODS:A collection of 23 S. aureus strains isolated from DFI patients, including multidrug- and methicillin-resistant strains, was used. The antimicrobial activity of the nisin-biogel was tested alone and in different combinations with the antiseptic chlorhexidine and the antibiotics clindamycin, gentamicin and vancomycin. Isolates' in vitro susceptibility to the different protocols was assessed using broth microdilution methods in order to determine their ability to inhibit and/or eradicate established S. aureus biofilms. Antimicrobials were added to the 96-well plates every 8 h to simulate a typical DFI treatment protocol. Statistical analysis was conducted using RCBD ANOVA in SPSS. RESULTS:The nisin-biogel showed a high antibacterial activity against biofilms formed by DFI S. aureus. The combined protocol using nisin-biogel and chlorhexidine presented the highest efficacy in biofilm formation inhibition, significantly higher (p<0.05) than the ones presented by the antibiotics-based protocols tested. Regarding biofilm eradication, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the activity of the combination nisin-biogel plus chlorhexidine and the conventional antibiotic-based protocols. CONCLUSIONS:Results provide a valuable contribution for the development of complementary strategies to conventional antibiotics protocols. A combined protocol including chlorhexidine and nisin-biogel could be potentially applied in medical centres, contributing for the reduction of antibiotic administration, selection pressure on DFI pathogens and resistance strains dissemination.
Project description:Bovine mastitis is a worldwide disease of dairy cattle associated with significant economic losses for the dairy industry. One of the most common pathogens responsible for mastitis is Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. Due to the development and spreading of antibiotic resistance, the search for novel antimicrobial substances against S. aureus is of great importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate two dihydroxybenzaldehydes for the prevention of bovine mastitis. Therefore we determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) of gentisaldehyde (2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde of a diverse set of 172 bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates using an automated robot-based microdilution method. To characterize the bovine isolates we determined the genotype by spa-typing, the antimicrobial resistance to eight antibiotic classes using the disk diffusion method and the MICs of three commonly used antiseptics (benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, and iodine). Further we investigated the cytotoxicity of gentisaldehyde and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in bovine mammary epithelial MAC-T cells using the XTT assay. The S. aureus strains showed a high genetic diversity with 52 different spa-types, including five novel types. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that 24% of isolates were resistant to one antimicrobial agent and 3% of isolates were multi-resistant. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance strongly correlated with the spa-type. Both dihydroxybenzaldehydes showed antimicrobial activities with a MIC50 of 500 mg/L. The MIC of gentisaldehyde significantly correlated with that of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, whereas no correlation was observed with the MIC of the three antiseptics. Cytotoxicity testing using bovine mammary epithelial MAC-T cells revealed that gentisaldehyde and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde show low toxicity at MIC50 and MIC90 concentrations. In conclusion, gentisaldehyde and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde exhibited antimicrobial activities against a diverse range of bovine mastitis S. aureus strains at low-cytotoxic concentrations. Therefore, both compounds are potential candidates as antiseptics to prevent bovine mastitis and to reduce the use of antibiotics in dairy cows.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus often cause chronic, recalcitrant infections in large part due to their ability to form biofilms. The biofilm mode of growth enables these organisms to withstand antibacterial insults that would effectively eliminate their planktonic counterparts. We found that P. aeruginosa supernatant increased the sensitivity of S. aureus biofilms to multiple antimicrobial compounds, including fluoroquinolones and membrane-targeting antibacterial agents, including the antiseptic chloroxylenol. Treatment of S. aureus with the antiseptic chloroxylenol alone did not decrease biofilm cell viability; however, the combination of chloroxylenol and P. aeruginosa supernatant led to a 4-log reduction in S. aureus biofilm viability compared to exposure to chloroxylenol alone. We found that the P. aeruginosa-produced small molecule 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) is responsible for the observed heightened sensitivity of S. aureus to chloroxylenol. Similarly, HQNO increased the susceptibility of S. aureus biofilms to other compounds, including both traditional and nontraditional antibiotics, which permeabilize bacterial membranes. Genetic and phenotypic studies support a model whereby HQNO causes an increase in S. aureus membrane fluidity, thereby improving the efficacy of membrane-targeting antiseptics and antibiotics. Importantly, our data show that P. aeruginosa exoproducts can enhance the ability of various antimicrobial agents to kill biofilm populations of S. aureus that are typically difficult to eradicate. Finally, our discovery that altering membrane fluidity shifts antimicrobial sensitivity profiles of bacterial biofilms may guide new approaches to target persistent infections, such as those commonly found in respiratory tract infections and in chronic wounds.IMPORTANCE The thick mucus in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients predisposes them to frequent, polymicrobial respiratory infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are frequently coisolated from the airways of individuals with CF, as well as from diabetic foot ulcers and other wounds. Both organisms form biofilms, which are notoriously difficult to eradicate and promote chronic infection. In this study, we have shown that P. aeruginosa-secreted factors can increase the efficacy of compounds that alone have little or no bactericidal activity against S. aureus biofilms. In particular, we discovered that P. aeruginosa exoproducts can potentiate the antistaphylococcal activity of phenol-based antiseptics and other membrane-active drugs. Our findings illustrate that polymicrobial interactions can dramatically increase antibacterial efficacy in vitro and suggest that altering membrane physiology promotes the ability of certain drugs to kill bacterial biofilms-knowledge that may provide a path for the discovery of new biofilm-targeting antimicrobial strategies.
