Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in deer in Henan and Jilin, China.
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the prevalence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in deer in China. In this study, 662 fecal samples were collected from 11 farms in Henan and Jilin Provinces between July 2013 and August 2014, and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis with genotyping and subtyping methods.Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were detected in 6.80% (45/662) and 1.21% (5/662) of samples, respectively. Six Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified based on the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene: C. parvum (n = 11); C. andersoni (n = 5); C. ubiquitum (n = 3); C. muris (n = 1); C. suis-like (n = 1); and Cryptosporidium deer genotype (n = 24). When five of the 11 C. parvum isolates were subtyped by sequencing the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, zoonotic subtypes IIaA15G2R2 (n = 4) and IIdA19G1 (n = 1) were found. According to a subtype analysis, three C. ubiquitum isolates belonged to XIIa subtype 2. In contrast, only assemblage E was detected in the five Giardia-positive samples with small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing.To our knowledge, this is the first study to report C. andersoni, as well as C. parvum zoonotic subtypes IIaA15G2R2 and IIdA19G1 in cervids. These data, though limited, suggest that cervids may be a source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Cervids in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic potential to humans, and more molecular epidemiological studies are required to clarify the prevalence and public health significance of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in cervids throughout China.
Project description:Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important causes of diarrheal diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and there is an increased interest in the role of animals in the mechanical transmission of these protozoa. To examine the role of yaks in this process, we examined the occurrence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in yaks in western China.A total of 545 fecal specimens were collected from yaks from nine different counties in the central western region of China. The prevalence for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were 4.0 % (22/545) and 6.0 % (16/545), respectively. Mixed infections of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis were also detected in four specimens. The prevalence of both protozoa differed significantly between some age groups, with higher rates of infection in animals?<?1 year old. Sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene of the Cryptosporidium isolates identified the species as C. parvum (n?=?12), C. bovis (n?=?6), C. ryanae (n?=?3), and C. ubiquitum (n?=?1). Genotyping based on 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene from five C. parvum isolates identified all as IId with three isolates identified as IIdA15G1, one as IIdA18G1, and one as IIdA19G1. One C. ubiquitum isolate was identified as subtype VIIa. Amongst the G. duodenalis isolates, 16 were identified as assemblage E at the SSU rRNA gene. Four novel glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) subtypes and two triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) subtypes were found amongst the G. duodenalis assemblage E isolates.The presence of C. parvum subtype IIdA15G1, IIdA18G1, and IIdA19G1 isolates further confirms the dominance of the C. parvum IId subtypes in China. These findings also indicate that yaks may be a source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection, and this is the first report of G. duodenalis in yaks. The data presented here provides the basis for further genotyping or subtyping studies of G. duodenalis in yaks.
Project description:Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are common gastrointestinal parasites with a broad range of hosts, including humans, livestock, and wildlife. To examine the infection status and assess the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in dairy cattle in Gansu, China, a total of 1414 fecal samples were collected from the rectum, with one sample collected from each individual animal. All the samples were tested using nested PCR based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. The overall infection rates of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis were 4.2% (n = 59) and 1.0% (n = 14), respectively. Four Cryptosporidium species were identified: C. andersoni (n = 42), C. parvum (n = 12), C. bovis (n = 5), and C. ryanae (n = 1). In further analyses of subtypes of C. parvum isolates based on the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, five were successfully subtyped as IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1). All 14 G. duodenalis isolates were identified as assemblage E using the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. The relatively low positive rates of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis detected here and the predominance of non-human pathogenic species/assemblages of these parasites indicated their unique transmission dynamics in this area and the low level of threat posed to public health. However, continuous monitoring and further studies of these parasites should be conducted for the prevention and control of these pathogens.
