Response of central serous chorioretinopathy evaluated by multimodal retinal imaging.
ABSTRACT: PurposeTo identify predictive biomarkers of treatment outcomes by multimodal retinal imaging in patients affected by central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).Patients and methodsIn this interventional non-randomized clinical study, 27 treatment-naive CSC patients were prospectively enrolled and treated with oral eplerenone for 5-13 weeks. Primary outcomes included presence of pathological findings on indocyaine green angiography (ICGA), structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-angiography (OCT-A) at baseline associated with different response to the treatment.ResultsA total of 29 eyes of 27 patients (2 females, 25 males) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study (mean age was 45±7 years). Mean CSC duration at baseline was 13.5±4.4 weeks. After a mean of 10.5 weeks of treatment, mean central macular thickness significantly reduced (P<0.001), and mean best-corrected visual acuity improved (P<0.001). Seventeen eyes (61%) demonstrated total reabsorption of subretinal fluid on structural OCT, five eyes (18%) presented a partial response to eplerenone therapy and six eyes (21%) showed no response. The complete response to the treatment was associated with absence of CNV at OCT-A and the presence of hotspot at ICGA (P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). None of eight eyes with CNV in OCT-A imaging had a complete response to eplerenone and none of three eyes without hotspot at ICGA showed a complete response to the treatment.ConclusionsMultimodal retinal imaging allowed us to propose predictive biomarkers (ie, absence of CNV on OCT-A and presence of hotspot on ICGA) for treatment outcomes.
Project description:To evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in patients presenting with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).This is a retrospective consecutive case series of consecutive patients with CSC who were referred for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) between January 2010 and December 2011. Medical records were reviewed and clinical features including presence of FCE in SD-OCT, fluorescence angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were studied.Among the 116 CSC patients assessed, FCE was found in 11 eyes of 7 (6.0%) patients. FCE was associated with subretinal fluid in six eyes of six patients and serous pigment epithelial detachment in three eyes of two patients. The mean central subfield retinal thickness of CSC eyes with FCE was 283.7 μm, compared with 377.5 μm for CSC eyes without FCE (Mann-Whitney U-test, P=0.020). Five FCE eyes of five patients had focal leakage on FA. Choroidal hyperpermeability on ICGA was found in seven CSC eyes with FCE, with four eyes showing hypofluorescent spot corresponding to the FCE. After a mean follow-up of 16 months, visual acuity of all 11 eyes with FCE remained stable or improved at the last follow-up.FCE is not an uncommon feature in patients with CSC and might be associated with choroidal hemodynamic disturbances.
Project description:Purpose:This article describes the clinical and multimodal imaging characteristics of subthreshold exudative choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods:Among 3773 patients with AMD, 8 eyes (6 patients) were identified with the clinical phenotype of interest. Dilated fundus examinations, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography (OCTA) were performed. Results:OCT typically showed a moderately reflective irregular pigment epithelial detachment with overlying subretinal fluid (SRF). Traditional FA did not show leakage and ICGA showed no definitive neovascular network or hot spots. However, OCTA clearly demonstrated a CNV within the pigment epithelial detachment. The majority of our cases (7 of 8) did not receive antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections, and visual acuity remained stable over the available follow-up period of I to 10 years. Conclusions:CNV is often associated with SRF and vision loss in AMD, usually requiring frequent anti-VEGF injections. OCTA allowed us to better identify CNV not readily detected on FA and ICGA. Although some have suggested early clinical intervention with anti-VEGF injections in any case with fluid and confirmed CNV on OCTA, we describe a subset of AMD patients with SRF who may be better managed by observation. These cases may represent a more indolent, mature, and stable vascular network.
