Complex Interplay between Epitope Specificity and Isotype Dictates the Biological Activity of Anti-human CD40 Antibodies.
ABSTRACT: Anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that promote or inhibit receptor function hold promise as therapeutics for cancer and autoimmunity. Rules governing their diverse range of functions, however, are lacking. Here we determined characteristics of nine hCD40 mAbs engaging epitopes throughout the CD40 extracellular region expressed as varying isotypes. All mAb formats were strong agonists when hyper-crosslinked; however, only those binding the membrane-distal cysteine-rich domain 1 (CRD1) retained agonistic activity with physiological Fc gamma receptor crosslinking or as human immunoglobulin G2 isotype; agonistic activity decreased as epitopes drew closer to the membrane. In addition, all CRD2-4 binding mAbs blocked CD40 ligand interaction and were potent antagonists. Thus, the membrane distal CRD1 provides a region of choice for selecting CD40 agonists while CRD2-4 provides antagonistic epitopes.
Project description:Anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) comprise agonists and antagonists, which display promising therapeutic activities in cancer and autoimmunity, respectively. We previously showed that epitope and isotype interact to deliver optimal agonistic anti-CD40 mAbs. The impact of Fc engineering on antagonists, however, remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that clinically relevant antagonists used for treating autoimmune conditions can be converted into potent Fc?R-independent agonists with remarkable antitumor activity by isotype switching to hIgG2. One antagonist is converted to a super-agonist with greater potency than previously reported highly agonistic anti-CD40 mAbs. Such conversion is dependent on the unique disulfide bonding properties of the hIgG2 hinge. This investigation highlights the transformative capacity of the hIgG2 isotype for converting antagonists to agonists to treat cancer.
Project description:To identify the causative mutations in two early-onset canine retinal degenerations, crd1 and crd2, segregating in the American Staffordshire terrier and the Pit Bull Terrier breeds, respectively.Retinal morphology of crd1- and crd2-affected dogs was evaluated by light microscopy. DNA was extracted from affected and related unaffected controls. Association analysis was undertaken using the Illumina Canine SNP array and PLINK (crd1 study), or the Affymetrix Version 2 Canine array, the "MAGIC" genotype algorithm, and Fisher's Exact test for association (crd2 study). Positional candidate genes were evaluated for each disease.Structural photoreceptor abnormalities were observed in crd1-affected dogs as young as 11-weeks old. Rod and cone inner segment (IS) and outer segments (OS) were abnormal in size, shape, and number. In crd2-affected dogs, rod and cone IS and OS were abnormal as early as 3 weeks of age, progressing with age to severe loss of the OS, and thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) by 12 weeks of age. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified association at the telomeric end of CFA3 in crd1-affected dogs and on CFA33 in crd2-affected dogs. Candidate gene evaluation identified a three bases deletion in exon 21 of PDE6B in crd1-affected dogs, and a cytosine insertion in exon 10 of IQCB1 in crd2-affected dogs.Identification of the mutations responsible for these two early-onset retinal degenerations provides new large animal models for comparative disease studies and evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches for the homologous human diseases.
Project description:Copper ion homeostasis is complicated in that copper is an essential element needed for a variety of cellular processes but is toxic at excess levels. To identify Candida albicans genes that are involved in resistance to copper ion toxicity, a library containing inserts of C. albicans genomic DNA was used to complement the copper sensitivity phenotype of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cup1Delta strain that is unable to produce Cup1p, a metallothionein (MT) responsible for high-level copper ion resistance. A P1-type ATPase (CPx type) that is closely related to the human Menkes and Wilson disease proteins was cloned. The gene encoding this pump was termed CRD1 (for copper resistance determinant). A gene encoding a 76-amino-acid MT similar to higher eukaryotic MTs in structure was also cloned, and the gene was termed CRD2. Transcription of the CRD1 gene was found to increase upon growth with increasing copper levels, while the CRD2 mRNA was expressed at a constant level. Strains with the CRD1 gene disrupted were extremely sensitive to exogenous copper and failed to grow in medium containing 100 microM CuSO(4). These crd1 strains also exhibited increased sensitivity to silver and cadmium, indicating that Crd1p is somewhat promiscuous with respect to metal ion transport. Although strains with the CRD2 gene disrupted showed reduced growth rate with increasing copper concentration, the crd2 mutants eventually attained wild-type levels of growth, demonstrating that CRD2 is less important for resistance to copper ion toxicity. Crd1p is the first example of a eukaryotic copper pump that provides the primary source of cellular copper resistance, and its ability to confer silver resistance may enhance the prevalence of C. albicans as a nosocomial pathogen.
