Treatment options in idiopathic subglottic stenosis: protocol for a prospective international multicentre pragmatic trial.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) is an unexplained progressive obstruction of the upper airway that occurs almost exclusively in adult, Caucasian women. The disease is characterised by mucosal inflammation and localised fibrosis resulting in life-threatening blockage of the upper airway. Because of high recurrence rates, patients with iSGS will frequently require multiple procedures following their initial diagnosis. Both the disease and its therapies profoundly affect patients' ability to breathe, communicate and swallow. A variety of treatments have been advanced to manage this condition. However, comparative data on effectiveness and side effects of the unique approaches have never been systematically evaluated. This study will create an international, multi-institutional prospective cohort of patients with iSGS. It will compare three surgical approaches to determine how well the most commonly used treatments in iSGS 'work' and what quality of life (QOL) trade-offs are associated with each approach. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A prospective pragmatic trial comparing the 'Standard of Care' for iSGS at multiple international institutions. Patients with a diagnosis of iSGS without clinical or laboratory evidence of vasculitis or a history of endotracheal intubation 2?years prior to symptom onset will be included in the study. Prospective evaluation of disease recurrence requiring operative intervention, validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures as well as patient-generated health data (mobile peak flow recordings and daily steps taken) will be longitudinally tracked for 36?months. The primary endpoint is treatment effectiveness defined as time to recurrent operative procedure. Secondary endpoints relate to treatment side effects and include PRO measures in voice, swallowing, breathing and global QOL as well as patient-generated health data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This protocol was approved by the local IRB Committee of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center in July 2015. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and directly to patient with iSGS via social media-based support groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02481817.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Surgical treatment comparisons in rare diseases are difficult secondary to the geographic distribution of patients. Fortunately, emerging technologies offer promise to reduce these barriers for research.<h4>Objective</h4>To prospectively compare the outcomes of the 3 most common surgical approaches for idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS), a rare airway disease.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>In this international, prospective, 3-year multicenter cohort study, 810 patients with untreated, newly diagnosed, or previously treated iSGS were enrolled after undergoing a surgical procedure (endoscopic dilation [ED], endoscopic resection with adjuvant medical therapy [ERMT], or cricotracheal resection [CTR]). Patients were recruited from clinician practices in the North American Airway Collaborative and an online iSGS community on Facebook.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The primary end point was days from initial surgical procedure to recurrent surgical procedure. Secondary end points included quality of life using the Clinical COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Questionnaire (CCQ), Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10), Eating Assessment Test-10 (EAT-10), the 12-Item Short-Form Version 2 (SF-12v2), and postoperative complications.<h4>Results</h4>Of 810 patients in this cohort, 798 (98.5%) were female and 787 (97.2%) were white, with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range, 43-58 years). Index surgical procedures were ED (n?=?603; 74.4%), ERMT (n?=?121; 14.9%), and CTR (n?=?86; 10.6%). Overall, 185 patients (22.8%) had a recurrent surgical procedure during the 3-year study, but recurrence differed by modality (CTR, 1 patient [1.2%]; ERMT, 15 [12.4%]; and ED, 169 [28.0%]). Weighted, propensity score-matched, Cox proportional hazards regression models showed ED was inferior to ERMT (hazard ratio [HR], 3.16; 95% CI, 1.8-5.5). Among successfully treated patients without recurrence, those treated with CTR had the best CCQ (0.75 points) and SF-12v2 (54 points) scores and worst VHI-10 score (13 points) 360 days after enrollment as well as the greatest perioperative risk.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In this cohort study of 810 patients with iSGS, endoscopic dilation, the most popular surgical approach for iSGS, was associated with a higher recurrence rate compared with other procedures. Cricotracheal resection offered the most durable results but showed the greatest perioperative risk and the worst long-term voice outcomes. Endoscopic resection with medical therapy was associated with better disease control compared with ED and had minimal association with vocal function. These results may be used to inform individual patient treatment decision-making.
