Usefulness of Enhanced Liver Fibrosis, Glycosylation Isomer of Mac-2 Binding Protein, Galectin-3, and Soluble Suppression of Tumorigenicity 2 for Assessing Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Liver Diseases.
ABSTRACT: Liver biopsies have been partially replaced by noninvasive methods for assessing liver fibrosis. We explored the usefulness of four novel biomarkers, enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF), glycosylation isomer of Mac-2 binding protein (M2BPGi), galectin-3, and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), in association with liver fibrosis.ELF, M2BPGi, galectin-3, and sST2 were assayed in 173 patients with chronic liver diseases. The results were analyzed according to fibrosis grade (F0/1, F2, and F3/4) by transient elastography (TE).ELF, M2BPGi, galectin-3, and sST2 values differed significantly according to TE grade; ELF and M2BPGi values were higher in F2 and F3/4 than in F0/1 (P?0.001, all), sST2 values were higher in F3/4 than in F0/1 and F2 (P<0.05), and galectin-3 values were higher in F3/4 than in F0/1 (P=0.0036). ELF and M2BPGi showed good TE fibrosis detection performance (area under the curves [AUC], 0.841 and 0.833 for ?F2; and 0.837 and 0.808 for ?F3). The sensitivity and specificity for predicting TE grade F?2 were 84.1% and 76.7% for ELF and 63.6% and 91.5% for M2BPGi.This is the first study to compare the liver fibrosis assessment of four novel biomarkers: ELF, M2BPGi, galectin-3, and sST2. The biomarkers varied significantly according to TE grade, and each biomarker showed a different trend. ELF and M2BPGi seem to have comparable good performance for detecting liver fibrosis.
Project description:Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein (WFA-M2BP) is a protein with altered glycosylation that reacts with lectin, and was recently identified as a useful non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus infection.This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of WFA-M2BP for liver fibrosis in the context of hepatitis B virus (HBV).We enrolled 151 patients infected with HBV. Liver biopsy and elastography (Fibroscan) were performed during the initial visit. Fibrosis was graded according to the Knodell histologic activity index (F0-3). WFA-M2BP levels were determined with an automated immunoassay analyzer (M2BPGi, HISCL-5000, Sysmex, Japan). The diagnostic efficacy of WFA-M2BP was compared with those of various conventional or composite biomarkers, including enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score, Fibroscan, aspartate transaminase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and FIB-4, based on the area under the ROC curve (AUC) value.The majority of patients were at fibrosis stages F1 and F2. The F2 and F3 AUC values for WFA-M2BP were similar to those for FIB-4, APRI, ELF, and Fibroscan, although the latter showed the best diagnostic efficacy. The diagnostic accuracy of all tested biomarkers for F2 and F3 was 60-70%. In multivariate analysis, WFA-M2BP, ELF, and platelet count significantly predicted stage ?F2, whereas only platelet count significantly predicted F3.WFA-M2BP can support a diagnosis of liver fibrosis with similar diagnostic efficacy to other biomarkers, and predicted liver fibrosis stage ?2 among patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Project description:To evaluate the diagnostic performance of seven non-invasive tests (NITs) of liver fibrosis and to assess fibrosis progression over time in HIV/HCV co-infected patients.Transient elastography (TE) and six blood tests were compared to histopathological fibrosis stage (METAVIR). Participants were followed over three years with NITs at yearly intervals.Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for significant fibrosis (> = F2) in 105 participants was highest for TE (0.85), followed by FIB-4 (0.77), ELF-Test (0.77), APRI (0.76), Fibrotest (0.75), hyaluronic acid (0.70), and Hepascore (0.68). AUROC for cirrhosis (F4) was 0.97 for TE followed by FIB-4 (0.91), APRI (0.89), Fibrotest (0.84), Hepascore (0.82), ELF-Test (0.82), and hyaluronic acid (0.79). A three year follow-up was completed by 87 participants, all on antiretroviral therapy and in 20 patients who completed HCV treatment (9 with sustained virologic response). TE, APRI and Fibrotest did not significantly change during follow-up. There was weak evidence for an increase of FIB-4 (mean increase: 0.22, p = 0.07). 42 participants had a second liver biopsy: Among 38 participants with F0-F3 at baseline, 10 were progessors (1-stage increase in fibrosis, 8 participants; 2-stage, 1; 3-stage, 1). Among progressors, mean increase in TE was 3.35 kPa, in APRI 0.36, and in FIB-4 0.75. Fibrotest results did not change over 3 years.TE was the best NIT for liver fibrosis staging in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. APRI-Score, FIB-4 Index, Fibrotest, and ELF-Test were less reliable. Routinely available APRI and FIB-4 performed as good as more expensive tests. NITs did not change significantly during a follow-up of three years, suggesting slow liver disease progression in a majority of HIV/HCV co-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy.
