GDF15 promotes the proliferation of cervical cancer cells by phosphorylating AKT1 and Erk1/2 through the receptor ErbB2.
ABSTRACT: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a member of the TGF-? superfamily, and evidence suggests that a substantial amount of GDF15 is secreted in various human cancers, such as ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer, among others. However, the function of GDF15 in cervical cancer has not yet been reported.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect GDF15 expression in normal cervix and in different cervical cancer lesions. Cell growth curves, MTT, tumor formation assays and flow cytometry were utilized to observe the effects of ectopic GDF15 expression on the proliferation and cell cycle of cervical cancer cells. Real-time PCR, western blotting and immunoprecipitation assays were conducted to measure the expression of genes related to the cell cycle and the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to confirm whether C-myc bound to a specific region of the GDF15 promoter. Inhibitor treatment and immunoprecipitation assays were employed to identify the association between GDF15 and ErbB2.GDF15 expression gradually increased during the progression of cervical carcinogenesis. GDF15 promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation via exogenous rhGDF15 treatment or the use of gene editing technology in vitro and in vivo and significantly accelerated the cell cycle transition from G0/G1 to S phase. The expression of p-ErbB2, p-AKT1, p-Erk1/2, CyclinD1 and CyclinE1 was up-regulated and the expression of p21 was down-regulated in GDF15-overexpressing and rhGDF15-treated cervical cancer cells. C-myc trans-activated GDF15 expression by binding to the E-box motifs in the promoter of GDF15 and contributed to the positive feedback of GDF15/C-myc/GDF15. Furthermore, GDF15 bound to ErbB2 in a protein complex in cervical cancer cells.Our data demonstrated that GDF15 promoted the proliferation of cervical cancer cells via the up-regulation of CyclinD1 and CyclinE1 and the down-regulation of p21 through both the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways in a complex with ErbB2.
Project description:HOXA5 is considered a regulator involved in embryonic development and cellular differentiation and a tumor suppressor. Nevertheless, its biological role in cervical carcinoma is still unclear. In the present study, immunohistochemistry showed that HOXA5 expression gradually decreased as the degree of cervical lesions deepened. Ectopic expression of HOXA5 restrained cell proliferation, decreased cell viability, and inhibited tumor formation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the expression of HOXA5 could arrest cell cycle from G0/G1 to S phase. RNA-seq revealed that p21 and cyclinD1 were involved in this process. Moreover, the gene set enrichment analysis and the TOP/FOP reporter assay both suggested that HOXA5 could restrain the activity of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Further study using dual-luciferase reporter assay and quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that HOXA5 could directly bind to the TAAT motif within the promoter of TP53 by its HD domain and transactivate TP53, which can upregulate p21. Altogether, our data suggest that HOXA5 inhibits the proliferation and neoplasia via repression activity of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and transactivating TP53 in cervical cancer.
Project description:DAX1 is well known for its fundamental role in several types of cancer, while its biological role in cervical cancer remains largely unexplored. The expression of DAX1 in cervical carcinoma tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry and western blot. The effects of DAX1 silencing on the cell growth, tumor formation, and CSC (cancer stem cell) characteristics were also investigated. DAX1 expressed a gradual increase from normal cervix to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and consequently to cervical cancer. Silence of DAX1 significantly inhibited the cell growth, tumorigenicity, and tumorsphere formation. Furthermore, the TOP/FOP-Flash reporter assay revealed that Wnt/?-catenin pathway was significantly inactivated in DAX1-silenced cervical cancer cells with the downregulation of Wnt/?-catenin targeting genes, including cyclinD1 and c-myc. Moreover, dual-luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed that DAX1 transcriptionally repressed glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), an inhibitor of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, by physically interacting with -666~-444 motif on the GSK3? promoter. Additionally, the blockage of GSK3? by CHIR-99021 resulted in a significant increase of CSC characteristics induced by the silence of DAX1. Our data demonstrated that DAX1 is overexpressed in cervical cancer, and that it promotes cell growth and tumorigenicity through activating Wnt/?-catenin pathway mediated by GSK3?.