Project description:CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, is expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and is essential for immune activation. Although agonistic CD40 antibodies have been developed for immunotherapy, their clinical efficacy has been limited. We have found that coengagement of the Fc domain of agonistic CD40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with the inhibitory Fc? receptor Fc?RIIB is required for immune activation. Direct comparison of mAbs to CD40 enhanced for activating Fc?R binding, hence capable of cytotoxicity, or for inhibitory Fc?RIIB binding, revealed that enhancing Fc?RIIB binding conferred immunostimulatory activity and considerably greater anti-tumor responses. This unexpected requirement for Fc?RIIB in enhancing CD40-mediated immune activation has direct implications for the design of agonistic antibodies to TNFR as therapeutics.
Project description:Dickkopf (Dkk) family proteins are important regulators of Wnt signaling pathways, which play key roles in many essential biological processes. Here, we report the first detailed structural and dynamics study of a full-length mature Dkk protein (Dkk4, residues 19-224), including determination of the first atomic-resolution structure for the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD1) conserved among Dkk proteins. We discovered that CRD1 has significant structural homology to the Dkk C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD2), pointing to multiple gene duplication events during Dkk family evolution. We also show that Dkk4 consists of two independent folded domains (CRD1 and CRD2) joined by a highly flexible, nonstructured linker. Similarly, the N-terminal region preceding CRD1 and containing a highly conserved NXI(R/K) sequence motif was shown to be dynamic and highly flexible. We demonstrate that Dkk4 CRD2 mediates high-affinity binding to both the E1E2 region of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6 E1E2) and the Kremen1 (Krm1) extracellular domain. In contrast, the N-terminal region alone bound with only moderate affinity to LRP6 E1E2, consistent with binding via the conserved NXI(R/K) motif, but did not interact with Krm proteins. We also confirmed that Dkk and Krm family proteins function synergistically to inhibit Wnt signaling. Insights provided by our integrated structural, dynamics, interaction, and functional studies have allowed us to refine the model of synergistic regulation of Wnt signaling by Dkk proteins. Our results indicate the potential for the formation of a diverse range of ternary complexes comprising Dkk, Krm, and LRP5/6 proteins, allowing fine-tuning of Wnt-dependent signaling.
Project description:Immune-stimulatory mAbs are currently being evaluated as antitumor agents. Although overall toxicity from these agents appears to be moderate, liver toxicities have been reported and are not completely understood. We studied the effect of systemic CD40 antibody treatment on myeloid cells in the spleen and liver. Naïve and tumor-bearing mice were treated systemically with agonistic anti-CD40 antibody. Immune cell subsets in the liver and spleen, serum transaminases, and liver histologies were analyzed after antibody administration. Nox2(-/-), Cd40(-/-), and bone marrow chimeric mice were used to study the mechanism by which agonistic anti-CD40 mediates its effects in vivo. Suppressor function of murine and human tumor-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) was studied upon CD40 ligation. Agonistic CD40 antibody caused liver damage within 24 hours after injection in two unrelated tumor models and mice strains. Using bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrate that CD40 antibody-induced hepatitis in tumor-bearing mice was dependent on the presence of CD40-expressing hematopoietic cells. Agonistic CD40 ligation-dependent liver damage was induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, agonistic CD40 antibody resulted in increased CD80-positive and CD40-positive liver CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells. CD40 ligation on tumor-induced murine and human CD14(+)HLA-DR(low) peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with cancer reduced their immune suppressor function. Collectively, agonistic CD40 antibody treatment activated tumor-induced myeloid cells, caused myeloid-dependent hepatotoxicity, and ameliorated the suppressor function of murine and human MDSC. Collectively, our data suggest that CD40 may mature immunosuppressive myeloid cells and thereby cause liver damage in mice with an accumulation of tumor-induced hepatic MDSC.