Project description:The presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in 274 faecal samples of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from 12 herds from Peru by immunofluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the ssu-rRNA and ?-giardin genes from Giardia spp., as well as the ssu-rRNA gene from Cryptosporidium spp. A total of 137 samples (50.0%) were positive for Giardia spp., and 12 samples (4.4%) for Cryptosporidium spp. In ten samples (3.6%), co-infection by both pathogens was found. Herd prevalence was found to be 91.7% (11/12 herds) for Giardia and 58.3% (7/12 herds) for Cryptosporidium. Regarding the age of the animals, although Giardia was detected in animals as young as 1 week, the prevalence increased with age, reaching 80% by 8 weeks. Similarly, the highest percentage of Cryptosporidium detection (20%) was also found in the 8 week-old group. By PCR, 92 of the 274 analysed samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of the amplicons showed the existence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in 67 samples; G. duodenalis assemblage E in 24 samples; and inconsistent results between the two molecular markers used in a further sample. Cryptosporidium was only detected by PCR in 3 of the 274 samples; Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in two samples and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample. This study is the first performing molecular characterisation of both parasites in Peruvian alpacas, and the first report of C. ubiquitum in this host. The identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A, C. parvum and C. ubiquitum, suggests that zoonotic transmission of these enteropathogens between alpacas and humans is possible.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are major intestinal pathogens that can cause diarrheal diseases in humans, especially children. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is another parasite which can cause gastrointestinal tract disorders, with diarrhea being the main clinical symptom. However, few genetic studies of these parasites in pediatric inpatients in China have been published. METHODS:To assess the genetic characteristics and epidemiological status of these parasites, a total of 2284 fecal samples were collected from children in the pediatric departments of three hospitals in Zhengzhou, central China, and screened for these protozoans with PCR, based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. RESULTS:Six (0.26%), 14 (0.61%), and 27 (1.18%) of the samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi, respectively. Of the 12 successfully sequenced G. duodenalis isolates, four were identified as assemblage A and eight as assemblage B. In subtype and multilocus genotype (MLG) analyses, C. parvum IIdA19G1 (n?=?4) and two novel G. duodenalis MLGs belonging to subassemblage AII (n?=?3) and BIV (n?=?5) were successfully identified. The E. bieneusi isolates included genotypes D (n?=?17), J (n?=?2), PigEBITS7 (n?=?1), BEB6 (n?=?1), and CM8 (n?=?1). This is the first report of C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 in HIV-negative children and E. bieneusi genotype CM8 in humans. CONCLUSIONS:The dominance of zoonotic C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 indicates that this parasite is turning into zoonotic origin from human-to-human transmission. The phylogenetic analysis also revealed the zoonotic origins and anthroponotic transmission potential of G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi, suggesting more efforts must be made to minimize the threat these pathogens pose to public health.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the Angkor Hospital for Children, northwest Cambodia, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 2.2% (11/498) of samples using microscopy and in 7.7% (38/498) with molecular tests. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 18.9% (94/498) by microscopy and 27.7% (138/498) by molecular tests; 82% of the positive samples (by either method) were from children aged 1-10 years. Cryptosporidium hominis was the most common species of Cryptosporidium, detected in 13 (34.2%) samples, followed by Cryptosporidium meleagridis in 9 (23.7%), Cryptosporidium parvum in 8 (21.1%), Cryptosporidium canis in 5 (13.2%), and Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample each. Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the GP60 gene: C. hominis IaA16R6 and C. parvum IIeA7G1 were the most abundant subtypes. Giardia duodenalis was typed using a multiplex real-time PCR targeting assemblages A and B. Assemblage B (106; 76.8% of all Giardia positive samples) was most common followed by A (12.3%) and mixed infections (5.1%). Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium were malnutrition (AOR 9.63, 95% CI 1.67-55.46), chronic medical diagnoses (AOR 4.51, 95% CI 1.79-11.34) and the presence of birds in the household (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16-7.73); specifically C. hominis (p = 0.03) and C. meleagridis (p<0.001) were associated with the presence of birds. The use of soap was protective against Giardia infection (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95).<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>This is the first report to describe the different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Cambodian children. The variety of Cryptosporidium species detected indicates both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission in this population. Interventions to improve sanitation, increase hand washing after defecation and before preparing food and promote drinking boiled water may reduce the burden of these two parasites.
