Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Heralding the Onset of Semantic Frontotemporal Dementia.
ABSTRACT: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with cognitive decline. The dementia type following PTSD is unclear.To assess whether PTSD is associated with a specific dementia.Prospective study: 46 PTSD patients (DSM-IV-TR) were followed for 6-10 years with clinical, neuropsychological, imaging evaluations for possible development of dementia.Retrospective study:849 dementia patients followed during 1999-2014 (509 Alzheimer's disease, AD; 207 dementia with Lewy bodies, DLB; 90 vascular dementia, VaD; 43 frontotemporal dementia, FTD) and 287 patients with any neurological condition (including patients with/without dementia) were evaluated for the presence of PTSD in their history.Prospective study: 8 patients developed dementia; 1 AD, 1 DLB, 6 semantic FTD (13.0% of the PTSD population). Retrospective study: 38 patients (4.5%) had a history of PTSD; 3.5% of AD, 4.3% of DLB, 14.0% of FTD, 5.6% of VaD. The percentage was higher in FTD than in AD or DLB (?2?=?10, p?=?0.001, and ?2?=?6, p?=?0.02). At difference with AD, DLB, or VaD, FTD incidence among dementia patients with PTSD history (38 patients) was higher than in the dementia population overall (16% versus 5%, ?2?=?8, p?=?0.005). The impact of possible demographical/clinical confounders (age, gender, MMSE) was excluded by Poisson regression. PTSD prevalence in the comparative group without dementia matched the prevalence in the Italian general population (1.1%). PTSD prevalence in the demented comparative group matched the prevalence in our dementia retrospective cohort, 3.7%).PTSD was associated with the development of semantic FTD.
Project description:Objective:Diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is complicated by the overlap of clinical symptoms with other dementia disorders. Development of robust fluid biomarkers is critical to improve the diagnostic work-up of FTD. Methods:CSF concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured in the discovery cohort including patients with FTD (n = 27), Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia (n = 75), DLB or PDD (n = 47), subcortical vascular dementia (VaD, n = 33), mild cognitive impairment that later converted to AD (MCI-AD, n = 34), stable MCI (sMCI, n = 62), and 50 cognitively healthy controls from the Swedish BioFINDER study. For validation, CSF PlGF was measured in additional independent cohort of FTD patients (n = 22) and controls (n = 18) from the Netherlands. Results:In the discovery cohort, MCI, MCI-AD, AD dementia, DLB-PDD, VaD, and FTD patients all showed increased CSF levels of PlGF compared with controls (sMCI P = 0.019; MCI-AD P = 0.005; AD dementia, DLB-PDD, VaD, and FTD all P < 0.001). PlGF levels were 1.8-2.1-fold higher in FTD than in AD, DLB-PDD and VaD (all P < 0.001). PlGF distinguished with high accuracy FTD from controls and sMCI performing better than tau/Aβ42 (AUC 0.954-0.996 versus 0.564-0.754, P < 0.001). A combination of PlGF, tau, and Aβ42 (tau/Aβ42/PlGF) was more accurate than tau/Aβ42 when differentiating FTD from a group of other dementias (AUC 0.972 vs. 0.932, P < 0.01). Increased CSF levels of PlGF in FTD compared with controls were corroborated in the validation cohort. Interpretation:CSF PlGF is increased in FTD compared with other dementia disorders, MCI, and healthy controls and might be useful as a diagnostic biomarker of FTD.
Project description:2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (2-[18F]FDG-PET) has an emerging supportive role in dementia diagnostic as distinctive metabolic patterns are specific for Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Previous studies have demonstrated that a data-driven decision model based on the disease state index (DSI) classifier supports clinicians in the differential diagnosis of dementia by using different combinations of diagnostic tests and biomarkers. Until now, this model has not included 2-[18F]FDG-PET data. The objective of the study was to evaluate 2-[18F]FDG-PET biomarkers combined with commonly used diagnostic tests in the differential diagnosis of dementia using the DSI classifier. We included data from 259 subjects diagnosed with AD, DLB, FTD, vascular dementia (VaD), and subjective cognitive decline from two independent study cohorts. We also evaluated three 2-[18F]FDG-PET biomarkers (anterior vs. posterior index (API-PET), occipital vs. temporal index, and cingulate island sign) to improve the classification accuracy for both FTD and DLB. We found that the addition of 2-[18F]FDG-PET biomarkers to cognitive tests, CSF and MRI biomarkers considerably improved the classification accuracy for all pairwise comparisons of DLB (balanced accuracies: DLB vs. AD from 64% to 77%; DLB vs. FTD from 71% to 92%; and DLB vs. VaD from 71% to 84%). The two 2-[18F]FDG-PET biomarkers, API-PET and occipital vs. temporal index, improved the accuracy for FTD and DLB, especially as compared to AD. Moreover, different combinations of diagnostic tests were valuable to differentiate specific subtypes of dementia. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the addition of 2-[18F]FDG-PET to commonly used diagnostic tests provided complementary information that may help clinicians in diagnosing patients, particularly for differentiating between patients with FTD, DLB, and AD.
