Dietary supplementation with flaxseed meal and oat hulls modulates intestinal histomorphometric characteristics, digesta- and mucosa-associated microbiota in pigs.
ABSTRACT: The establishment of a healthy gastrointestinal milieu may not only offer an opportunity to reduce swine production costs but could also open the way for a lifetime of human health improvement. This study investigates the effects of feeding soluble fibre from flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM) and insoluble fibre from oat hulls-containing diet (OH) on histomorphological characteristics, digesta- and mucosa-associated microbiota and their associations with metabolites in pig intestines. In comparison with the control (CON) and OH diets, the consumption of FM increased (P?
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing corn with soy hulls on nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. Three experimental diets were tested using a 3 × 3 Latin square design using three barrows per group (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc, average initial body weight of 36.9 ± 4.0 kg) in individual metabolic cages. The dietary treatments were the control (CON) basal diet (corn-soybean meal based diet), whereas in the test diets, soy hulls were included at 5% (H1), 10% (H2), gradually replacing corn. The daily feed allowance was adjusted to 2.7 times the maintenance requirement for digestible energy (DE) (2.7 × 110 kcal of DE/kg BW0.75). Intake of crude fiber (CF) was different among treatments (p < 0.05). Pigs fed with H2 diet excreted higher concentrations of dry matter (DM), and CF than pigs fed with H1 diet and basal diet (p < 0.05). Pigs fed with H1 and H2 diets excreted higher concentrations of crude protein (CP) than pigs fed with CON diet (p < 0.05). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CF from H1 and H2 diets were higher than CON diet (p < 0.05). Pigs fed with H2 diets were significantly lower (p < 0.05) the ATTD of CP than the pigs fed with CON and H1 diets. The current data suggest that 10% inclusion soy hulls can slightly decrease CP digestibility. However, soy hulls considerably increased CF digestibility.It is concluded that 5% soy hulls may be a usable alternative to corn in growing pig diets.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in modifications in host intestinal function and health status. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted, in which groups of fish received one of five diets: a reference diet in which fishmeal (diet FM) was the only protein source and four experimental diets with commercially relevant compositions containing alternative ingredients as partial replacements of fishmeal, i.e., poultry meal (diet PM), a mix of soybean meal and wheat gluten (diet SBMWG), a mix of soy protein concentrate and poultry meal (diet SPCPM), and guar meal and wheat gluten (diet GMWG). Samples were taken of DI digesta and mucosa for microbial profiling using high-throughput sequencing and from DI whole tissue for immunohistochemistry and expression profiling of marker genes for gut health. Regardless of diet, there were significant differences between the microbial populations in the digesta and the mucosa in the salmon DI. Microbial richness was higher in the digesta than the mucosa. The digesta-associated bacterial communities were more affected by the diet than the mucosa-associated microbiota. Interestingly, both legume-based diets (SBMWG and GMWG) presented high relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in addition to alteration in the expression of a salmon gene related to cell proliferation (pcna). It was, however, not possible to ascertain the cause-effect relationship between changes in bacterial communities and the host's intestinal responses to the diets.IMPORTANCE The intestine of cultivated Atlantic salmon shows symptoms of compromised function, which are most likely caused by imbalances related to the use of new feed ingredients. Intestinal microbiota profiling may become in the future a valuable endpoint measurement in order to assess fish intestinal health status and effects of diet. The present study aimed to gain information about whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the Atlantic salmon intestine and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in alterations in host intestinal function and health status. We demonstrate here that there are substantial differences between the intestinal digesta and mucosa in the presence and abundance of bacteria. The digesta-associated microbiota showed clear dependence on the diet composition, whereas mucosa-associated microbiota appeared to be less affected by diet composition. Most important, the study identified bacterial groups associated with diet-induced gut dysfunction that may be utilized as microbial markers of gut health status in fish.
