Zinc supplementation inhibits hepatic apoptosis in mice subjected to a long-term ethanol exposure.
ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte apoptosis has been documented in both clinical and experimental alcoholic liver disease. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of dietary zinc supplementation on hepatic apoptosis in mice subjected to a long-term ethanol exposure. Male adult 129S6 mice fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 6 months developed hepatitis, as indicated by neutrophil infiltration and elevation of hepatic keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels. Apoptotic cell death was detected in ethanol-exposed mice by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and was confirmed by the increased activities of caspase-3 and -8. Zinc supplementation attenuated alcoholic hepatitis and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in association with inhibition of caspase activities. Ethanol exposure caused oxidative stress, as indicated by reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial glutathione depletion, and decreased metallothionein levels in the liver, which were suppressed by zinc supplementation. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, TNF-R1, FasL, Fas, Fas-associated factor-1, and caspase-3 in the liver were upregulated by ethanol exposure, which were attenuated by zinc supplementation. Zinc supplementation also prevented ethanol-elevated serum and hepatic TNF-alpha levels and TNF-R1 and Fas proteins in the liver. In conclusion, zinc supplementation prevented hepatocyte apoptosis in mice subjected to long-term ethanol exposure, and the action of zinc is likely through suppression of oxidative stress and death receptor-mediated pathways.
Project description:Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element involved in the normal physiological processes of animals. However, excessive exposure to Cu can produce numerous detrimental impacts. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cu on oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as their relationship in the mouse liver. Four-week-old ICR mice (n = 240) were randomly assigned to different Cu (Cu2+-CuSO4) treatment groups (0, 4, 8, and 16?mg/kg) for periods of 21 and 42 days. The high doses of Cu exposure could induce oxidative stress, by increasing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein carbonyls (PC) and decreasing the activities of antisuperoxide anion (ASA) and antihydroxyl radical (AHR) and content of glutathione (GSH), as well as activities and mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Moreover, high doses of Cu exposure induced hepatic apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as characterized by the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP); significantly increased mRNA and protein expression levels of cytosolic cytochrome (Cyt c), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), endonuclease G (Endo G), apoptosis protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, Bcl-2 antagonist killer (Bak), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim); and decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-extra-large (Bcl-xL). Furthermore, the activation of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNF-R1) signaling pathway was involved in Cu-induced apoptosis, as characterized by the significantly increased mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-R1, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), TNFR-associated death domain (TRADD), and cleaved caspase-8. These results indicated that exposure to excess Cu could cause oxidative stress triggered by ROS overproduction and diminished antioxidant function, which in turn promoted hepatic apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptosis and that the TNF-R1 signaling pathway was also involved in the Cu-induced apoptosis.
Project description:Zinc deficiency is a consistent phenomenon observed in patients with alcoholic liver disease, but the mechanisms have not been well defined. The objective of this study was to determine if alcohol alters hepatic zinc transporters in association with reduction of hepatic zinc levels and if oxidative stress mediates the alterations of zinc transporters. C57BL/6 mice were pair-fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol diets for 2, 4, or 8 wk. Chronic alcohol exposure reduced hepatic zinc levels, but increased plasma and urine zinc levels, at all time points. Hepatic zinc finger proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF-4?), were downregulated in ethanol-fed mice. Four hepatic zinc transporter proteins showed significant alterations in ethanol-fed mice compared with the controls. ZIP5 and ZIP14 proteins were downregulated, while ZIP7 and ZnT7 proteins were upregulated, by ethanol exposure at all time points. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure upregulated cytochrome P-450 2E1 and caused 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation in the liver. For the in vitro study, murine FL-83B hepatocytes were treated with 5 ?M 4-hydroxynonenal or 100 ?M hydrogen peroxide for 72 h. The results from in vitro studies demonstrated that 4-hydroxynonenal treatment altered ZIP5 and ZIP7 protein abundance, and hydrogen peroxide treatment changed ZIP7, ZIP14, and ZnT7 protein abundance. These results suggest that chronic ethanol exposure alters hepatic zinc transporters via oxidative stress, which might account for ethanol-induced hepatic zinc deficiency.
Project description:Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcoholics have a lower dietary zinc intake compared to health controls. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction between dietary zinc deficiency and ethanol consumption in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. C57BL/6N mice were subjected to 8-week feeding of 4 experimental liquid diets: (1) zinc adequate diet, (2) zinc adequate diet plus ethanol, (3) zinc deficient diet, and (4) zinc deficient diet plus ethanol. Ethanol exposure with adequate dietary zinc resulted in liver damage as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase level and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Dietary zinc deficiency alone increased hepatic lipid contents, but did not induce hepatic inflammation. Dietary zinc deficiency showed synergistic effects on ethanol-induced liver damage. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol effects on hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. Dietary zinc deficiency worsened ethanol-induced imbalance between hepatic pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and hepatic expression of cell death receptors. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol-induced reduction of plasma leptin, although it did not affect ethanol-induced reduction of white adipose tissue mass. Dietary zinc deficiency also deteriorated ethanol-induced gut permeability increase and plasma endotoxin elevation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary zinc deficiency is a risk factor in alcoholic liver disease, and multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors may mediate the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency.