Project description:OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS:Idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) is an unexplained obstruction involving the lower laryngeal and upper tracheal airway. Persistent mucosal inflammation is a hallmark of the disease. Epithelial microbiota dysbiosis is found in other chronic inflammatory mucosal diseases; however, the relationship between tracheal microbiota composition and iSGS is unknown. Given the critical role for host defense at mucosal barriers, we analyzed tissue specimens from iSGS patients for the presence of microbial pathogens. METHODS:Utilizing 30 human iSGS, 20 intubation-related tracheal stenosis (iLTS), and 20 healthy control specimens, we applied molecular, immunohistochemical, electron microscopic, immunologic, and Sanger-sequencing techniques. RESULTS:With unbiased culture-independent nucleic acid, protein, and immunologic approaches, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium species are uniquely associated with iSGS. Phylogenetic analysis of the mycobacterial virulence factor rpoB suggests that, rather than Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a variant member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex or a closely related novel mycobacterium is present in iSGS specimens. CONCLUSION:These studies identify a novel pathogenic role for established large airway bacteria and provide new targets for future therapeutic intervention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:NA Laryngoscope, 127:179-185, 2017.
Project description:Idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) is a rare and devastating extrathoracic obstruction involving the lower laryngeal and upper tracheal airway. It arises without known antecedent injury or associated disease process. Persistent mucosal inflammation and a localized fibrotic response are hallmarks of the disease. Despite the initial clinical description of iSGS more than 40 year ago, there have been no substantive investigations into the pathogenesis of this enigmatic and progressive airway obstruction. In these studies, we present the initial characterization of the molecular pathogenesis underlying the fibrosing phenotype of iSGS.Utilizing 20 human iSGS and healthy control specimens, we applied histologic, immunohistochemical, molecular, and immunologic techniques.We demonstrate significant activation of the canonical IL-23/IL-17A pathway in the tracheal mucosa of iSGS patients, as well as identify ?? T cells as the primary cellular source of IL-17A.Our results suggest that aberrant mucosal immune activation is a component in of the pathogenesis of iSGS. Most critically, our work offers new targets for future therapeutic intervention.NA Laryngoscope, 126:E356-E361, 2016.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To characterize the phenotype and function of fibroblasts derived from airway scar in idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) and to explore scar fibroblast response to interleukin 17A (IL-17A). STUDY DESIGN:Basic science. SETTING:Laboratory. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Primary fibroblast cell lines from iSGS subjects, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis subjects, and normal control airways were utilized for analysis. Protein, molecular, and flow cytometric techniques were applied in vitro to assess the phenotype and functional response of disease fibroblasts to IL-17A. RESULTS:Mechanistically, IL-17A drives iSGS scar fibroblast proliferation ( P < .01), synergizes with transforming growth factor ß1 to promote extracellular matrix production (collagen and fibronectin; P = .04), and directly stimulates scar fibroblasts to produce chemokines (chemokine ligand 2) and cytokines (IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) critical to the recruitment and differentiation of myeloid cells ( P < .01). Glucocorticoids abrogated IL-17A-dependent iSGS scar fibroblast production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ( P = .02). CONCLUSION:IL-17A directly drives iSGS scar fibroblast proliferation, synergizes with transforming growth factor ß1 to promote extracellular matrix production, and amplifies local inflammatory signaling. Glucocorticoids appear to partially abrogate fibroblast-dependent inflammatory signaling. These results offer mechanistic support for future translational study of clinical reagents for manipulation of the IL-17A pathway in iSGS patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Currently used pre-operative prediction scores for postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) use patient data and expected surgery characteristics exclusively. However, intra-operative events are also associated with the development of PPCs. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to develop a new prediction score for PPCs that uses both pre-operative and intra-operative data. DESIGN:This is a secondary analysis of the LAS VEGAS study, a large international, multicentre, prospective study. SETTINGS:A total of 146 hospitals across 29 countries. PATIENTS:Adult patients requiring intra-operative ventilation during general anaesthesia for surgery. INTERVENTIONS:The cohort was randomly divided into a development subsample to construct a predictive model, and a subsample for validation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Prediction performance of developed models for PPCs. RESULTS:Of the 6063 patients analysed, 10.9% developed at least one PPC. Regression modelling identified 13 independent risk factors for PPCs: six patient characteristics [higher age, higher American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical score, pre-operative anaemia, pre-operative lower SpO2 and a history of active cancer or obstructive sleep apnoea], two procedure-related features (urgent or emergency surgery and surgery lasting ? 