Project description:Establishing accurate non-invasive methods of liver fibrosis quantification remains a major unmet need. Here, we assessed the diagnostic value of a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in comparison with transient elastography (TE) and blood tests [including ELF (Enhanced Liver Fibrosis) and APRI] for liver fibrosis detection.In this single centre cross-sectional study, we prospectively enrolled 60 subjects with liver disease who underwent multiparametric MRI (DWI, DCE-MRI and MRE), TE and blood tests. Correlation was assessed between non-invasive modalities and histopathologic findings including stage, grade and collagen content, while accounting for covariates such as age, sex, BMI, HCV status and MRI-derived fat and iron content. ROC curve analysis evaluated the performance of each technique for detection of moderate-to-advanced liver fibrosis (F2-F4) and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4).Magnetic resonance elastography provided the strongest correlation with fibrosis stage (r = 0.66, P < 0.001), inflammation grade (r = 0.52, P < 0.001) and collagen content (r = 0.53, P = 0.036). For detection of moderate-to-advanced fibrosis (F2-F4), AUCs were 0.78, 0.82, 0.72, 0.79, 0.71 for MRE, TE, DCE-MRI, DWI and APRI, respectively. For detection of advanced fibrosis (F3-F4), AUCs were 0.94, 0.77, 0.79, 0.79 and 0.70, respectively.Magnetic resonance elastography provides the highest correlation with histopathologic markers and yields high diagnostic performance for detection of advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, compared to DWI, DCE-MRI, TE and serum markers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Evaluation of fibrosis stage is important to monitor progression of liver disease and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While liver biopsy is the gold standard, the method is invasive and faces several limitations. The aim of this study was to determine correlations among METAVIR scores and FibroScan, Virtual-Touch tissue quantification (VTQ), fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4 index), and Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) level, and for examine differences in the reliability of non-invasive methods to evaluate fibrosis. METHODS:We used liver resection specimens from patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), correlations were assessed between METAVIR scores and non-invasive method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and cut off values of the methods. RESULTS:All Patients group: In F0-2 vs F3-4, the areas under the ROC curve (AUC) (0.85) of FibroScan was significantly higher than that (0.67) of FIB-4 index (p?=?0.002) and that (0.67) of M2BPGi (p?=?0.001). The AUC (0.83) of VTQ was significantly higher than that (0.67) of FIB-4 index (p?=?0.01) and that (0.67) of M2BPGi (p?=?0.002). In F0-3 vs F4, the AUC (0.86) of VTQ was significantly higher than that (0.65) of FIB-4 index (p?=?0.04). The AUC (0.89) of FibroScan was significantly higher than that (0.65) of FIB-4 index (p?=?0.002) and that (0.76) of M2BPGi (p?=?0.02). Non-SVR group: In F0-2 vs F3-4, the AUC (0.85) of FibroScan was significantly higher than that (0.84) of FIB-4 index (p?=?0.02) and that (0.73) of M2BPGi (p?=?0.003). The AUC (0.84) of VTQ was significantly higher than that (0.74) of FIB-4 index (p?=?0.04). In F0-3 vs F4, the AUC (0.91) of FibroScan was significantly higher than that (0.67) of FIB-4 index (p?=?0.003) and that (0.78) of M2BPGi (p?=?0.02). The AUC (0.88) of VTQ was significantly higher than that of FIB-4 index (0.67) and that of M2BPGi (0.78) (p?=?0.04). CONCLUSIONS:FibroScan and VTQ best reflected the results of hepatic fibrosis diagnosis using liver resection specimens among the four examination methods evaluated.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Transient elastography (TE) measures liver stiffness to assess fibrosis. Studies in adults have shown that inflammation increases stiffness, leading to an overestimation of fibrosis. We investigated the contribution of inflammation to liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) in children/young adults. METHODS:This was a cohort analysis of children/young adults who underwent TE within 1 year of liver biopsy. