T-cell lymphoma with abundant CD20 expression showing a good response to rituximab with gemcitabine, oxiplatin, and L-asparaginase (R-pGEMOX): A case report.
ABSTRACT: T-cell lymphoma is a neoplasm that expresses markers of T-cell or natural killer cell (NK)-origin but not those of B-cell origin. Although B-cell lymphoma with abundant expression of T-cell markers exist, the opposite is very rare. Therefore, little is known about this subtype of lymphoma, including its treatment and prognosis.A 65-year-old man was diagnosed with T-cell lymphoma with abundant CD20 expression. He was refractory to cyclophosphamide + epirubicin + vincristine + prednisone + etoposide (CHOPE), ifosfamide + cisplatin + etoposide + dexamethasone (DICE), and hyper-cyclophosphamide + vincristine + epirubicin + dexamethasone (CVAD) chemotherapy. The patient was also treated with prednisone + thalidomide + chidamide, which was also not effective. Upon admission to our department, he was administered a rituximab + gemcitabine + oxiplatin + L-asparaginase (R-pGEMOX) regimen and achieved partial remission.CD20-positive T-cell lymphoma is a very rare type of lymphoma that is refractory to CHOP-like regimens alone. Rituximab may be effective in patients showing abundant CD20 expression, and an R-pGEMOX regimen will likely be effective, even in refractory/recurrent patients.
Project description:Standard treatment of transplant-eligible patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) consists of rituximab and platinum-based chemotherapy, either ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) or dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (DHAP), with autologous transplant consolidation for those with chemosensitive disease. Nonetheless, outcomes are suboptimal for patients failing rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). We performed a multi-center phase II trial investigating the safety and efficacy of ofatumumab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20, combined with ICE or DHAP second-line therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL, grade 3b follicular lymphoma, or transformed follicular lymphoma. Sixty-one patients were treated with either ofatumumab-ICE (35) or ofatumumab-DHAP (26). The overall response rate (ORR) was 61%, and the complete response (CR) rate was 37%. In patients with 2 or 3 adverse risk factors according to the second-line, age-adjusted, international prognostic index, the ORR was 59% and CR 31%, and in patients with early-relapsing or primary refractory disease, the ORR was 55% and CR 30%. Toxicity was largely hematologic, and stem cell mobilization was successful in 43 of 45 patients. Substitution of ofatumumab for rituximab in standard second-line regimens following failure of R-CHOP is a promising approach. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00823719.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies which typically respond to standard first-line chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Unfortunately, patients with refractory NHL face a poor prognosis and represent an unmet need for improved therapeutics. We present two cases of refractory CD30+ NHL who responded to novel brentuximab vedotin- (BV-) based regimens. The first is a patient with stage IV anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with cranial nerve involvement who failed front-line treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisone (CHOEP) and second line cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone alternating with high-dose methotrexate (MTX), and cytarabine (hyperCVAD) with intrathecal- (IT-) MTX and IT-cytarabine, but responded when BV was substituted for vincristine (hyperCBAD). The second patient was a man with stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with leptomeningeal involvement whose disease progressed during first-line rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and progressed despite salvage therapy with rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP) in whom addition of BV to topotecan resulted in a significant response. This report describes the first successful salvage treatments of highly aggressive, double refractory CD30+ NHL using two unreported BV-based chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Both regimens appear effective and have manageable toxicities. Further clinical trials assessing novel BV combinations are warranted.