Project description:Our previous study showed FOXM1 expression was significantly up-regulated in cervical cancer, and was associated with poor prognosis. To clarify miRNAs-FOXM1 modulation pathways, in this study, we investigated the relationships between miR-216b and FOXM1 and the role of miR-216b in cell proliferation and prognosis of cervical cancer patients.Western blotting and qPCR were used to determine expression of FOXM1, cell cycle related factors and miR-216b level. MiR-216b overexpression and inhibited cell models were constructed, and siRNA was used for FOXM1 silencing. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT and colony formation assay. Dual luciferase reporter assay system was used to clarify the relationships between miR-216b and FOXM1. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to evaluate prognosis.MiR-216b was down-regulated in cervical cancer cells and tissues, and its ectopic expression could decrease cell proliferation. Western blotting analysis showed miR-216b can inhibit cell proliferation by regulating FOXM1-related cell cycle factors, suppressing cyclinD1, c-myc, LEF1 and p-Rb and enhancing p21 expression. Repressing of miR-216b stimulated cervical cancer cell proliferation, whereas silencing FOXM1 expression could reverse this effect. Western blotting and luciferase assay results proved FOXM1 is a direct target of miR-216b. Survival analysis showed higher level of miR-216b was associated with better prognosis in cervical cancer patients.FOXM1 expression could be suppressed by miR-216b via direct binding to FOXM1 3'-UTR and miR-216b could inhibit cell proliferation by regulating FOXM1 related Wnt/?-catenin signal pathway. MiR-216b level is related to prognosis in cervical cancer patients and may serve as a potential prognostic marker.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Psoralen is a coumarin-like and coumarin-related benzofuran glycoside, which is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine to treat patients with kidney and spleen-yang deficiency symptom. Psoralen has been reported to show estrogen-like activity, antioxidant activity, osteoblastic proliferation accelerating activity, antitumor effects and antibacterial activity. However, the antitumor mechanism of psoralen is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of psoralen in human hepatoma cell line SMMC7721 and the mechanism of antitumor effects. RESULTS:Psoralen inhibited proliferation of SMMC7721 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and promoted apoptosis. Further, psoralen activated the ER stress signal pathway, including the expansion of endoplasmic reticulum, increasing the mRNA levels of GRP78, DDIT3, ATF4, XBP1, GADD34 and the protein levels of GDF15, GRP78, IRE1α, XBP-1s in a time-dependent manner. Psoralen induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase by enhancing CyclinD1 and reducing CyclinE1 expression. Moreover, TUDC couldn't inhibit the psoralen-induced ER stress in SMMC7721 cells. CONCLUSIONS:Psoralen can inhibit the proliferation of SMMC7721 cells and induce ER stress response to induce cell apoptosis, suggesting that psoralen may represent a novel therapeutic option for the prevention and treatment hepatocellular carcinoma.
Project description:KIF18B was identified as a potential oncogene by analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database.We assessed KIF18B expression and explored its clinical significance in cervical cancer tissues. We have also evaluated the effects of KIF18B on cervical cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion both in vitro and in vivo.Our results show that KIF18B is overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues and is associated with a large primary tumor size, an advanced FIGO stage, and an advanced tumor grade. Knockdown of KIF18B induces cell cycle G1-phase arrest and inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cervical cancer cells, whereas its overexpression promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion in these cells. Moreover, silencing of KIF18B reduces expression of CyclinD1, ?-catenin, C-myc, and p-GSK3? expression.These data suggest that KIF18B can serve as a novel oncogene that promotes the tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells by activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Project description:We aim to investigate the role of THAP11 (thanatos-associated protein11) in gastric cancer and its regulation mechanisms. THAP11 expression was analyzed in 51 pairs of GC tissues and the corresponding paracancerous tissues by qRT-PCR and Western blot. After THAP11 was overexpressed or knocked-down, cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were detected in MKN-45 cells. We found that THAP11 was significantly downregulated in GC tissues and GC cell lines. Functionally, THAP11 overexpression markedly inhibited cell growth, induced G1/G0 cell-cycle arrest, and promoted cell apoptosis of MKN-45 cells, while silencing of THAP11 led to increased cell growth, increased DNA synthesis, and inhibited apoptosis. In addition, THAP11 negatively regulated the expression of c-Myc, decreased cyclinD1 protein, and increased p27 and p21 protein levels. We also found cell growth suppression induced by THAP11 was rescued by c-Myc overexpression, further confirming that THAP11 suppresses gastric cancer cell growth via the c-Myc pathway. THAP11 acts as a cell growth suppressor and exerts its role possibly through negatively regulating c-Myc pathway in gastric cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The human ERBB2 gene is frequently amplified in breast tumors, and its high expression is associated with poor prognosis. We previously reported a significant inverse correlation between Myc promoter-binding protein-1 (MBP-1) and ERBB2 expression in primary breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). MBP-1 is a transcriptional repressor of the c-MYC gene that acts by binding to the P2 promoter; only one other direct target of MBP-1, the COX2 gene, has been identified so far. METHODS: To gain new insights into the functional relationship linking MBP-1 and ERBB2 in breast cancer, we have investigated the effects of MBP-1 expression on endogenous ERBB2 transcript and protein levels, as well as on transcription promoter activity, by transient-transfection of SKBr3 cells. Reporter gene and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to dissect the ERBB2 promoter and identify functional MBP-1 target sequences. We also investigated the relative expression of MBP-1 and HDAC1 in IDC and normal breast tissues by immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Transfection experiments and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in SKBr3 cells indicated that MBP-1 negatively regulates the ERBB2 gene by binding to a genomic region between nucleotide -514 and -262 of the proximal promoter; consistent with this, a concomitant recruitment of HDAC1 and loss of acetylated histone H4 was observed. In addition, we found high expression of MBP-1 and HDAC1 in normal tissues and a statistically significant inverse correlation with ErbB2 expression in the paired tumor samples. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that the ERBB2 gene is a novel MBP-1 target, and immunohistochemistry analysis of primary tumors suggests that the concomitant high expression of MBP-1 and HDAC1 may be considered a diagnostic marker of cancer progression for breast IDC.
