Analysis of caesarean sections using Robson 10-group classification system in a university hospital in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To analyse caesarean section (CS) using Robson 10-group classification system in an Ethiopian university hospital. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:A university hospital in eastern, Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS:980 women who underwent CS from January 2016 to April 2017. MAIN OUTCOME:Robson groups (1-10-based on gestational age, fetal presentation, number of fetus, onset of labour and history of CS) and indications for CS. RESULTS:Robson group 3 (multiparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy in spontaneous labour with no history of CS), group 5 (multiparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with history of CS) and group 1 (single cephalic nulliparous women full-term pregnancy in spontaneous labour) were the major contributors to the overall CS at 21.4%, 21.1% and 19.3%, respectively. The three major indications for CS were fetal compromise (mainly fetal distress), obstructed labour (mainly cephalopelvic disproportion) and previous CS. CONCLUSION:Robson groups 3, 5 and 1 were the major contributors to the overall CS rate. Fetal compromise, obstructed labour and previous CS were the underlying indications for performing CS. Further study is required to assess the appropriateness of the indications and to reduce CS among the low-risk groups (groups 1 and 3).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess the caesarean section (CS) rates using Robson's 10-Group Classification System among women who gave birth at Hawassa University Referral Hospital in southern Ethiopia. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study design to determine CS rate using Robson's 10-Group Classification System. SETTING:Hawassa University Referral Hospital in south Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS:4004 women who gave birth in Hawassa University Referral Hospital from June 2018 to June 2019. RESULTS:The 4004 women gave birth to 4165 babies. The overall CS rate was 32.8% (95% CI: 31.4%-34.3%). The major contributors to the overall CS rates were: Robson group 1 (nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy at term in spontaneous labour) 22.9%; group 5 (multiparous women with at least one previous CS) 21.4% and group 3 (multiparous women without previous CS, with singleton pregnancy in spontaneous labour) 17.3%. The most commonly reported indications for CS were 'fetal compromise' (35.3%) followed by previous CS (20.3%) and obstructed labour (10.7%). CONCLUSION:A high proportion of women giving birth at this hospital were given a CS, and many of them were in a low-risk group. Few had trial of labour. More active use of partogram, improving fetal heartbeat-monitoring system, implementing midwife-led care, involving a companion during labour and auditing the appropriateness of CS indications may help to reduce the CS rate.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To analyse the current situation of caesarean section in Palestine using the Robson Ten Group Classification System (TGCS).<h4>Design</h4>A population-based birth cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Obstetrical departments in three governmental hospitals in Gaza.<h4>Participants</h4>All women (18 908) who gave birth between 1 January 2016 and 30 April 2017.<h4>Methods</h4>The contributions of each group to the study population and to the overall rate of caesarean section were calculated, as well as the rate of caesarean section in each TGCS group. Differences in proportions between study hospitals were assessed by ?<sup>2</sup> test.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>The main outcome was the contributions of each group to the overall caesarean section rate.<h4>Results</h4>The overall rate of caesarean section was 22.9% (4337 of 18 908), ranging from 20.6% in hospital 1 to 24.6% in hospital 3. The largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were multiparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy who had undergone at least one caesarean section (group 5, 42.6%), women with multiple pregnancies (group 8, 11.6%) and those with single cephalic preterm labour (group 10, 8.1%). Statistically significant differences in caesarean section rates between the study hospitals were observed in group 1 (nulliparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy and spontaneous labour), group 4 (multiparous with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with induced labour or prelabour caesarean section), group 5 (multiparous with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with previous caesarean section) and in group 7 (multiparous with breech presentation).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Women in groups 5, 8 and 10 were the largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate in the study hospitals. Efforts to reduce the differences in obstetrical care between hospitals need to be directed towards increasing the proportion of vaginal births after caesarean section and by reducing primary caesarean section in multiple pregnancies and preterm labour.