1?h), and five intra-operative events [use of an airway other than a supraglottic device, the use of intravenous anaesthetic agents along with volatile agents (balanced anaesthesia), intra-operative desaturation, higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressures > 3?cmH2O and use of vasopressors]. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the LAS VEGAS risk score for prediction of PPCs was 0.78 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.76 to 0.80] for the development subsample and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.76) for the validation subsample. CONCLUSION:The LAS VEGAS risk score including 13 peri-operative characteristics has a moderate discriminative ability for prediction of PPCs. External validation is needed before use in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT01601223.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The quality of life (QoL) of patients with osteosarcoma (OS) may be adversely affected by the disease or its treatment. Therefore, it is important to understand the QoL of patients undergoing treatment for OS to improve the QoL. We report on the first prospective international QoL study that was embedded within a large randomized clinical trial from 4 national study groups. OBJECTIVE:This paper aimed to describe the QoL study development, methodology, accrual details, and characteristics of the QoL cohort. METHODS:A total of 2260 patients registered in the EURopean AMerican Osteosarcoma Study-1 (EURAMOS-1), of whom 97.92% (2213/2260) were eligible for the optional QoL assessment and could participate in terms of questionnaire availability. Overall, 61.86% (1369/2213) of patients and/or proxies completed the QoL evaluation at the first assessment time point (E1) after the start of preoperative treatment. The QoL measures used (self- and/or proxy reports) depending on the patient's age and national study group. Participants and nonparticipants in the ancillary QoL study were compared regarding relevant demographic and disease-related characteristics at registration in the trial. RESULTS:The participation rate at time point E1 did not differ with regard to age, gender, the occurrence of pathological fracture, or the presence of any metastases at diagnosis. No differences were found regarding the primary tumor site. Only the national study group affiliation had an influence on participation. Participation decreased linearly with trial progress up to 20% at the final time point of QoL assessment. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates the feasibility of international cooperation for the purpose of assessing and understanding the QoL of pediatric and adolescent/young adult patients with cancer. Future outcomes of this QoL substudy will help to adapt interventions to improve QoL.
Project description:Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy with extended pelvic lymph node dissection is considered to be the treatment of choice for patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Despite this aggressive treatment the outcome is poor and ultimately, 30% of the patients with ?pT3 tumors develop a pelvic recurrence. We hypothesize that postoperative adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) might prevent local and lymph node recurrence and improve disease free- and overall survival as loco-regional recurrence is linked to the development of distant metastasis.We plan to perform a multicentric prospective phase two study including 76 patients. Eligible patients are patients with MIBC, treated with radical cystectomy and presenting with ?1 of the following characteristics: Pathological (p)T3 stage + presence of lymphovascular invasion on pathological examination pT4 stage <10 lymph nodes removed positive lymph nodes positive surgical margins Patients will have a 18F-FDG PET-CT to rule out the presence of distant metastasis prior to EBRT. A median dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions is prescribed to the pelvic lymph node regions with inclusion of the operative bladder bed in case of a positive surgical margin. Patients with suspected lymph nodes on PET- CT can still be included in the trial, but a simultaneous integrated boost to 74Gy to the positive lymph nodes will be delivered. Blood and urine samples will be collected on day-1 and last day of EBRT for evaluation of biomarkers. The primary endpoint is evaluation of acute ?Grade 3 intestinal or grade 4 urinary toxicity, in case of a neo-bladder reconstruction, within 12 weeks after EBRT. Secondary endpoints are: assessment of QOL, late RTOG toxicity, local control, disease free survival and overall survival. Biomarkers in urine and blood will be correlated with secondary survival endpoints.This is a prospective phase 2 trial re-assessing the feasibility of adjuvant radiotherapy in high-risk MIBC.The Ethics committee of the Ghent University Hospital (EC2014/0630) approved this study on 31/07/2014. Trial registration on Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT02397434 ) on November 19, 2014.