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was obtained within 30 days of the biopsy and LSM. Fibrosis was assessed by METAVIR stage and inflammation by ALT and Ishak score. Data were stratified into METAVIR F0-F2 versus F3-F4. Change between ALT and LSM over time was also assessed. RESULTS:A total of 154 patients (50% male patients) ages 3 weeks to 24 years (18% <3 years) were studied. Diagnoses included autoimmune (N?=?38, 25%), viral (N?=?25, 16%), cholestasis (N?=?17, 11%), fatty liver (N?=?9, 6%), biliary atresia (N?=?8, 5%), metabolic (N?=?5, 3%), allograft rejection (N?=?4, 3%), and other (N?=?48, 31%). Thirty-four percent of patients had F3-F4. In patients with F0-F2, the proportion of those with LSM >8.6 kPa increased with increasing ALT (P?=?0.002). In patients with F3-F4, there was no association between ALT and LSM (P?=?0.17). A correlation between change in ALT and LSM was observed in patients with no/minimal fibrosis and inflammatory liver diseases (r?=?0.33). CONCLUSIONS:In children with no/minimal hepatic fibrosis and inflammatory liver disease, high ALT values are associated with LSM in the range typical of advanced fibrosis. However, with more advanced fibrosis, inflammation does not appear to contribute to LSM. Caution must be taken when interpreting LSM for assessing fibrosis severity in the setting of inflammation.
Project description:Liver fibrosis induced by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease causes peri-interventional complications in morbidly obese patients. We determined the performance of transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, and enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score for fibrosis detection in bariatric patients.41 patients (median BMI 47 kg/m2) underwent 14-day low-energy diets to improve conditions prior to bariatric surgery (day 0). TE (M and XL probe), ARFI, and ELF score were performed on days -15 and -1 and compared with intraoperative liver biopsies (NAS staging).Valid TE and ARFI results at day -15 and -1 were obtained in 49%/88% and 51%/90% of cases, respectively. High skin-to-liver-capsule distances correlated with invalid TE measurements. Fibrosis of liver biopsies was staged as F1 and F3 in n = 40 and n = 1 individuals. However, variations (median/range at d-15/-1) of TE (4.6/2.6-75 and 6.7/2.9-21.3 kPa) and ARFI (2.1/0.7-3.7 and 2.0/0.7-3.8 m/s) were high and associated with overestimation of fibrosis. The ELF score correctly classified 87.5% of patients.In bariatric patients, performance of TE and ARFI was poor and did not improve after weight loss. The ELF score correctly classified the majority of cases and should be further evaluated.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of a metabolic syndrome. To date, liver biopsy has been the gold standard used to differentiate between simple steatosis and steatohepatitis/fibrosis. Our aim was to compare the relevance of serum non-invasive parameters and scoring systems in the staging of liver fibrosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients with NAFLD.A total of 112 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFLD were included. A liver biopsy was performed on 56 patients. The Kleiner score was used for the staging and grading of the histology. Non-invasive parameters for fibrosis (hyaluronic acid; AST/ALT; fibrosis scoring indexes OELF, ELF, BARD score, APRI, NAFLD fibrosis score); and inflammation (M30 and M65 cytokeratin-18 fragments) were measured and calculated. The same analyses were performed in 56 patients diagnosed with NAFLD, who were not indicated for liver biopsy. Based on the liver histology, NASH was diagnosed in 38 patients; simple steatosis in 18 patients. A cut-off value of 750 U/L of serum M65 discriminated patients with and without NASH with a 80% sensitivity and 82% specificity (95% CI:57-95). Fibrosis stage F0-F2 was present in 39 patients; F3-F4 in 17 patients. Serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid were higher in patients with advanced fibrosis (p<0.01); a cut-off value of 25 µg/l discriminated patients with F3-F4 with a 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity from those with F0-F2 (95% CI:59-99). When applying the non-invasive criteria to those patients without a liver biopsy, NASH could only be diagnosed in 16%; however, advanced fibrosis could be diagnosed in 35% of them.In patients with NAFLD, non-invasive serum parameters with a high accuracy can differentiate those patients with NASH and/or advanced fibrosis from those with simple steatosis. A substantial portion of those patients not indicated for liver biopsy might have undiagnosed advanced fibrosis.
