The Arcuate Fasciculus Network and Verbal Deficits in Psychosis.
ABSTRACT: Verbal learning (VL) and fluency (VF) are prominent cognitive deficits in psychosis, of which the precise neuroanatomical contributions are not fully understood. We investigated the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and its associated cortical regions to identify structural abnormalities contributing to these verbal impairments in early stages of psychotic illness.Twenty-six individuals with recent-onset psychosis and 27 healthy controls underwent cognitive testing (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and structural/diffusion-weighted MRI. Bilaterally, AF anisotropy and cortical thickness, surface area and volume of seven cortical regions were investigated in relation to VL and VF performance in both groups.Reduced right superior temporal gyrus surface area and volume related to better VF in controls. In psychosis, greater right pars opercularis volume and reduced left lateralization of this region related to better VL, while greater right long AF fractional anisotropy and right pars orbitalis volume related to better VF, these findings not present in controls. Psychosis had reduced right pars orbitalis thickness compared to controls.Anatomical substrates for normal processing of VL and VF appear altered in recent-onset psychosis. A possible aberrant role of the right hemisphere arcuate fasciculus and fronto-temporal cortical regions in psychosis may contribute to deficits in VL and VF.
Project description:<h4>Study objectives</h4>To test the hypothesis that greater sleep fragmentation is associated with regionally decreased cortical gray matter volume in older community-dwelling adults without cognitive impairment.<h4>Methods</h4>We studied 141 community-dwelling older adults (median age 82.9; 73% female) without cognitive impairment or stroke, and not using sedative/ hypnotic medications, participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. We quantified sleep fragmentation from 7 d of actigraphy using the metric kRA and related this to total cortical gray matter volume, and regional gray matter volume in 34 cortical regions quantified by automated segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging data. We determined statistical significance and accounted for multiple comparisons by empirically estimating the false discovery rate by permutation.<h4>Results</h4>Lower total cortical gray matter volume was associated with higher sleep fragmentation (coefficient +0.23, standard error [SE] 0.11, P = 0.037). Lower gray matter volumes in four cortical regions were accompanied by higher sleep fragmentation with a false discovery rate < 0.05: the left (coefficient +0.36, SE 0.10, P = 2.7 × 10(-4)) and right (coefficient +0.31, SE 0.10, P = 4.0 × 10(-3)) lateral orbitofrontal cortices, and the adjacent left (coefficient +0.31, SE 0.10, 5.4 × 10(-4)) and right (coefficient +0.39, SE 0.10, P = 1.2 × 10(-4)) inferior frontal gyri pars orbitalis. These associations were unchanged after accounting for age, sex, education, depression, cognitive function, and a number of medical comorbidities.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Lower cortical gray matter volume in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis is associated with greater sleep fragmentation in older community-dwelling adults. Further work is needed to clarify whether this is a consequence of or contributor to sleep fragmentation.<h4>Commentary</h4>A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 15.
Project description:The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome, 22q11.2DS) involves cardiac and craniofacial anomalies, marked deficits in visuospatial cognition, and elevated rates of psychosis. Although the mechanism is unknown, characteristic brain alterations may predispose to development of psychosis and cognitive deficits in 22q11DS. We applied cortical pattern matching and new methods for measuring cortical thickness in millimeters to structural magnetic resonance images of 21 children with confirmed 22q11.2 deletions and 13 demographically matched healthy comparison subjects. Thickness was mapped at 65 536 homologous points, based on 3-dimensional distance from the cortical gray-white matter interface to the external gray-cerebrospinal fluid boundary. A pattern of regionally specific cortical thinning was observed in superior parietal cortices and right parietooccipital cortex, regions critical for visuospatial processing, and bilaterally in the most inferior portion of the inferior frontal gyrus (pars orbitalis), a key area for language development. Several of the 30 genes encoded in the deleted segment are highly expressed in the developing brain and known to affect early neuronal migration. These brain maps reveal how haploinsufficiency for such genes can affect cortical development and suggest a possible underlying pathophysiology of the neurobehavioral phenotype.