Project description:Purpose:To quantitatively demonstrate asymmetric choroidal outflow in pachychoroid (central serous chorioretinopathy [CSC]/pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy [PPE]) eyes using mid-phase, ultra-widefield indocyanine green angiography (UWF ICGA) images. Methods:Eyes with a clinical diagnosis of CSC/PPE were imaged with multimodal imaging including UWF ICGA (Optos California). Quadrant brightness was measured by manually segmenting based on vortex vein location, calculating the brightness "max-min" value to assess nonuniformity between quadrants, and comparing between CSC/PPE and control eyes. A multivariate linear regression was performed to determine, across individual eyes, which specific quadrants have the greatest brightness in pachychoroid eyes, after taking into account patient-eye-specific variability. Results:Thirty-three eyes (18 patients) with CSC/PPE along with 16 eyes of 9 controls had a mean age of 51.94 ± 9.72 vs. 53.78 ± 17.92 years (P = 0.731), respectively. Max-min analysis showed significantly increased likelihood of nonuniform drainage between vortex veins in both CSC/PPE and control eyes. Multivariate linear regression in control eyes showed that on average, the inferotemporal quadrant was significantly brighter than the superonasal quadrant (9.72 units, P < 0.001). Among CSC/PPE eyes, adjusting for the preferential, nonuniform drainage in control eyes, the inferonasal and inferotemporal quadrants in CSC/PPE eyes remained significantly brighter than the reference quadrant by 5.36 units (P = 0.034) and 7.51 units (P = 0.008), respectively. Conclusions:Asymmetric choroidal venous outflow occurs in both control and CSC/PPE eyes based on UWF ICGA quantitative brightness levels in each quadrant. Increased brightness levels along inferior quadrants in mid-phase ICGA images suggest venous outflow congestion among eyes with CSC or PPE.
Project description:Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a degenerative macular disease. The study determined the topographical concordance in the areal extent of PCV, defined by indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and the corresponding outcomes from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and microperimetry, in 25 individuals (25 eyes) who had undergone 3 months of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment. The differential light sensitivity within 10° eccentricity was evaluated by Pattern Deviation probability analysis. The concordances and proportional areal extents of the abnormality for ICGA, SD-OCT and microperimetry were compared. The concordance in the areal extent between all three modalities was 59%. The median concordance between ICGA and microperimetry was 60%; between ICGA and SD-OCT, 70%; and between SD-OCT and microperimetry, 72%. SD-OCT and microperimetry each identified a greater areal extent (>20%) compared to ICGA in 13 and 19 eyes, respectively. A greater areal extent (>20%) was present in 9 eyes for microperimetry compared to SD-OCT and in 5 eyes for SD-OCT compared to microperimetry. SD-OCT and microperimetry each identified a greater area of abnormality than ICGA which supports the clinical utility of SD-OCT. Strong concordance was present between SD-OCT and microperimetry; however, microperimetry identified additional areas of functional abnormality.
Project description:Importance:Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a major cause of visual loss worldwide, particularly in Asia, and the appropriate understanding of the structures in PCV previously described as polypoidal lesions is important for understanding their pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prognosis. Objective:To report the morphologic characteristics of polypoidal lesions and their association with branching vascular networks (BVNs) in eyes with PCV using swept-source optical coherence tomographic angiography (SS-OCTA). Design, Setting, and Participants:This cross-sectional observational study included 20 participants recruited from Shanghai General Hospital with a diagnosis of PCV based on the presence of focal hyperfluorescent spots on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Data were collected from December 1, 2017, to September 1, 2018, and analyzed from June 1 through September 30, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:Polypoidal lesions in eyes with PCV were characterized using multimodal imaging that included fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, ICGA, SS-OCT, and SS-OCTA, and the images were anatomically aligned. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was manually measured as the distance between the Bruch membrane and the sclerochoroidal interface on the SS-OCT images. Results:Of the 20 Asian patients, 5 (25%) were women and 15 (75%) were men. The mean (SD) age was 61.1 (7.6) years, and the mean (SD) logMAR visual acuity was 0.358 (0.294) (Snellen equivalent, 20/50 [20/40]). Twenty-three eyes underwent imaging and were diagnosed with PCV. Indocyanine green angiography identified 43 polypoidal lesions, and all corresponded to the structures that appeared as clusters of tangled vessels on SS-OCTA images. In addition, SS-OCTA detected 16 tangled vascular structures not seen on ICGA. Branching vascular networks were detected on SS-OCTA imaging in all eyes, but ICGA identified BVNs in only 17 of 23 eyes (74%). Of the 43 tangled vascular structures, 40 (93%) were located at the edge of a BVN and 3 (7%) were associated with type 2 neovascularization. Conclusions and Relevance:In eyes with PCV undergoing SS-OCTA imaging, previously described polypoidal lesions may appear as tangled vascular structures associated with BVN or type 2 neovascularization. The identification of polypoidal lesions in patients with PCV as neovascular tangles rather than actual polypoidal lesions or aneurysmal dilatations may help facilitate understanding of their pathogenesis and response to treatment.