Project description:The environmental transport of Cryptosporidium spp. through combined sewer overflow (CSO) and the occurrence of several emerging human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species in developing countries remain unclear. In this study, we collected 40 CSO samples and 40 raw wastewater samples from Shanghai, China, and examined them by PCR and DNA sequencing for Cryptosporidium species (targeting the small subunit rRNA gene) and Giardia duodenalis (targeting the triosephosphate isomerase, ?-giardin, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi (targeting the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) genotypes. Human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species were further subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene, with additional multilocus sequence typing on the emerging zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi were detected in 12 and 15, 33 and 32, and 37 and 40 CSO and wastewater samples, respectively, including 10 Cryptosporidium species, 3 G. duodenalis assemblages, and 8 E. bieneusi genotypes. In addition to Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, two new pathogens identified in industrialized nations, C. ubiquitum and Cryptosporidium viatorum, were frequently detected. The two novel C. ubiquitum subtype families identified appeared to be genetic recombinants of known subtype families. Similarly, the dominant group 1 E. bieneusi genotypes and G. duodenalis subassemblage AII are known human pathogens. The similar distribution of human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis genotypes between wastewater and CSO samples reaffirms that storm overflow is potentially a significant contamination source of pathogens in surface water. The frequent identification of C. ubiquitum and C. viatorum in urban wastewater suggests that these newly identified human pathogens may be endemic in China.IMPORTANCECryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are major waterborne pathogens. Their transport into surface water through combined sewer overflow, which remains largely untreated in developing countries, has not been examined. In addition, the identification of these pathogens to genotypes and subtypes in urban storm overflow and wastewater is necessary for rapid and accurate assessment of pathogen transmission in humans and transport in the environment. Data from this study suggest that, like untreated urban wastewater, combined sewer overflow is commonly contaminated with human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium, G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi genotypes and subtypes, and urban storm overflow potentially plays a significant role in the contamination of drinking source water and recreational water with human pathogens. They also indicate that Cryptosporidium ubiquitum and Cryptosporidium viatorum, two newly identified human pathogens, may be common in China, and genetic recombination can lead to the emergence of novel C. ubiquitum subtype families.
Project description:Giardia and Cryptosporidium are important causes of diarrhoea in Bangladesh. The high prevalence of both parasites in humans and cattle in rural Bangladesh and the common use of water ponds by village inhabitants and their animals suggest a potential for zoonotic transmission. Direct transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between cattle and their handlers and indirect transmission through water ponds was investigated. Faecal/stool samples were collected from 623 calves and 125 calf handlers in a cross-sectional survey. In two villages, water samples were collected monthly from water ponds and faecal/stool samples were collected monthly from inhabitants and their cattle. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in water samples and in faecal/stool samples and positive samples were genotyped, to determine their human or animal origin. The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in calves was 22% and 5% respectively. In calf handlers, the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was 11.2% and 3.2% respectively. Both in the cross-sectional survey and in the longitudinal study in the villages, G. duodenalis assemblage E was most prevalent in calves, while in humans assemblage AII, BIII and BIV were found. In cattle, Cryptosporidium parvum, C. bovis and C. andersoni were identified, but no Cryptosporidium sequences were obtained from humans. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 14/24 and 12/24 water samples respectively. G. duodenalis assemblage E and BIV (-like), as well as C. andersoni and C. hominis were identified. Although the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in both water ponds suggests that water-borne transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium is possible, the genotyping results indicate that there is no significant direct or indirect (water-borne) transmission of Giardia between cattle and people in this area of rural Bangladesh. No conclusions could be drawn for Cryptosporidium, because of the low number of sequences that were obtained from human and water samples.