Project description:Introduction: Studies quantifying cortical metrics in brain tumor patients who present with seizures are limited. The current investigation assesses morphometric/volumetric differences across a wide range of anatomical regions, including temporal and extra-temporal, in patients with gliomas and intracranial metastases (IMs) presenting with seizures that could serve as a biomarker in the identification of seizure expression and serve as a neuronal target for mitigation. Methods: In a retrospective design, the MR sequences of ninety-two tumor patients [55% gliomas; 45% IM] and 34 controls were subjected to sophisticated morphometric and volumetric assessments using BrainSuite and MATLAB modules. We examined 103 regions of interests (ROIs) across eight distinct cortical categories of interests (COI) [gray matter, white matter; total volume, CSF; cortical areas: inner, mid, pial; cortical thickness]. The primary endpoint was quantifying and identifying ROIs with significant differences in z-scores based upon the presence of seizures. Feature selection employing neighborhood component analysis (NCA) determined the ROI within each COI having the highest significance/weight in the differentiation of seizure vs. non-seizure patients harboring brain tumor. Results: Overall, the mean age of the cohort was 58.0 ± 12.8 years, and 45% were women. The prevalence of seizures in tumor patients was 28%. Forty-two ROIs across the eight pre-defined COIs had significant differences in z-scores between tumor patients presenting with and without seizures. The NCA feature selection noted the volume of pars-orbitalis and right middle temporal gyrus to have the highest weight in differentiating tumor patients based on seizures for three distinct COIs [GM, total volume, and CSF volume] and white matter, respectively. Left-sided transverse temporal gyrus, left precuneus, left transverse temporal, and left supramarginal gyrus were associated with having the highest weight in the differentiation of seizure vs. non-seizure in tumor patients for morphometrics relating to cortical areas in the pial, inner and mid regions and cortical thickness, respectively. Conclusion: Our study elucidates potential biomarkers for seizure targeting in patients with gliomas and IMs based upon morphometric and volumetric assessments. Amongst the widespread brain regions examined in our cohort, pars orbitalis, supramarginal and temporal gyrus (middle, transverse), and the pre-cuneus contribute a maximal potential for differentiation of seizure patients from non-seizure.
Project description:AIM:Previous studies have reported different brain morphologies in different cognitive subgroups of patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to examine the brain structures and functional connectivity in these cognitive subgroups of schizophrenia. METHODS:We compared brain structures among healthy controls and cognitively deteriorated and preserved subgroups of patients with schizophrenia according to the decline in IQ. Connectivity analyses between subcortical regions and other brain areas were performed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging among the groups. RESULTS:Whole brain and total cortical gray matter, right fusiform gyrus, left pars orbitalis gyrus, right pars triangularis, left superior temporal gyrus and left insula volumes, and bilateral cortical thickness were decreased in the deteriorated group compared to the control and preserved groups. Both schizophrenia subgroups had increased left lateral ventricle, right putamen and left pallidum, and decreased bilateral hippocampus, left precentral gyrus, right rostral middle frontal gyrus, and bilateral superior frontal gyrus volumes compared with controls. Hyperconnectivity between the thalamus and a broad range of brain regions was observed in the deteriorated group compared to connectivity in the control group, and this hyperconnectivity was less evident in the preserved group. We also found hyperconnectivity between the accumbens and the superior and middle frontal gyri in the preserved group compared with connectivity in the deteriorated group. CONCLUSION:These findings provide evidence of prominent structural and functional brain abnormalities in deteriorated patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that cognitive subgroups in schizophrenia might be useful biotypes to elucidate brain pathophysiology for new diagnostic and treatment strategies.