Project description:The use of lLaparoscopic liver resection in terms of time to functional recovery, length of hospital stay (LOS), long-term abdominal wall hernias, costs and quality of life (QOL) has never been studied in a randomised controlled trial. Therefore, this is the subject of the international multicentre randomised controlled ORANGE II trial.Patients eligible for left lateral sectionectomy (LLS) of the liver will be recruited and randomised at the outpatient clinic. All randomised patients will undergo surgery in the setting of an ERAS programme. The experimental design produces two randomised arms (open and laparoscopic LLS) and a prospective registry. The prospective registry will be based on patients that cannot be randomised because of the explicit treatment preference of the patient or surgeon, or because of ineligibility (not meeting the in- and exclusion criteria) for randomisation in this trial. Therefore, all non-randomised patients undergoing LLS will be approached to participate in the prospective registry, thereby allowing acquisition of an uninterrupted prospective series of patients. The primary endpoint of the ORANGE II trial is time to functional recovery. Secondary endpoints are postoperative LOS, percentage readmission, (liver-specific) morbidity, QOL, body image and cosmetic result, hospital and societal costs over 1 year, and long-term incidence of incisional hernias. It will be assumed that in patients undergoing laparoscopic LLS, length of hospital stay can be reduced by two days. A sample size of 55 patients in each randomisation arm has been calculated to detect a 2-day reduction in LOS (90% power and ? = 0.05 (two-tailed)).The ORANGE II trial is a multicenter randomised controlled trial that will provide evidence on the merits of laparoscopic surgery in patients undergoing LLS within an enhanced recovery ERAS programme.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00874224.
Project description:Cataract surgery is one of the most common surgeries performed, but its overuse has been reported. The threshold for cataract surgery has become increasingly lenient; therefore, the selection process and surgical need has been questioned. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes associated with cataract surgery in patient-reported vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL).A prospective cohort study was conducted. Consecutive patients referred to cataract clinics in an NHS unit in Scotland were identified. Those listed for surgery were invited to complete a validated questionnaire (TyPE) to measure VR-QoL pre- and post-operatively. TyPE has five different domains (near vision, distance vision, daytime driving, night-time driving, and glare) and a global score of vision. The influence of pre-operative visual acuity (VA) levels, vision, and lens status of the fellow eye on changes in VR-QoL were explored.A total of 320 listed patients were approached, of whom 36 were excluded. Among the 284 enrolled patients, 229 (81%) returned the questionnaire after surgery. Results revealed that the mean overall vision improved, as reported by patients. Improvements were also seen in all sub-domains of the questionnaire.The majority of patients appear to have improvement in patient-reported VR-QoL, including those with good pre-operative VA and previous surgery to the fellow eye. VA thresholds may not capture the effects of the quality of life on patients. This information can assist clinicians to make more informed decisions when debating over the benefits of listing a patient for cataract extraction.
Project description:The appropriateness of lobectomy for all elderly patients is controversial. Meanwhile, sublobar resection is associated with reduced operative risk, better preservation of pulmonary function, and a better quality of life, constituting a potential alternative to standard lobectomy for elderly patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To date, no randomized trial comparing sublobar resection and lobectomy focusing on elderly patients has been reported. We hypothesized that for patients at least 70 years old with clinical stage T1N0M0 NSCLC, sublobar resection is non-inferior to lobectomy for 3-year disease-free survival (DFS).This is a prospective, randomized, controlled multicenter non-inferiority trial with two study arms: sublobar resection and lobectomy groups. Comprehensive geriatric assessments will be acquired for each patient. A total of 339 subjects will be enrolled on the basis of power calculations, and participants followed up every 6 months post-operation for 3 years. In case of relapse, survival follow-up will be continued until 5 years or death. Pulmonary function testing will be performed at 6, 12, and 36 months post-operation. The primary outcome is 3-year DFS; secondary endpoints include peri-operative complications and mortality, hospitalization time, post-operative ventilator time, overall survival, 3-year recurrence rates, post-operative pulmonary function, quality of life, geriatric assessment data, and 4-year mortality index.The present study is the only prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing sublobar resection and lobectomy for elderly patients. The therapeutic outcomes of sublobar resection will be evaluated in comparison with lobectomy for elderly patients (?70 years) with early-stage NSCLC.NCT02360761 : 01/24/2015 (ClinicalTrials.gov).