Project description:We investigated the addition of rituximab to dose-dense and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with untreated poor-prognosis diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Ninety-four young patients (age, 18-60) with stage III-IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at intermediate/high or high risk according to the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index were enrolled into a phase II trial. The treatment was as follows: four courses of bi-weekly rituximab-cyclophosphamide-epirubicin-vincristine-prednisone (R-MegaCEOP14), two courses of rituximab-mitoxantrone-cytarabine-dexamethasone (R-MAD) and carmustine-etoposide-cytarabine-melphalan (BEAM) with autologous stem cell transplantation.The complete response and toxic death rates were 82% and 5%, respectively. Failure-free survival and overall survival rates at 4 years were 73% and 80%, respectively. The outcomes of these patients were retrospectively compared to those of 41 patients with similar characteristics enrolled into a previous phase II trial of high-dose chemotherapy without rituximab. This historical group was treated with eight weekly infusions of methotrexate-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-vincristine-prednisone-bleomycin (MACOP-B), two courses of MAD and BEAM with autologous stem cell transplantation. The 4-year failure-free survival rates for the rituximab and historical groups were 73% versus 44%, respectively (p=0.001); the 4-year overall survival rates were 80% and 54%, respectively (p=0.002). A Cox's multivariable model was applied to adjust the effect of treatment for unbalanced or important prognostic factors: failure and death risks were significantly reduced in the rituximab group compared to the historical group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.44 (p=0.01) for failure-free survival and 0.46 (p=0.02) for overall survival.These results suggest that the addition of rituximab to high-dose chemotherapy is effective and safe in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a poor-prognosis and such regimens need to be compared to dose-dense chemoimmunotherapy without autologous stem cell transplantation in randomized trials.
Project description:Rituximab plus intravenous bolus chemotherapy is a standard treatment for immunocompetent patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Some studies have suggested that rituximab is associated with excessive toxicity in HIV-associated NHL, and that infusional chemotherapy may be more effective. We performed a randomized phase 2 trial of rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) given either concurrently before each infusional etoposide, vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone (EPOCH) chemotherapy cycle or sequentially (weekly for 6 weeks) after completion of all chemotherapy in HIV-associated NHL. EPOCH consisted of a 96-hour intravenous infusion of etoposide, doxorubicin, and vincristine plus oral prednisone followed by intravenous bolus cyclophosphamide given every 21 days for 4 to 6 cycles. In the concurrent arm, 35 of 48 evaluable patients (73%; 95% confidence interval, 58%-85%) had a complete response. In the sequential arm, 29 of 53 evaluable patients (55%; 95% confidence interval, 41%-68%) had a complete response. The primary efficacy endpoint was met for the concurrent arm only. Toxicity was comparable in the 2 arms, although patients with a baseline CD4 count less than 50/microL had a high infectious death rate in the concurrent arm. We conclude that concurrent rituximab plus infusional EPOCH is an effective regimen for HIV-associated lymphoma.
Project description:Outcomes for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that proves refractory to treatment remain poor. Treatment of such patients is individualized and can include enrolment in a clinical trial of novel agents or use of one of a wide array of drug regimens. Initial treatment with anthracyclines such as doxorubicin limits options at later stages of treatment because of anthracycline-related cumulative cardiotoxicity. The aza-anthracenedione pixantrone was developed to reduce the likelihood of cardiotoxicity without compromising efficacy and is currently conditionally approved for use as monotherapy in patients with multiply-relapsed or refractory aggressive B cell NHL. The use of pixantrone in combination therapy, often to replace doxorubicin or mitoxantrone, has or is currently being investigated in numerous studies in patients with aggressive or indolent NHL and is the focus of this review. These include the R-CPOP regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, pixantrone, vincristine, prednisone) for aggressive NHL in the first-line setting, including a study in elderly patients with limited cardiac function, and for patients with relapsed NHL with prior anthracycline exposure; the PSHAP regimen (pixantrone, cytarabine, prednisone, cisplatin), also in the latter setting; the PREBen/PEBen regimen (pixantrone, bendamustine and etoposide with or without rituximab) as salvage therapy; and pixantrone in combination with fludarabine, dexamethasone, and rituximab (FPD-R) for relapsed indolent NHL.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma in adults, accounting for 35%-40% of all cases. The combination of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab with anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy (R-CHOP, rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) lead to complete remission in most and can cure more than half of patients with DLBCL. The diversity in clinical presentation, as well as the pathologic and biologic heterogeneity, suggests that DLBCL comprises several disease entities that might ultimately benefit from different therapeutic approaches. In this review, we summarize the current literature focusing on the genetic lesions identified in DLBCL.