Project description:Ethanol-induced liver injury is characterized by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines, resulting in the development of hepatic steatosis, injury, and cell death by necrosis and apoptosis. Thioredoxin (Trx), a potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory molecule with antiapoptotic properties, protects animals from a number of inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of ethanol on Trx or its role in ethanol-induced liver injury are not known. Female C57BL/6 mice were allowed ad libitum access to a Lieber-deCarli ethanol diet with 5.4% of calories as ethanol for 2 days to acclimate them to the diet, followed by 2 days with 32.4% of calories as ethanol or pair-fed control diet. Hepatic Trx-1 was decreased by ethanol feeding; daily supplementation with recombinant human Trx (rhTrx) prevented this ethanol-induced decrease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that administration of rhTrx during ethanol exposure would attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine production, and apoptosis. Mice were treated with a daily intraperitoneal injection of either 5 g/kg of rhTrx or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS).Ethanol feeding increased accumulation of hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, expression of hepatic tumor necrosis factor alpha, and resulted in hepatic steatosis and increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. In ethanol-fed mice, treatment with rhTrx reduced 4-hydroxynonenal adduct accumulation, inflammatory cytokine expression, decreased hepatic triglyceride, and improved liver enzyme profiles. Ethanol feeding also increased transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling-positive cells, caspase-3 activity, and cytokeratin-18 staining in the liver. rhTrx treatment prevented these increases. In summary, rhTrx attenuated ethanol-induced increases in markers of oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine expression, and apoptosis.
Project description:Alcoholic liver disease is associated with sustained liver damage and impaired regeneration, as well as significant zinc deficiency. This study was undertaken to examine whether dietary zinc supplementation could improve liver regeneration by increasing the expression of genes involved in hepatic cellular proliferation in a mouse model of alcoholic liver disease. Adult 129S6 mice fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 6 months developed alcoholic liver disease as measured by serum alanine transferase activity and histopathological changes. Zinc supplementation to ethanol-exposed mice enhanced liver regeneration as indicated by increased numbers of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled hepatocytes. Zinc-enhanced liver regeneration was associated with an increase in hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha), a liver-enriched, zinc-finger transcription factor. Studies using cultured HepG2 cells showed that zinc deficiency suppressed cell proliferation and cell proliferation-related proteins, including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1), metallothionein (MT), and cyclin D1, as well as HNF-4alpha. HNF-4alpha gene silencing inhibited cell proliferation in association with decreased protein levels of IGF-I, IGFBP1, MT, and cyclin D1. The present study provides evidence that zinc supplementation enhances liver regeneration at least in part by HNF-4alpha through the up-regulation of cell proliferation-related proteins, suggesting that dietary zinc supplementation may have beneficial effects in alcoholic liver disease.
Project description:Fructose and ethanol are metabolized principally in the liver and are both known to contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis that can progress to hepatic steatohepatitis. The present study indentifies a synergistic interaction between fructose and ethanol in promoting hepatocyte sensitivity to TNF?-induced necroptosis. Concurrent exposure to fructose and ethanol induces the overexpression of the CDGSH iron-sulfur domain-containing protein 1 (CISD1 or mitoneet), which is localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane. The increased expression of mitoneet primes the hepatocyte for TNF?-induced cytotoxicity. Treatment with TNF? induces the translocation of a Stat3-Grim-19 complex to the mitochondria, which binds to mitoneet and promotes the rapid release of its 2Fe-2S cluster, causing an accumulation of mitochondrial iron. The dramatic increase of mitochondrial iron provokes a surge in formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in mitochondrial injury and cell death. Additionally, mitoneet is constitutively expressed at high levels in L929 fibrosarcoma cells and is required for L929 cells to undergo TNF?-induced necroptosis in the presence of caspase inhibition, indicating the importance of mitoneet to the necroptotic form of cell death.