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Caesarean section (CS) rate is a quality of health care indicator frequently used at national and international level. The aim of this study was to assess whether adjustment for Robson's Ten Group Classification System (TGCS), and clinical and socio-demographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of CS rates. METHODS: The study population includes 64,423 deliveries in Emilia-Romagna between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, classified according to theTGCS. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted hospital relative risks of CS compared to a reference category. Analyses were carried out in the overall population and separately according to the Robson groups (groups I, II, III, IV and V-X combined). Adjusted relative risks (RR) of CS were estimated using two risk-adjustment models; the first (M1) including the TGCS group as the only adjustment factor; the second (M2) including in addition demographic and clinical confounders identified using a stepwise selection procedure. Percentage variations between crude and adjusted RRs by hospital were calculated to evaluate the confounding effect of covariates. RESULTS: The percentage variations from crude to adjusted RR proved to be similar in M1 and M2 model. However, stratified analyses by Robson's classification groups showed that residual confounding for clinical and demographic variables was present in groups I (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ?37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and III (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ?37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ?37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and to a minor extent in groups II (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ?37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ?37 weeks, induced or CS before labour). CONCLUSIONS: The TGCS classification is useful for inter-hospital comparison of CS section rates, but residual confounding is present in the TGCS strata.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to describe trends in caesarean section (CS) rates, characteristics of women delivering by CS, reasons for CS and impact of CS on perinatal mortality, in a rural Indian population. DESIGN:Secondary data analysis using a prospective population-based registry. SETTING:Four districts in Eastern Maharashtra, India, 2010 to 2013. PARTICIPANTS:39?026 pregnant women undergoing labour and delivery. MAIN OUTCOMES:CS, single most likely reason, perinatal mortality. RESULTS:Overall, 20% of the women delivered by CS. Rates increased from 17.4% in 2010 to 22.7% in 2013 (p<0.001) with an absolute risk increase from 1% to 5% during this time-period. Women aged 25+ years?old, being nulliparous, having at least a secondary school education, a body mass index 25+ and?a multiple gestation pregnancy were more likely to deliver by CS. Perinatal mortality was higher among babies delivered vaginally than those delivered by CS (4.5% vs 2.7%, p<0.001). Prolonged and obstructed labour as the reported reason for CS increased over time for both nulliparous and multiparous women (p<0.001), and 6% to 10% women had no clear reason for CS. Perinatal mortality was higher among babies born vaginally than those delivered by CS (adjusted OR: 0.65, 95%?CI 0.56 to 0.76, p<0.001). CONCLUSION:Rates of CS increased over time in rural Maharashtra, exceeding WHO recommendations. Characteristics associated with CS and outcomes of CS were similar to previous reports. Further studies are needed to ensure accuracy of reported reasons for CS, why obstructed and prolonged labour leading to CS is increasing in this population and what leads to CS without a clear indication. Such information may be helpful for implementing the Indian Government mandate that no CS be performed without strict medical indications, while ensuring that the overall CS rates are appropriate. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01073475.
Project description:The aim of the study was to identify which groups of women contribute to interinstitutional variation of caesarean delivery (CD) rates and which are the reasons for this variation. In this regard, 15,726 deliveries from 11 regional centers were evaluated using the 10-group classification system. Standardized indications for CD in each group were used. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to calculate (1) relationship between institutional CD rates and relative sizes/CD rates in each of the ten groups/centers; (2) correlation between institutional CD rates and indications for CD in each of the ten groups/centers. Overall CD rates correlated with both CD rates in spontaneous and induced labouring nulliparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy at term (P = 0.005). Variation of CD rates was also dependent on relative size and CD rates in multiparous women with previous CD, single cephalic pregnancy at term (P < 0.001). As for the indications, "cardiotocographic anomalies" and "failure to progress" in the group of nulliparous women in spontaneous labour and "one previous CD" in multiparous women previous CD correlated significantly with institutional CD rates (P = 0.021, P = 0.005, and P < 0.001, resp.). These results supported the conclusion that only selected indications in specific obstetric groups accounted for interinstitutional variation of CD rates.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine interhospital variation in rates of induction of labour (IOL) to identify potential targets to reduce high rates of practice variation. DESIGN:Population-based record linkage cohort study. SETTING:New South Wales, Australia, 2010-2011. PARTICIPANTS:All women with live births of ?24?weeks gestation in 72 hospitals. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE:Variation in hospital IOL rates adjusted for differences in case-mix, according to 10 mutually exclusive groups derived from the Robson caesarean section classification; groups were categorised by parity, plurality, fetal presentation, prior caesarean section and gestational age. RESULTS:The overall IOL rate was 26.7% (46,922 of 175,444 maternities were induced), ranging from 9.7% to 41.2% (IQR 21.8-29.8%) between hospitals. Nulliparous and multiparous women at 39-40?weeks gestation with a singleton cephalic birth were the greatest contributors to the overall IOL rate (23.5% and 20.2% of all IOL respectively), and had persisting high unexplained variation after adjustment for case-mix (adjusted hospital IOL rates ranging from 11.8% to 44.9% and 7.1% to 40.5%, respectively). In contrast, there was little variation in interhospital IOL rates among multiparous women with a singleton cephalic birth at ?41?weeks gestation, women with singleton non-cephalic pregnancies and women with multifetal pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS:7 of the 10 groups showed high or moderate unexplained variation in interhospital IOL rates, most pronounced for women at 39-40?weeks gestation with a singleton cephalic birth. Outcomes associated with divergent practice require determination, which may guide strategies to reduce practice variation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Caesarean section (CS) rates have increased worldwide in recent decades. In 2015, the WHO proposed the use of the 10-group Robson classification as a global standard for assessing, monitoring and comparing CS rates both within healthcare facilities over time and between them. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of CS rates according to the Robson classification and describe maternal and perinatal outcomes by group at the Tosamaganga Hospital in rural Tanzania. DESIGN:Observational retrospective study. SETTING:St. John of the Cross Tosamaganga Hospital, a referral centre in rural Tanzania. PARTICIPANTS:3012 women who gave birth in Tosamaganga Hospital from 1 January to 30 June 2014 and from 1 March to 30 November 2015. RESULTS:The overall CS rate was 35.2%, and about 90% of women admitted for labour were in Robson groups 1 through 5. More than 40% of the CS carried out in the hospital were performed on nulliparous women at term with a single fetus in cephalic presentation (groups 1 and 3), and the most frequent indication for the procedure was previous uterine scar (39.2%). The majority of severe neonatal outcomes were observed in groups 1 (27.7%), 10 (24.5%) and 3 (19.1%). CONCLUSION:We recorded a high CS rate in Tosamaganga Hospital, particularly in low-risk patients groups (Robson groups 1 and 3). Our analysis of Robson classification and neonatal outcomes suggests the need to improve labour management at the hospital and to provide timely referrals in order to prevent women from arriving there in critical conditions.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>This study aimed at describing the use of a prospective database on hospital deliveries for analysing caesarean section (CS) practices according to the WHO manual for Robson classification, and for developing recommendations for improving the quality of care (QoC).<h4>Design</h4>Observational study.<h4>Setting</h4>University Obstetric Unit at De Soysa Hospital for Women, the largest maternity unit in Sri Lanka.<h4>Data collection and analysis</h4>For each childbirth, 150 variables were routinely collected in a standardised form and entered into a database. Data were routinely monitored for ensuring quality. Information on deliveries occurring from July 2015 to June 2017 were analysed according the WHO Robson classification manual. Findings were discussed internally to develop quality improvement recommendations.