Project description:Chronic HCV can result in advanced liver disease, including cirrhosis. Patients with advanced fibrosis experience poor clinical outcomes and increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These outcomes are, in part, a consequence of immune dysfunction. Increased inhibitory receptor and Galectin-9 (GAL-9) expression is a possible mechanism promoting lymphocyte dysfunction. In this study, we measured the expression of inhibitory receptors and GAL-9 on T/NK cells of patients with chronic HCV with no to moderate fibrosis (F0-F2) and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4). To analyze their co-expression, we employed t-SNE analysis. Notably, we found that F3-F4 patients had higher frequencies of >3 inhibitory receptor co-expression on NK cells. Moreover, F3-F4 patients manifest a higher frequency of NK cells co-expressing TIGIT and TIM-3, and CD4/NK cells co-expressing LAG-3 and GAL-9. In conclusion, we identified phenotypes of immune dysregulation that could explain the increased susceptibility to infection and HCC in patients with chronic HCV with advanced fibrosis.
Project description:To determine the potential of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MR imaging for staging of hepatic fibrosis (HF).We searched PubMed and EMBASE from their inception to 31 July 2015 to select studies reporting IVIM MR imaging and HF staging. We defined F1-2 as non-advanced HF, F3-4 as advanced HF, F0 as normal liver, F1 as very early HF, and F2-4 as significant HF. Then we compared stage F0 with F1, F0-1 with F2-3, and F1-2 with F3-4 using IVIM-derived parameters (pseudo-diffusion coefficient D*, perfusion fraction f, and pure molecular diffusion parameter D). The effect estimate was expressed as a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI), using the fixed-effects model.Overall, we included six papers (406 patients) in this study. Significant differences in D* were observed between F0 and F1, F0-1 and F2-3, and F1-2 and F3-4 (WMD 2.46, 95% CI 0.83-4.09, P = 0.006; WMD 13.10, 95% CI 9.53-16.67, P < 0.001; WMD 14.34, 95% CI 10.26-18.42, P < 0.001, respectively). Significant differences in f were also found between F0 and F1, F0-1 and F2-3, and F1-2 and F3-4 (WMD 1.62, 95% CI 0.06-3.18, P = 0.027; WMD 5.63, 95% CI 2.74-8.52, P < 0.001; WMD 3.30, 95% CI 2.10-4.50, P < 0.001, respectively). However, D showed no differences between F0 and F1, F0-1 and F2-3, and F1-2 and F3-4 (WMD 0.05, 95% CI -0.01?0.11, P = 0.105; WMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.01?0.10, P = 0.230; WMD 0.02, 95% CI -0.02?0.06, P = 0.378, respectively).IVIM MR imaging provides an effective method of staging HF and can distinguish early HF from normal liver, significant HF from normal liver or very early HF, and advanced HF from non-advanced HF.
Project description:Genetic research on fibrosis outset and its progression in chronic hepatitis (CH) by hepatitis C virus (HCV) are limited. The lack of cytogenetic data led us to investigate the presence of micronuclei (MNi), as a sign of genomic damage. Hepatocytes of hepatic parenchyma from 62 cases diagnosed with CH associated with HCV and displaying different degrees of fibrosis (F1-F4) were analyzed. These data were compared to 15 cases without fibrosis (F0). Twelve healthy liver parenchyma samples were included as control. All samples were obtained from paraffin-embedded archival material. Micronucleated hepatocytes (MN-Heps) were analyzed through Feulgen/Fast-green staining. Results showed that the rates of MN-Heps in the F4 group were statistically significant (p < 0.05) and higher than those in the control group. Like results were also obtained on comparing F4 with F0, F1, F2 and F3 cases. Conversely, differences were not significant (p > 0.05) on comparing F0, F1, F2, F3, one against the other, as well as individual versus control. Although chromosomal losses in CH were detected, it was shown that liver parenchyma with fibrosis in the initial stages (F1-F3) cannot be considered cytogenetically abnormal.