Project description:Long-term alcohol exposure sensitizes hepatocytes to tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) cytotoxicity. 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is one of the most abundant and reactive lipid peroxides. Increased hepatic 4-HNE contents present in both human alcoholics and alcohol-fed animals. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intracellular 4-HNE accumulation on TNF-induced hepatotoxicity and its potential implication in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an ethanol-containing or a control diet for 5 weeks. Long-term alcohol exposure increased hepatic 4-HNE and TNF levels. Cell culture studies revealed that 4-HNE, at nontoxic concentrations, sensitized hepatocytes to TNF killing, which was associated with suppressed NF-?B transactivity. Further investigation demonstrated that 4-HNE prevented TNF-induced inhibitor of ?B? phosphorylation without affecting upstream I?B kinase activity. An immunoprecipitation assay revealed that increased 4-HNE content was associated with increased formation of 4-HNE-inhibitor of ?B? adduction in both 4-HNE-treated hepatocytes and in the livers of alcohol-fed mice. Prevention of intracellular 4-HNE accumulation by bezafibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonist, protected hepatocytes from TNF killing via NF-?B activation. Supplementation of N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor, conferred a protective effect on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice, was associated with decreased hepatic 4-HNE formation, and improved hepatic NF-?B activity. In conclusion, increased 4-HNE accumulation represents a potent and clinically relevant sensitizer to TNF-induced hepatotoxicity. These data support the notion that removal of intracellular 4-HNE can serve as a potential therapeutic option for alcoholic liver disease.
Project description:Gut dysbiosis and altered short-chain fatty acids are associated with ethanol-induced liver injury. SCFA are fermentation byproducts of the gut microbiota known to have many beneficial biological effects. We tested if a designer synbiotic could protect against ethanol-induced gut-liver injury. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to chronic-binge ethanol feeding consisting of ethanol (5% vol/vol) for 10 days, followed by a single gavage (5 g/kg body weight) 6 h before euthanasia. A group of mice also received oral supplementation daily with a designer synbiotic, and another group received fecal slurry (FS); control animals received saline. Control mice were isocalorically substituted maltose dextran for ethanol over the entire exposure period. Ethanol exposure reduced expression of tight junction proteins in the proximal colon and induced hepatocyte injury and steatosis. Synbiotic supplementation not only mitigated losses in tight junction protein expression, but also prevented ethanol-induced steatosis and hepatocyte injury. Ethanol exposure also increased hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress, which was also attenuated by synbiotic supplementation. Mice receiving FS were not protected from ethanol-induced liver injury or steatosis. Results were associated with luminal SCFA levels and SCFA transporter expression in the proximal colon and liver. These results indicate supplementation with a designer synbiotic is effective in attenuating chronic-binge ethanol-induced gut-liver injury and steatosis in mice, and highlight the beneficial effects of the gut microbial fermentation byproducts.
Project description:Low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver tissue biopsies are the common characteristics in patients with alcoholic liver disease. The ?-linolenic acid (ALA) is a plant-derived n-3 PUFA and is rich in flaxseed oil. However, the impact of ALA on alcoholic fatty liver is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the potential protective effects of ALA-rich flaxseed oil (FO) on ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and observed that dietary FO supplementation effectively attenuated the ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice. Ethanol exposure stimulated adipose lipolysis but reduced fatty acid/lipid uptake, which were normalized by FO. Our investigations into the corresponding mechanisms demonstrated that the ameliorating effect of FO might be associated with the lower endoplasmic reticulum stress and normalized lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. In the liver, alcohol exposure stimulated hepatic fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis, which were attenuated by FO. Additionally, dietary FO upregulated plasma adiponectin concentration, hepatic adiponectin receptor 2 expression, and the activation of hepatic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Collectively, dietary FO protects against alcoholic hepatic steatosis by improving lipid homeostasis at the adipose tissue-liver axis, suggesting that dietary ALA-rich flaxseed oil might be a promising approach for prevention of alcoholic fatty liver.
Project description:In utero exposure to ethanol can result in severe fetal brain defects. Previous studies showed that ethanol induces apoptosis in differentiated cortical neurons. However, we know little about ethanol's effects on proliferating embryonic cortical progenitors. This study investigated the impact of ethanol exposure on the Fas/Apo-1/CD95 suicide receptor pathway, and on the survival of proliferating cortical neuroepithelial progenitors.Murine embryonic-derived primary cortical neuroepithelial cells were maintained as neurosphere cultures and exposed to a dose range of ethanol for periods ranging from 1 to 5 days. Programmed cell death was measured by 4 independent means (Annexin-V staining, caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and autophagic vacuole formation). Surface Fas/Apo-1 suicide receptor expression was measured by flow cytometry. Expression of Fas/Apo-1-associated DISC-complex genes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Ethanol exposure did not substantially increase apoptosis, necrosis, or surface Fas/Apo-1 expression. Moreover, ethanol significantly decreased caspase activation and autophagic activity. Finally, ethanol exposure induced mRNA expression of genes that constitute the death receptor complex.This study provides surprising evidence that ethanol does not induce either programmed cell death or necrosis of immature progenitors during neurogenesis, although ethanol may render neural progenitors susceptible to future apoptotic insults. Furthermore, our novel observation that ethanol suppresses autophagy is consistent with a hypothesis that ethanol promotes premature neural progenitor maturation. Taken together with our previous data regarding the role of the Fas/Apo-1 receptor in neural development, we conclude that ethanol disrupts basic proliferation and differentiation machinery rather than initiating cell death per se.