Project description:This study assessed the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium in goats from Guangdong Province, Hubei Province, Shandong Province, and Shanghai City of China. Six hundred and four fecal samples were collected from twelve goat farms, and the overall infection rate was 11.4% (69/604). Goats infected with Cryptosporidium were found in eleven farms across four provincial areas, and the infection rate ranged from 2.9% (1/35) to 25.0% (9/36). Three Cryptosporidium species were identified. Cryptosporidium xiaoi (45/69, 65.2%) was the dominant species, followed by C. parvum (14/69, 20.3%) and C. ubiquitum (10/69, 14.5%). The infection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. was varied with host age and goat kids were more susceptible to be infected than adult goats. Subtyping C. parvum and C. ubiquitum positive samples revealed C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 and C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa were the most common subtypes. Other C. parvum subtypes were detected as well, such as IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA17G2R1. All of these subtypes have also been detected in humans, suggesting goats may be a potential source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. This was the first report of C. parvum subtypes IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1 and IIaA17G2R1 infecting in goats and the first molecular identification of C. parvum and its subtypes in Chinese goats.
Project description:Cryptosporidium species are ubiquitous enteric protozoan pathogens of vertebrates distributed worldwide. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the zoonotic potential and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in Bactrian camels in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A total of 476 fecal samples were collected from 16 collection sites in Xinjiang and screened for Cryptosporidium by PCR. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 7.6% (36/476). Six Cryptosporidium species, C. andersoni (n = 24), C. parvum (n = 6), C. occultus (n = 2), C. ubiquitum (n = 2), C. hominis (n = 1), and C. bovis (n = 1), were identified based on sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified six C. parvum isolates as subtypes, such as If-like-A15G2 (n = 5) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1), two C. ubiquitum isolates, such as subtype XIIa (n = 2), and one C. hominis isolate, such as Ixias IkA19G1 (n = 1). This is the first report of C. parvum, C. hominis, C. ubiquitum, and C. occultus in Bactrian camels in China. These results indicated that the Bactrian camel may be an important reservoir for zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. and these infections may be a public health threat in this region.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are common enteric pathogens in humans and animals. Data on the transmission of these pathogens are scarce from Guangdong, China, which has a subtropical monsoon climate and is the epicenter for many emerging infectious diseases. This study was conducted to better understand the prevalence and identity of the three pathogens in pre-weaned dairy calves in Guangdong. METHODS:The occurrence and genetic identity of three pathogens were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. PCR-positive products were sequenced to determine the species and genotypes. A Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of pathogens among sampling dates, age groups, or clinical signs. RESULTS:The detection rates of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were 24.0% (93/388), 74.2% (288/388) and 15.7% (61/388), respectively. Three Cryptosporidium species were detected, including C. bovis (n = 73), C. parvum (n = 12) and C. ryanae (n = 7); one animal had concurrence of C. bovis and C. parvum. C. parvum was the dominant species during the first two weeks of life, whereas C. bovis and C. ryanae were mostly seen at 3-9 weeks of age. Sequence analysis identified the C. parvum as subtype IIdA19G1. Assemblage E (n = 282), assemblage A (n = 1), and concurrence of A and E (n = 5) were identified among G. duodenalis-positive animals using multilocus genotyping (MLG). Altogether, 15, 10 and 17 subtypes of assemblage E were observed at the bg, gdh and tpi loci, respectively, forming 49 assemblage E MLGs. The highest detection rate of G. duodenalis was found in winter. Sequence analysis identified genotypes J (n = 57), D (n = 3) and one concurrence of J and D among E. bieneusi-positive animals. The detection rate of E. bieneusi was significantly higher in spring (38.0%; 41/108) than in summer (7.2%; 8/111) and winter (7.1%; 12/169). CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate a common occurrence of C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1, G. duodenalis assemblage E, and E. bieneusi genotype J in pre-weaned dairy calves in Guangdong. More studies are needed to understand the unique genetic characteristics and zoonotic potential of the three enteric pathogens in the province.