Project description:Direct immune activation via agonistic mAbs is a potentially complementary approach to therapeutic blockade of inhibitory immune receptors in cancer. Here, we provide genetic analysis of the immunologic consequences associated with the use of an agonistic CD40 mAb in a patient with metastatic melanoma who responded, underwent a single metastasectomy, and then achieved a complete remission ongoing for more than 9 years after starting therapy. Tumor microenvironment after immunotherapy was associated with proinflammatory modulations and emergence of a de novo T-cell repertoire as detected by next-generation sequencing of T-cell receptors (TCR) in the tumor and blood. The de novo T-cell repertoire identified in the posttreatment metastasectomy sample was also present-and in some cases expanded-in the circulation years after completion of therapy. Comprehensive study of this "exceptional responder" highlights the emerging potential of direct immune agonists in the next wave of cancer immunotherapies and a potential role for TCR deep sequencing in cancer immune assessment.
Project description:While engagement of the inhibitory Fc?-receptor (Fc?R) IIB is an absolute requirement for in vivo antitumor activity of agonistic mouse anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a similar requirement for human mAbs has been disputed. By using a mouse model humanized for its Fc?Rs and CD40, we revealed that Fc?RIIB engagement is essential for the activity of human CD40 mAbs, while engagement of the activating Fc?RIIA inhibits this activity. By engineering Fc variants with selective enhanced binding to Fc?RIIB, but not to Fc?RIIA, significantly improved antitumor immunity was observed. These findings highlight the necessity of optimizing the Fc domain for this class of therapeutic antibodies by using appropriate preclinical models that accurately reflect the unique affinities and cellular expression of human Fc?R.
Project description:The activation of CD40 on B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells by its ligand CD154 (CD40L) is essential for the development of humoral and cellular immune responses. CD40L and other TNF superfamily ligands are noncovalent homotrimers, but the form under which CD40 exists in the absence of ligand remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that both cell surface-expressed and soluble CD40 self-assemble, most probably as noncovalent dimers. The cysteine-rich domain 1 (CRD1) of CD40 participated to dimerization and was also required for efficient receptor expression. Modelization of a CD40 dimer allowed the identification of lysine 29 in CRD1, whose mutation decreased CD40 self-interaction without affecting expression or response to ligand. When expressed alone, recombinant CD40-CRD1 bound CD40 with a K(D) of 0.6 ?M. This molecule triggered expression of maturation markers on human dendritic cells and potentiated CD40L activity. These results suggest that CD40 self-assembly modulates signaling, possibly by maintaining the receptor in a quiescent state.
Project description:Cluster of differentiation 40 (CD40) mediates many immune activities. Preclinical studies have shown that activation of CD40 can evoke massive antineoplastic effects in several tumour models in vivo, providing a rationale for using CD40 agonists in cancer immunotherapy. To date, several potential agonistic antibodies that target CD40 have been investigated in clinical trials. Early clinical trials have shown that the adverse events associated with agonists of CD40 thus far have been largely transient and clinically controllable, including storms of cytokine release, hepatotoxicity and thromboembolic events. An antitumour effect of targeting CD40 for monotherapy or combination therapy has been observed in some tumours. However, these antitumour effects have been moderate. The present review aimed to provide updated details of the clinical results of these agonists, and offer information to further investigate the strategies of combining CD40 activation with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy and immunomodulators. Furthermore, biomarkers should be identified for monitoring and predicting responses and informing resistance mechanisms.