Project description:The authors evaluated the proportion of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) (more than 3 months) with previous treatment via half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT). All patients were followed up with at least twelve months. Macular angiograms were obtained using spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT, RTVue XR; Optovue). CNV was defined as flow in the outer retinal slab between the outer plexiform layer and Bruch's membrane. Clinical characteristics were compared between CNV and non-CNV groups. Seventy eyes of 61 patients (51 male and 10 female) were included. The average age was 46.2 years old. The average duration of symptom was 32.9 months. All patients were treated with half-dose PDT initially. Eleven eyes (15.7%) received more than one session of PDT. CNV was diagnosed in 32 of 70 eyes (45.7%) based on OCTA. Only 6 of the 32 eyes (18.8%) needed intravitreal anti- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for the exudative activity of CNV. Older age (p = 0.059), larger PDT spot size (p = 0.024), and thinner subfoveal choroidal thickness (p = 0.008) were noted in CNV group. The authors conclude that OCTA reveals high rates of CNV associated with chronic CSC after PDT. Patients in the CNV group had older age, larger PDT spot size, and thinner subfoveal choroidal thickness. OCTA may be considered as a first step in identifying CNV in chronic CSC following PDT.
Project description:To characterize en face features of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) using a high-speed, enhanced-depth swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) prototype.Consecutive patients with chronic CSCR were prospectively examined with SS-OCT.Fifteen eyes of 13 patients.Three-dimensional 6×6 mm macular cube raster scans were obtained with SS-OCT operating at 1050 nm wavelength and 100000 A-lines/sec with 6 ?m axial resolution. Segmentation of the RPE generated a reference surface; en face SS-OCT images of the RPE and choroid were extracted at varying depths every 3.5 ?m (1 pixel). Abnormal features were characterized by systematic analysis of multimodal fundus imaging, including color photographs, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine-green angiography (ICGA).En face SS-OCT morphology of the RPE and individual choroidal layers.En face SS-OCT imaging at the RPE level revealed absence of signal corresponding to RPE detachment or RPE loss in 15 of 15 (100%) eyes. En face SS-OCT imaging at the choriocapillaris level showed focally enlarged vessels in 8 of 15 eyes (53%). At the level of Sattler's layer, en face SS-OCT documented focal choroidal dilation in 8 of 15 eyes (53%) and diffuse choroidal dilation in 7 of 15 eyes (47%). At the level of Haller's layer, these same features were observed in 3 of 15 eyes (20%) and 12 of 15 eyes (80%), respectively. In all affected eyes, these choroidal vascular abnormalities were seen just below areas of RPE abnormalities. In 2 eyes with secondary choroidal neovascularization (CNV), distinct en face SS-OCT features corresponded to the neovascular lesions.High-speed, enhanced-depth SS-OCT at 1050 nm wavelength enables the visualization of pathologic features of the RPE and choroid in eyes with chronic CSCR not usually appreciated with standard spectral domain (SD) OCT. En face SS-OCT imaging seems to be a useful tool in the identification of CNV without the use of angiography. This in vivo documentation of the RPE and choroidal vasculature at variable depths may help elucidate the pathophysiology of disease and can contribute to the diagnosis and management of chronic CSCR.
Project description:Purpose:To determine whether fluorescein leakage within subretinal hemorrhage is definitely suggestive of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods:Twenty-five consecutive highly myopic patients (25 eyes) with fluorescein leakage within subretinal hemorrhage detected within 1 month were prospectively included. All patients underwent OCTA and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The OCTA and SD-OCT findings at the site of fluorescein leakage were analyzed. In cases of a doubtful diagnosis, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) was also performed to differentiate myopic CNV from lacquer crack if necessary; all patients were followed up by SD-OCT and/or OCTA for at least 2 weeks. Results:In terms of the site of fluorescein leakage, OCTA revealed an abnormal vascular network in the outer retina and a choriocapillaris slab in 22 out of 25 eyes (88%), which were confirmed to be CNV. However, no high-flow signal was observed in 3 of 25 eyes (12%). In these 3 cases, SD-OCT showed a focal rupture of the retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch's membrane-choriocapillaris (RPE-BM-CC) complex and a columnar hyperreflective signal of blood originating from defects with a volcanic geyser-like appearance, and no exudative signs were detected. Notably, all ruptures of the RPE-BM-CC complex were located exactly at lacquer crack sites. Moreover, with the absorption of subretinal hemorrhage, ruptures of the RPE-BM-CC complex spontaneously resolved without any intervention. Considering the multimodal imaging appearance and follow-up outcomes, these 3 eyes were eventually diagnosed as simple bleeding associated with lacquer cracks. Conclusions:Dye leakage within recent subretinal hemorrhage on FA could be caused by new-onset lacquer cracks in pathologic myopia. Multimodal imaging including OCTA is helpful to differentiate lacquer cracks from myopic CNV.