Project description:Phytase supplementation in broiler diets is a common practice to improve phosphorus (P) availability and to reduce P loss by excretion. An enhanced P availability, and its concomitant supplementation with calcium (Ca), can affect the structure of the microbial community in the digestive tract of broiler chickens. Here, we aim to distinguish the effects of mineral P, Ca, and phytase on the composition of microbial communities present in the content and the mucosa layer of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. Significant differences were observed between digesta and mucosa samples for the GIT sections studied (p = 0.001). The analyses of 56 individual birds showed a high microbial composition variability within the replicates of the same diet. The average similarity within replicates of digesta and mucosa samples across all diets ranged from 29 to 82% in crop, 19-49% in ileum, and 17-39% in caeca. Broilers fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca had the lowest body weight gain and feed conversion values while diets supplemented with P showed the best performance results. An effect of each diet on crop mucosa samples was observed, however, similar results were not obtained from digesta samples. Microbial communities colonizing the ileum mucosa samples were affected by P supplementation. Caeca-derived samples showed the highest microbial diversity when compared to the other GIT sections and the most prominent phylotypes were related to genus Faecalibacterium and Pseudoflavonifractor, known for their influence on gut health and as butyrate producers. Lower microbial diversity in crop digesta was linked to lower growth performance of birds fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca. Each diet affected microbial communities within individual sections, however, no diet showed a comprehensive effect across all GIT sections, which can primarily be attributed to the great variability among replicates. The substantial community differences between digesta and mucosa derived samples indicate that both habitats have to be considered when the influence of diet on the gut microbiota, broiler growth performance, and animal health is investigated.
Project description:The gut-lymph node axis is a critical player in the symbiotic relationship between gut microbiota and the host. However, little is known about the impact of diet-related bacterial shifts in the gut lumen on bacterial translocation into lymph nodes. Here, we (i) characterized changes in the viable microbiota composition along the ileal digesta-mucosa-lymph node axis and (ii) examined the effect of dietary phytase supplementation and lactic acid (LA) soaking of cereals on the bacterial taxonomy along this axis, together with their effect on the mucosal expression of innate immune and barrier function genes in pigs (n?=?8/diet). After 18?days on diets, ileal digesta, mucosa, and ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLNs) were collected for RNA isolation and 16S rRNA-based high-resolution community profiling. Bacterial communities were dominated by Lactobacillaceae and Clostridiaceae, with clearly distinguishable profiles at the three sampling sites. Specific bacterial subsampling was indicated by enrichment of the ICLNs with Lactobacillaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Veillonellaceae, and Methanobacteriaceae and less Clostridiaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Enterobacteriaceae compared to that of the mucosa. LA treatment of cereals reduced proteolytic taxa in the lumen, including pathobionts like Helicobacteraceae, Campylobacteraceae, and Fusobacteriaceae When combined, phytase- and LA-treated cereals largely increased species richness, while the single treatments reduced Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes in ICLNs and increased mucosal MUC2 expression. In contrast, phytase reduced mucosal CDH1 expression, indicating altered barrier function with potential effects on bacterial translocation. Overall, both treatments, although often differently, changed the viable microbiome along the digesta-mucosa-lymph node axis in the ileum, probably due to altered substrate availability and microbial-host interactions.IMPORTANCE A host's diet largely determines the gut microbial composition and therefore may influence bacterial translocation into ICLNs. Due to its importance for cell metabolism, the intestinal phosphorus availability, which was modified here by phytase and LA treatment of cereals, affects the intestinal microbiota. Previous studies mainly focused on bacteria in the lumen. The novelty of this work resides mainly in that we report diet-microbe effects along the digesta-mucosa-ICLN axis and linked those effects to mucosal expression of barrier function genes as crucial components for host health. Lymph nodes can serve as reservoir of pathobionts; therefore, present diet-microbiome-host interactions have implications for food safety.
Project description:The potassium sensitive magnesium absorption through the rumen wall may be influenced by additional dietary properties, such as diet type, forage type or forage to concentrate ratio. These properties are likely associated to rumen passage kinetics modified by dietary fibre content. The study aimed to assess the effects of rumen passage kinetics on apparent Mg absorption and retention in lactating dairy cows fed modified levels of fibre. Six lactating Red-Holstein and Holstein cows, including four fitted with ruminal cannulas were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 cross-over design. The experimental diets consisted of early harvested low NDF (341 g NDF/kg DM) and late harvested high NDF (572 g NDF/kg DM) grass silage (80% DM) and of concentrates (20% of DM). As the low-fibre diet was excessive in protein, a third high-fibre diet was formulated to be balanced in digestible protein with the low-fibre diet to avoid any eventual confounding effects of NDF and protein excess. All diets were formulated to contain iso-Ca, -P, -Mg, -K and -Na. Passage kinetics of solid and liquid phase of rumen digesta were evaluated using ruminal marker disappearance profiles. Cows fed the low-fibre diet had compared to the other diets, an up to 40% lower solid and 26% lower liquid phase volume of rumen digesta and a 10% numerically higher fractional rumen liquid passage rate. Rumen pH lost 0.6 units and Mg concentration in the rumen liquid phase tripled when cows were fed the low-fibre diet. Faecal Mg excretion was up to 14% higher in cows fed the low-fibre diet and Mg absorbability was 12% compared to up to 19% in other diets. Urinary Mg excretion in cows fed the low-fibre diet was half of the ones in the other treatments, but Mg retention was not affected. Dietary protein excess neither affected rumen passage kinetics nor Mg absorption and retention. Absorption of Mg was correlated with rumen liquid volume which both decreased with decreasing daily NDF intake (NDFi, 11.8 ± 2.4 l/kg NDFi). Consequently, daily Mg absorption decreased by 1.32 ± 0.28 g/kg decreasing NDFi. To conclude, in addition to the known antagonistic effect of dietary K, the present data indicate that Mg absorption was dependent from NDFi which modified rumen liquid volume, but was independent of dietary protein excess likely associated to low NDF herbages.