Project description:Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a group of compounds of great economic significance. They are widely used as emulsifiers, detergents, solubilizers and corrosion inhibitors in household and industrial products. Due to their excellent antimicrobial activity QACs have also gained a special meaning as antimicrobials in hospitals, agriculture and the food industry. The main representatives of the microbiocidal QACs are the benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), which exhibit biocidal activity against most bacteria, fungi, algae and some viruses. However, the misuses of QACs, mainly at sublethal concentrations, can lead to an increasing resistance of microorganisms. One of the ways to avoid this serious problem is the introduction and use of new biocides with modified structures instead of the biocides applied so far. Therefore new BAC analogues P13-P18 with pyridine rings were synthesized. The new compounds were characterized by NMR, FT-IR and ESI-MS methods. PM3 semiempirical calculations of molecular structures and the heats of formation of compounds P13-P18 were also performed. Critical micellization concentrations (CMCs) were determined to characterize the aggregation behavior of the new BAC analogues. The antimicrobial properties of novel QACs were examined by determining their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against the fungi Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Penicillium chrysogenum and bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MIC values of N,N-dimethyl-N-(4-methylpyridyl)-N-alkylammonium chlorides for fungi range from 0.1 to 12 mM and for bacteria, they range from 0.02 to 6 mM.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus carries a collection of mobile genetic elements that often harbor virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. Since the introduction of antibiotics, plasmids have become a major genetic element responsible for the distribution of antimicrobial resistance. Under antimicrobial selection, resistance plasmids are maintained within bacterial populations as a means to ensure survival. However, in the absence of selection, large plasmids can be lost due to the fitness costs associated with harboring these genetic elements. pC02 is a previously identified multidrug resistance, conjugative plasmid that is found in S. aureus. In addition to antibiotic resistance, pC02 also carries genes known to be associated with antiseptic resistance. Among these, we previously characterized the contribution of qacA to pC02 mediated reduced chlorhexidine susceptibility. Herein, we demonstrate that pC02 also mediates triclosan resistance, likely due to the presence of fabI, a known triclosan resistance gene. Moreover, we demonstrate that conjugative transfer of pC02 increases triclosan resistance in recipient cells. Competition assays demonstrated a fitness cost associated with carriage of the large pC02 plasmid. However, subinhibitory concentrations of either chlorhexidine or triclosan abrogated this fitness cost. Given the widespread use of these antiseptics, both of which accumulate in wastewater and other environmental reservoirs, indiscriminate use of antiseptics likely imposes a constant selective pressure that promotes maintenance of antimicrobial resistance factors within S. aureus.
Project description:Iodine antiseptics exhibit superior antimicrobial efficacy and do not cause acquired microbial resistance. However, they are underused in comparison with antibiotics in infection treatments, partly because of their adverse effects such as pain and allergy. The cause of these noxious effects is not fully understood, and no specific molecular targets or mechanisms have been discovered. In this study, we show that iodine antiseptics cause pain and promote allergic contact dermatitis in mouse models, and iodine stimulates a subset of sensory neurons that express TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels. In vivo pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of these channels indicates that TRPA1 plays a major role in iodine antiseptics-induced pain and the adjuvant effect of iodine antiseptics on allergic contact dermatitis and that TRPV1 is also involved. We further demonstrate that iodine activates TRPA1 through a redox mechanism but has no direct effects on TRPV1. Our study improves the understanding of the adverse effects of iodine antiseptics and suggests a means to minimize their side effects through local inhibition of TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important human and animal pathogen, multiply resistant strains are increasingly widespread, new agents are needed for the treatment of S. aureus. Berberine chloride (BBR), a natural plant product, has potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. We employed Affymetrix Staphylococcus aureus GeneChipsTM arrays to investigate the global transcriptional profiling of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 treated with berberine chloride. Keywords: gene expression array-based, count Overall design: Staphylococcus aureus cells were exposed for 45 minutes to berberine chloride at concentration of 64 µg/ml (1/2× MIC), 6 samples including 3 control samples are analyzed.