Project description:Importance:Since the advent of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A), nonexudative neovascularization has been described in the fellow eyes of unilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, there is limited literature describing the natural course and optimal management of these lesions. Objective:To determine the incidence of fellow eye involvement in patients presenting with unilateral typical AMD or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and to evaluate the patterns of OCT-A changes within 6 months before the onset of exudative changes, especially focusing on nonexudative neovascularization. Design, Setting, and Participants:Data for this study were taken from a prospective, observational cohort study involving Asian patients with exudative AMD in the Asian AMD Phenotyping Study between October 2015 and March 2016. Analyses began in June 2017. Only patients who had gradable OCT-A and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) scans of the fellow eye at baseline and follow-up at least 6 months apart were included for the analysis. The contralateral eye was evaluated for presence of nonexudative neovascularization based on multimodal imaging, which included ICGA, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and OCT-A. Main Outcomes and Measures:The difference between the incidence of those with nonexudative choroidal neovascularization and those without as analyzed using log-rank test and qualitative analysis of OCT-A images. Results:We included 95 fellow eyes of 95 patients who presented with unilateral exudative AMD with a mean (SD) age of 68.6 (8.6) years. Nonexudative neovascularization was present in 18 eyes (19%) (8 [22.9%] and 10 [19.0%] fellow eyes with typical AMD and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, respectively; 8 [44.4%] on OCT-A; 5 [27.8%] on ICGA; and 5 [27.8%] on both OCT-A and ICGA). Development of exudative changes was noted in 6 fellow eyes (6.3%). Four eyes developed exudation from previously noted nonexudative neovascularization, and 2 eyes arose exudative changes from de novo. The probability of developing exudation within 6 months was significantly higher in eyes with baseline nonexudative neovascularization (0.087; 95% CI, 0.0033-0.210) compared with eyes without (0.010; 95% CI, 0.0026-0.041) (P = .008). In all eyes whose OCT-A images were available immediately before the onset of exudative changes, there was an increase in the size of network vessels compared with baseline. Conclusions and Relevance:The presence of nonexudative neovascularization may predispose to the development of exudative changes.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the correlation between geographic filling delays in the choriocapillaris using indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) images and dilated vortex veins in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). DESIGN:Observational case series. PARTICIPANTS:Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients, 21 with acute and 11 with chronic CSC. METHODS:Digital ICGA and fluorescein angiography (FA), with videoangiography, and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for B-scan and en-face choroidal imaging were performed. Overlapping of the filling delay areas in the choriocapillaris in the early-phase ICGA images and the region of dilated vortex veins in the en-face images were analyzed. The consistency of both areas was graded as follows. Grade 3: filling delay area is entirely involved in the dilated vortex vein region. Grade 2: 50% or more of filling delay area overlaps with the dilated vortex vein region. Grade 1: less than 50% of filling delay area overlaps with the dilated vortex vein region. Grade 0: no tendency for overlapping of two areas. We evaluated the asymmetry of upper and lower vortex veins in en-face images of the Haller layer. Using the binarization method, we quantified the luminal and stromal areas of the choroid. The ratios of the Haller layer area and luminal areas in the Haller layer to total choroidal area were examined. RESULTS:The consistency of overlapping of the two areas was grade 2.62 ± 0.49 in acute CSC and grade 1.55 ± 0.78 in chronic CSC (p = 0.0005). Asymmetry of upper and lower vortex veins was seen in 17 of 22 eyes (81%) with acute CSC and 6 of 11 eyes (54.5%) with chronic CSC (p = 0.114). Central choroidal thickness was 411 ± 79 ?m in acute CSC and 326 ± 64 ?m in chronic CSC (p = 0.004). In the posterior fundus with a 4500 ?m diameter, the ratio of the Haller layer area to total choroidal area was 63.7 ± 8.6% in acute CSC and 57.1 ± 7.9% in chronic CSC (p = 0.047). The ratio of the luminal area in the Haller layer area to total choroidal area was 46.9 ± 7.6% in acute CSC and 40.0 ± 6.9% in chronic CSC (p = 0.014). CONCLUSION:Filling delay areas in the choriocapillaris and dilated vortex vein regions showed marked overlapping in acute CSC. Increased choroidal thickness was attributed to dilated vortex veins. These findings suggest that the blood flow into the choriocapillaris is delayed as a result of congestion of the dominant vortex veins that supply this geographic area. CSC may be a disease characterized by vortex vein congestion that develops in eyes with asymmetric vortex veins.