Project description:Rapeseed (RS) is an abundant and inexpensive source of energy and AA in diets for monogastrics and a sustainable alternative to soybean meal. It also contains diverse bioactive phytochemicals that could have antinutritional effects at high dose. When the RS-derived feed ingredients (RSF) are used in swine diets, the uptake of these nutrients and phytochemicals is expected to affect the metabolic system. In this study, 2 groups of young pigs (17.8 ± 2.7 kg initial BW) were equally fed a soybean meal-based control diet and an RSF-based diet, respectively, for 3 wk. Digesta, liver, and serum samples from these pigs were examined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis to determine the metabolic effects of the 2 diets. Analyses of digesta samples revealed that sinapine, sinapic acid, and gluconapin were robust exposure markers of RS. The distribution of free AA along the intestine of RSF pigs was consistent with the reduced apparent ileal digestibility of AA observed in these pigs. Despite its higher fiber content, the RSF diet did not affect microbial metabolites in the digesta, including short-chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. Analyses of the liver and serum samples revealed that RSF altered the levels of AA metabolites involved in the urea cycle and 1-carbon metabolism. More importantly, RSF increased the levels of multiple oxidized metabolites and aldehydes while decreased the levels of ascorbic acid and docosahexaenoic acid-containing lipids in the liver and serum, suggesting that RSF could disrupt redox balance in young pigs. Overall, the results indicated that RSF elicited diverse metabolic events in young pigs through its influences on nutrient and antioxidant metabolism, which might affect the performance and health in long-term feeding and also provide the venues for nutritional and processing interventions to improve the utilization of RSF in pigs.
Project description:Gut health challenges, possibly related to alterations in gut microbiota, caused by plant ingredients in the diets, cause losses in Atlantic salmon production. To investigate the role of the microbiota for gut function and health, detailed characterization of the gut microbiota is needed. We present the first in-depth characterization of salmon gut microbiota based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene's V1-V2 region. Samples were taken from five intestinal compartments: digesta from proximal, mid and distal intestine and of mucosa from mid and distal intestine of 67.3?g salmon kept in seawater (12-14?°C) and fed a commercial diet for 4?weeks. Microbial richness and diversity differed significantly and were higher in the digesta than the mucosa. In mucosa, Proteobacteria dominated the microbiota (90%), whereas in digesta both Proteobacteria (47%) and Firmicutes (38%) showed high abundance. Future studies of diet and environmental impacts on gut microbiota should therefore differentiate between effects on mucosa and digesta in the proximal, mid and the distal intestine. A core microbiota, represented by 22 OTUs, was found in 80% of the samples. The gut microbiota of Atlantic salmon showed similarities with that of mammals.