<h4>Results</h4>7504 women delivered in the hospital during the study period and at least one maternal or fetal pathological condition was reported in 2845 (37.9%). The CS rate was 30.0%, with 11.9% CS being performed prelabour. According to the Robson classification, Group 3 and Group 1 were the most represented groups (27.0% and 23.1% of population, respectively). The major contributors to the CS rate were group 5 (29.6%), group 1 (14.0%), group 2a (13.3%) and group 10 (11.5%). The most commonly reported indications for CS included abnormal cardiotocography/suspected fetal distress, past CS and failed progress of labour or failed induction. These suggested the need for further discussion on CS practices. Overall, 18 recommendations were agreed on. Besides updating protocols and hands-on training, activities agreed on included monitoring and supervision, criterion-based audits, risk management meetings and appropriate information for patients, and recommendations to further improve the quality of data.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study provides an example on how the WHO manual for Robson classification can be used in an action-oriented manner for developing recommendations for improving the QoC, and the quality of data collected.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide with uncertain medical consequences. Auditing and analysing caesarean section rates and other perinatal outcomes in a reliable and continuous manner is critical for understanding reasons caesarean section changes over time. METHODS: We analyzed data on 97,095 women delivering in 120 facilities in 8 countries, collected as part of the 2004-2005 Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America. The objective of this analysis was to test if the "10-group" or "Robson" classification could help identify which groups of women are contributing most to the high caesarean section rates in Latin America, and if it could provide information useful for health care providers in monitoring and planning effective actions to reduce these rates. RESULTS: The overall rate of caesarean section was 35.4%. Women with single cephalic pregnancy at term without previous caesarean section who entered into labour spontaneously (groups 1 and 3) represented 60% of the total obstetric population. Although women with a term singleton cephalic pregnancy with a previous caesarean section (group 5) represented only 11.4% of the obstetric population, this group was the largest contributor to the overall caesarean section rate (26.7% of all the caesarean sections). The second and third largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were nulliparous women with single cephalic pregnancy at term either in spontaneous labour (group 1) or induced or delivered by caesarean section before labour (group 2), which were responsible for 18.3% and 15.3% of all caesarean deliveries, respectively. CONCLUSION: The 10-group classification could be easily applied to a multicountry dataset without problems of inconsistencies or misclassification. Specific groups of women were clearly identified as the main contributors to the overall caesarean section rate. This classification could help health care providers to plan practical and effective actions targeting specific groups of women to improve maternal and perinatal care.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the mode of delivery and stillbirth rates over time among women with obstetric fistula.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective record review.<h4>Setting</h4>Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Zambia and Ethiopia.<h4>Population</h4>A total of 4396 women presenting with obstetric fistulas for repair who delivered previously in facilities between 1990 and 2014.<h4>Methods</h4>Retrospective review of trends and associations between mode of delivery and stillbirth, focusing on caesarean section (CS), assisted vaginal deliveries and spontaneous vaginal deliveries.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Mode of delivery, stillbirth.<h4>Results</h4>Out of 4396 women with fistula, 3695 (84.1%) delivered a stillborn baby. Among mothers with fistula giving birth to a stillborn baby, the CS rate (overall 54.8%, 2027/3695) rose from 45% (162/361) in 1990-94 to 64% (331/514) in 2010-14. This increase occurred at the expense of assisted vaginal delivery (overall 18.3%, 676/3695), which declined from 32% (115/361) to 6% (31/514).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In Eastern and Central Africa, CS is increasingly performed on women with obstructed labour whose babies have already died in utero. Contrary to international recommendations, alternatives such as vacuum extraction, forceps and destructive delivery are decreasingly used. Unless uterine rupture is suspected, CS should be avoided in obstructed labour with intrauterine fetal death to avoid complications related to CS scars in subsequent pregnancies. Increasingly, women with obstetric fistula add a history of unnecessary CS to their already grim experiences of prolonged, obstructed labour and stillbirth.<h4>Tweetable abstract</h4>Caesarean section is increasingly performed in African women with stillbirth treated for obstetric fistula.