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Trends Over Time in Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines (TSNAs) in Whole Tobacco and Smoke Emissions From Cigarettes Sold in Canada.


ABSTRACT: Introduction:Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are potent carcinogens. Levels of TSNAs can be modified through manufacturing practices. In the 2000s, TSNA levels in cigarettes sold in Canada were reduced by changes in tobacco curing processes. The current study examined TSNA levels over the following decade to examine trends over time. Methods:Data submitted to Health Canada under the Tobacco Reporting Regulations were used to examine whole tobacco constituents for 1809 brands and mainstream smoke emissions for 191 brands manufactured by Canada's three leading cigarette companies from 2005 through 2011/12 using one-way analysis of variances (ANOVAs) and linear regression models. Results:Levels of N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) (p < .001) and 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (p < .001) in whole tobacco showed significant differences over time, decreasing between 2005 and 2007, and generally increasing from 2007 through 2012. Levels of all TSNAs in mainstream smoke emissions reflected a similar pattern: N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) (p < .001), NAT (p < .001), NNK (p < .001), and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) (p = .021). Linear regression analyses showed that TSNA levels varied by manufacturer over time in whole tobacco for NAT, NNK, and NNN (p < .001 for all), and in smoke emissions for NAB, NAT, NNK, and NNN (p < .001 for all). Conclusions:The findings indicate that levels of TSNAs in whole tobacco and smoke emissions of cigarettes sold in Canada increased from 2007 through 2011/12, following initial reductions over the previous 2 years. Differences in TSNA levels between companies raise questions about manufacturing practices that may be responsible for these changes. Although increased levels of carcinogenic TSNAs may be alarming, it remains unclear whether these differences translate into differences in health risk. Implications:The wide variation of TSNAs within the Canadian market across time and across cigarette companies demonstrates the feasibility of reducing the levels of these potent carcinogens. Although it is unclear whether changes made to levels of TSNAs will result in less tobacco-related disease, the tobacco industry bears a responsibility to minimize the harm from smoking to the fullest extent possible.

SUBMITTER: Czoli CD 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5892861 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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