Project description:The Simple View of reading emphasizes the critical role of two factors in normal reading skills: word recognition and reading comprehension. The current study aims to identify the anatomical support for aspects of reading performance that fall within these two components. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from diffusion tensor images in twenty-one typical adolescents and young adults using the tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. We focused on the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) as fiber tracts that connect regions already implicated in the distributed cortical network for reading. Our results demonstrate dissociation between word-level and narrative-level reading skills: the FA values for both left and right ILF were correlated with measures of word reading, while only the left ILF correlated with reading comprehension scores. FA in the AF, however, correlated only with reading comprehension scores, bilaterally. Correlations with the right AF were particularly robust, emphasizing the contribution of the right hemisphere, especially the frontal lobe, to reading comprehension performance on the particular passage comprehension test used in this study. The anatomical dissociation between these reading skills is supported by the Simple View theory and may shed light on why these two skills dissociate in those with reading disorders.
Project description:The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a white matter pathway traditionally considered to connect left Broca's area with posterior language zones. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in eight healthy subjects (5 M) to track pathways in the horizontal mid-portion of the AF (hAF) to subregions of Broca's area - pars triangularis (PTr) and pars opercularis (POp); and to ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the right and left hemispheres (RH, LH). These pathways have previously been studied in the LH, but not in the RH. Only 1/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between PTr and hAF in the RH (also, only 1/8 in the LH). In contrast to PTr, 5/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between POp and hAF in the RH (8/8 in the LH). Fiber tracts for vPMC were similar to those of POp, where 7/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between vPMC and hAF in the RH (8/8 in the LH). Our designated hAF could have included some of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) III, because it is difficult to separate the two fiber bundles. The SLF III has been previously reported to connect supramarginal gyrus with POp and vPMC in the LH. Thus, although the present DTI study showed almost no pathways between PTr and hAF in the RH (and in the LH), robust pathways were observed between POp and/or vPMC with hAF in the RH (and in LH). These results replicate previous studies for the LH, but are new, for the RH. They could contribute to better understanding of recovery in aphasia.
Project description:The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.
Project description:We carried out RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) of adult human postmortem neocortical brain tissue, and then correlated those expression values with the fMRI signal in each brain region Overall design: Ten cortical regions were included in the analysis: pre-motor cortex - PMV (BA6), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – DLPFC (BA9), middle temporal gyrus – pMTG (BA21), superior temporal gyrus – pSTG (BA22), angular gyrus - AG (BA39), supramarginal gyrus - SMG (BA40), pars opercularis - POP (BA44), pars triangularis - PTr (BA45), middle frontal gyrus – MFG (BA46) and pars orbitalis - POrB (BA47). For each brain region, three or more samples from left adult brain hemispheres were collected (ages range from 33 to 49) and only males were included to avoid the effect of sex
Project description:Production of fluent speech in humans is based on a precise and coordinated articulation of sounds. A speech articulation network (SAN) has been observed in multiple brain studies typically using either neuroimaging or direct electrical stimulation (DES), thus giving limited knowledge about the whole brain structural and functional organization of this network. In this study, seven right-handed patients underwent awake surgery resection of low-grade gliomas (4) and cavernous angiomas. We combined pre-surgical resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion MRI together with speech arrest sites obtained intra-operatively with DES to address the following goals: (i) determine the cortical areas contributing to the intrinsic functional SAN using the speech arrest sites as functional seeds for rs-fMRI; (ii) evaluate the relative contribution of gray matter terminations from the two major language dorsal stream bundles, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III) and the arcuate fasciculus (AF); and (iii) evaluate the possible pre-surgical prediction of SAN with rs-fMRI. In all these right-handed patients the intrinsic functional SAN included frontal, inferior parietal, temporal, and insular regions symmetrically and bilaterally distributed across the two hemispheres regardless of the side (four right) of speech arrest evocation. The SLF III provided a much higher density of terminations in the cortical regions of SAN in respect to AF. Pre-surgical rs-fMRI data demonstrated moderate ability to predict the SAN. The set of functional and structural data provided in this multimodal study characterized, at a whole-brain level, a distributed and bi-hemispherical network subserving speech articulation.