Project description:For patients with advanced indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or elderly patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), the recently reported results of the German StiL NHL-1 2003 and the international BRIGHT phase III trials showed that, as first-line treatment, the combination of bendamustine and rituximab is at least as effective as rituximab/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone or rituximab/cyclophosphamide/vincristine/prednisone, possibly with a better therapeutic index. Bendamustine is therefore increasingly used in clinical practice. Because bendamustine has been used for many years in Germany and in Switzerland, our institutions have had extensive experience with bendamustine, both as a single agent and in combination with rituximab. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the most important clinical data from phase II/III trials with bendamustine in patients with indolent NHL and MCL, both in the relapsed/refractory setting and in the first-line setting. In addition, this review provides practical advice on how to optimally manage bendamustine therapy in patients with NHL.
Project description:In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, first-line treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone; salvage with cisplatin-based regimens for relapsing patients; and autologous stem cell therapy are standards of care. Treatment approaches are less clear for patients who are refractory or who are not candidates for autologous stem cell therapy. Options may include palliative regimens or clinical trial enrollment. One therapy under investigation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent with antiangiogenic activity.We present the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian male patient diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who had an early relapse after treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. He then had a subsequent early relapse after cisplatin-based salvage consolidated with autologous stem cell therapy. The efficacy of gemcitabine-cisplatin-rituximab was limited to five months, followed by systemic and central nervous system progression. Fourth-line treatment with lenalidomide plus rituximab and involved-field radiotherapy followed by lenalidomide monotherapy greatly improved this patient's quality of life and performance status, allowing over two years of progression-free survival to date (excluding a brief relapse due to treatment interruption).A lenalidomide-based regimen was highly effective in this patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Project description:Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity influences treatment selection and may negatively affect clinical outcomes in lymphoma patients. While epirubicin induced cardiotoxicity less often than the same dose of doxorubicin in breast cancer, higher doses of epirubicin are required in lymphoma regimens for equivalent efficacy. Whether a higher dosage of epirubicin also induces cardiotoxicity less often than doxorubicin in lymphoma remains unknown. We therefore administered 6-8 cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone (CEpOP) +/- rituximab (R) with either epirubicin (CEpOP) or doxorubicin (CHOP) to patients (N=398) with untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or follicular lymphoma grade 3 (FLG3). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and high-sensitivity serum cardiac troponin T (HsTnT) were assessed at baseline and after 4 cycles of treatment. Epirubicin (70 mg/m2/dose) was equivalent to doxorubicin (50 mg/m2/dose) in terms of 3-year progression-free survival. The risk of decreased LVEF was similar between the two regimens. CEpOP+/-R induced HsTnT elevation less often than CHOP+/-R. We conclude that CEpOP+/-R is a more acceptable regimen with short-term efficacy similar to CHOP+/-R in lymphoma patients. Longer follow-up is needed to monitor the risk of cardiac dysfunction and determine whether differences in the induction of elevated HsTnT between epirubicin and doxorubicin justify changes in clinical practice.
Project description:High-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements (double-/triple-hit lymphoma) have an aggressive clinical course. We investigated the prognostic value of transformation from low-grade lymphoma, cytological features (high grade versus large cell), MYC rearrangement partners (immunoglobulin versus nonimmunoglobulin gene), and treatment. We evaluated 100 adults with double-/triple-hit lymphoma, reviewing cytological features; cell of origin; and rearrangements of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 using MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 break-apart and IGH/MYC, IGL/MYC, IGK/MYC, and IGH/BCL2 dual-fusion interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization probes. Outcome analysis was restricted to patients with lymphoma, de novo or at transformation, who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Among them, 60% had high-grade cytological features; 91% had a germinal center B-cell phenotype, and 60% had a MYC/IG rearrangement. Germinal center B-cell phenotype was associated with BCL2 rearrangements (P<0.001). Mean (95% confidence interval) 5-year overall survival was 49% (37%-64%). Transformation from previously treated and untreated low-grade lymphoma was associated with inferior overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.99; P=0.008). Patients with high-grade cytological features showed a non-significant tendency to inferior outcome (hazard ratio, 2.32; P=0.09). No association was observed between MYC rearrangement partner and overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.00; P=0.99). Compared with patients receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine (R-CHOP) and dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab (EPOCH-R), patients receiving rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, and cytarabine (R-CODOX-M/IVAC) had a non-significant tendency to better overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.37; P=0.10). In conclusion, high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements had heterogeneous outcomes and MYC/IG rearrangements were not associated with inferior overall survival.