Project description:The Myc/Max/Mad network plays a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and c-Myc is overexpressed in many cancers, including HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines. Despite the tolerance of cervical cancer keratinocytes to high Myc expression, we found that the solitary transduction of the Myc gene into primary cervical and foreskin keratinocytes induced rapid cell death. These findings suggested that the anti-apoptotic activity of E7 in cervical cancer cells might be responsible for negating the apoptotic activity of over-expressed Myc. Indeed, our earlier in vitro studies demonstrated that Myc and E7 synergize in the immortalization of keratinocytes. Since we previously postulated that E7 and the ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, were members of the same functional pathway in cell immortalization, we tested whether Y-27632 would inhibit apoptosis induced by the over-expression of Myc. Our findings indicate that Y-27632 rapidly inhibited Myc-induced membrane blebbing and cellular apoptosis and, more generally, functioned as an inhibitor of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of cell death. Most important, Y-27632 cooperated with Myc to immortalize keratinocytes efficiently, indicating that apoptosis is a major barrier to Myc-induced immortalization of keratinocytes. The anti-apoptotic activity of Y-27632 correlated with a reduction in p53 serine 15 phosphorylation and the consequent reduction in the expression of downstream target genes p21 and DAPK1, two genes involved in the induction of cell death.
Project description:Though the long noncoding RNA colon cancer associated transcript-1 (CCAT-1) has been shown to be involved in tumors of other tissues, its involvement in cervical cancer is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of CCAT-1 in cervical cancer. We quantified the expression of CCAT-1 long noncoding RNA in samples of cervical cancer tissue by real-time PCR. Effects of CCAT-1 expression on the proliferation and apoptosis of HeLa and CaSki cells were assessed by cell-count, colony-formation, and flow cytometry assays. Binding of the c-Myc protein to the CCAT-1 promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Finally, TOP-Flash and western blotting were used to examine the regulation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway by CCAT-1. The results showed that compared with adjacent normal tissue, the expression of CCAT-1 in cervical cancer tissue was significantly upregulated. CCAT-1 expression was related to the stage and size of the tumor and recurrence prognosis. Then, we showed through functional assays that CCAT-1 could promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that c-Myc protein could promote CCAT-1 expression by binding to its promoter. Finally, fluorescent-reporter assays and western blotting showed that CCAT-1 could activate the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. In conclusion, we showed that CCAT-1 can be activated by the c-Myc protein and it can promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis in cervical cancer cells by regulating the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. CCAT-1 might serve as a good prognostic indicator and target for treatment of cervical cancer.
Project description:Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid neuroendocrine cancer and is one of the leading causes of death in children. To improve clinical outcomes and prognosis, discovering new promising drugs and targeted medicine is essential. We found that applying Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) and MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor) to SH-SY5Y cells synergistically suppressed proliferation, glucose metabolism, migration, and invasion and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. These effects occurred both concentration and time dependently and were associated with the effects observed with inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5) overexpression. SAHA and MG132 treatment increased the expression levels of ING5, PTEN, p53, Caspase-3, Bax, p21, and p27 but decreased the expression levels of 14-3-3, MMP-2, MMP-9, ADFP, Nanog, c-myc, CyclinD1, CyclinB1, and Cdc25c concentration dependently, similar to ING5. SAHA may downregulate miR-543 and miR-196-b expression to enhance the translation of ING5 protein, which promotes acetylation of histones H3 and H4. All three proteins (ING5 and acetylated histones H3 and H4) were recruited to the promoters of c-myc, Nanog, CyclinD1, p21, and p27 for complex formation, thereby regulating the mRNA expression of downstream genes. ING5 overexpression and SAHA and/or MG132 administration inhibited tumor growth in SH-SY5Y cells by suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. The expression of acetylated histones H3 and ING5 may be closely linked to the tumor size of neuroblastomas. In summary, SAHA and/or MG132 can synergistically suppress the malignant phenotypes of neuroblastoma cells through the miRNA-ING5-histone acetylation axis and via proteasomal degradation, respectively. Therefore, the two drugs may serve as potential treatments for neuroblastoma.