Project description:This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of benzoic acid, Bacillus coagulans and oregano oil combined supplementation on growth performance, immune status and intestinal barrier integrity of piglets. In a 26-d experiment, 25 piglets were randomly assigned to 5 treatments: 1) a basal diet, negative control (NC), 2) NC added with antibiotics, positive control (PC); 3) NC added with benzoic acid at 3,000 g/t and Bacillus coagulans at 400 g/t (AB); 4) NC added with benzoic acid at 3,000 g/t and oregano oil at 400 g/t (AO); 5) NC added with 3,000 g/t benzoic acid and Bacillus coagulans at 400 g/t and oregano oil at 400 g/t (ABO). On d 27, all piglets were euthanized to obtain jejunal mucosa to measure immune status and intestinal barrier integrity. Results showed that pigs fed AB diet increased the final body weight and average daily body weight gain and decreased the ratio of feed to gain compared with NC group (P < 0.05). Compared with NC group, AB, AO and ABO decreased serum tumor necrosis factor-? concentration and ABO decreased interleukin-1? concentration in serum and jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05). Compared with NC group, AB up-regulated mRNA expressions of sodium-glucose cotransporte1, claudin-1, occludin and mucin2 in jejunal mucosa and the populations of Bifidobacterium and Bacillus in cecal digesta (P < 0.05). Compared with NC group, ABO increased jejunal mucosal occludin mRNA abundance and Bifidobacterium population in cecal digesta, and decreased Escherichia coli population in cecal digesta (P < 0.05). Furthermore, AB and ABO increased Bacillus population in cecal digesta compared with PC group (P < 0.05). These results indicated that dietary AB supplementation could improve growth performance and intestinal barrier integrity of piglets when fed antibiotic-free diets, which was possibly associated with the improvement of immune status and intestinal microflora. Dietary ABO supplementation is also beneficial to improve immune status and intestinal barrier integrity and microflora of piglets.
Project description:This study determined the effect of feed fermentation with Lactobacillus reuteri on growth performance and the abundance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in weanling piglets. L. reuteri strains produce reuteran or levan, exopolysaccharides that inhibit ETEC adhesion to the mucosa, and feed fermentation was conducted under conditions supporting exopolysaccharide formation and under conditions not supporting exopolysaccharide formation. Diets were chosen to assess the impact of organic acids and the impact of viable L. reuteri bacteria. Fecal samples were taken throughout 3 weeks of feeding; at the end of the 21-day feeding period, animals were euthanized to sample the gut digesta. The feed intake was reduced in pigs fed diets containing exopolysaccharides; however, feed efficiencies did not differ among the diets. Quantification of L. reuteri by quantitative PCR (qPCR) detected the two strains used for feed fermentation throughout the intestinal tract. Quantification of E. coli and ETEC virulence factors by qPCR demonstrated that fermented diets containing reuteran significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the copy numbers of genes for E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin in feces compared to those achieved with the control diet. Any fermented feed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the abundance of E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin in colonic digesta at 21 days; reuteran-containing diets reduced the copy numbers of the genes for E. coli and the heat-stable enterotoxin below the detection limit in samples from the ileum, the cecum, and the colon. In conclusion, feed fermentation with L. reuteri reduced the level of colonization of weaning piglets with ETEC, and feed fermentation supplied concentrations of reuteran that may specifically contribute to the effect on ETEC.
Project description:Dietary fibre (DF) and fermentable crude protein (fCP) are dietary factors which affect nutrient utilization and intestinal health in pigs. A nitrogen (N)-balance study was conducted to determine the impact of DF and fCP on threonine (Thr) requirement for protein deposition (PD) and indicators of intestinal health. A total of 160 growing pigs (25 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 20 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 × 5 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with dietary fibre (low (LF) or high fibre (HF)], fCP [low (LfCP) or high fCP (HfCP)) and Thr (0.52, 0.60, 0.68, 0.76, or 0.82% standardized ileal digestible) as factors. Then, 4-day total urine and fecal collection was conducted, and pigs were euthanized for intestinal tissue and digesta sampling. Feeding high DF, regardless of fCP content, increased Thr requirement for PD (p < 0.05). High fCP, regardless of DF content, reduced Thr requirement for PD. Serum antioxidant capacity increased as dietary Thr level increased (p < 0.05). Cecal digesta short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) increased (p < 0.05) with HF and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) increased with HfCP and reduced with HF (p < 0.05). HfCP reduced (p < 0.05) mucin-2 (MUC2) expression in the colon of the HF but not the LF fed pigs and HF increased MUC2 in the LfCP but not the HfCP fed pigs. Feeding HF diet increased (p < 0.05) expression of zonula occludens-1 in the LfCP with no effect on HfCP fed pigs. Ammonia concentration in both cecum and colon increased (p < 0.05) in the HfCP fed pigs. Overall, high DF reduced the negative impact of HfCP on intestinal health, as indicated by alterations in SCFA and BCFA production and gut barrier gene expression. While increased dietary Thr content is required for PD in pigs fed high DF, feeding high fCP reduced Thr requirements.