Project description:Widespread implementation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in clinical settings requires improved accuracy for diagnosis of prodromal disease and for distinguishing AD from non-AD dementias. Novel and promising CSF biomarkers include neurogranin, a marker of synaptic degeneration, and YKL-40, a marker of neuroinflammation.CSF neurogranin and YKL-40 were measured in a cohort of 338 individuals including cognitively healthy controls and patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (sMCI), MCI who later developed AD (MCI-AD), AD dementia, Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), vascular dementia (VaD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The diagnostic accuracy of neurogranin and YKL-40 were compared with the core AD biomarkers, β-amyloid (Aβ42 and Aβ40) and tau.Neurogranin levels were increased in AD and decreased in non-AD dementia compared with healthy controls. As a result, AD patients showed considerably higher CSF levels of neurogranin than DLB/PDD, VaD and FTD patients. CSF YKL-40 levels were increased in AD compared with DLB/PDD but not with VaD or FTD. Neither CSF neurogranin nor YKL-40 levels differed significantly between sMCI patients and MCI-AD patients. Both biomarkers correlated positively with CSF Aβ40 and tau. CSF neurogranin and YKL-40 could separate AD dementia from non-AD dementias (neurogranin, area under the curve [AUC] = 0.761; YKL-40, AUC = 0.604; Aβ42/neurogranin, AUC = 0.849; Aβ42/YKL-40, AUC = 0.785), but the diagnostic accuracy was not better compared to CSF Aβ and tau (Aβ42, AUC = 0.755; tau AUC = 0.858; Aβ42/tau, AUC = 0.895; Aβ42/Aβ40, AUC = 0.881). Similar results were obtained when separating sMCI from MCI-AD cases.CSF neurogranin and YKL-40 do not improve the diagnostic accuracy of either prodromal AD or AD dementia when compared to the core CSF AD biomarkers. Nevertheless, the CSF level of neurogranin is selectively increased in AD dementia, whereas YKL-40 is increased in both AD and FTD suggesting that synaptic degeneration and glial activation may be important in these neurodegenerative conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies have shown select associations between cardiovascular risk factors and dementia, but mostly focused on Alzheimer's Disease (AD). OBJECTIVE:We enhance these works by evaluating the relationship between the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and the rate of cognitive decline, measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SUM) on four common dementia subtypes (AD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VaD), as well as non-demented elderly individuals (normal)). METHOD:We used generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts to account for correlation at the patient and center levels for each dementia subtype adjusting for time since initial visit, baseline cognitive score, age, and demographic factors. The cardiovascular risk factors evaluated included body mass index, diabetes, years of smoking, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. RESULTS:Patients diagnosed with AD (n=1899), DLB (n=65), FTD (n=168), or VaD (n=13); or lacked cognitive impairment (normal) (n=3583) were evaluated using data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centers. Cardiovascular risk factors were associated with select dementia subtypes including AD and FTD. Using MMSE and CDR-SUM, recent or active hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were associated with a slower cognitive decline for AD patients, while higher body mass index and years of smoking were associated with a slower cognitive decline for FTD patients. However, several cardiovascular factors demonstrated associations with more rapid cognitive decline. CONCLUSION:These results demonstrate disease specific associations and can provide clinicians guidance on predicted cognitive changes at the group level using information about cardiovascular risk factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Orthostatic hypotension (OH) has been cross-sectionally and longitudinally related to dementia in the general population. Whether OH contributes to clinical progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia is less certain. Also, differences in risk of progression between patients with early OH (EOH) versus delayed and/or prolonged OH (DPOH) are unclear. OBJECTIVE:Assess the prevalence of EOH and DPOH, investigate the longitudinal association between EOH and DPOH and either incident MCI or dementia. METHODS:1,882 patients from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort [64±8 years; 43% female; n?=?500 with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), n?=?341 MCI, n?=?758 Alzheimer's disease (AD), n?=?49 vascular dementia (VaD), n?=?146 frontotemporal dementia (FTD), n?=?88 Lewy body dementia (DLB)]. Definition OH: systolic blood pressure (BP) drop?20 mmHg and/or a diastolic BP drop?10 mmHg at 1 and/or 3 minutes after standing. EOH: OH only at 1 minute, DPOH: OH at (1 and) 3 minutes. RESULTS:Prevalence OH: 19% SCD, 28% MCI, 41% dementia. Compared to SCD, odds of having OH were highest in patients with VaD and DLB; ORs (95% CI) were 2.6 (1.4-4.7) and 5.1 (3.1-8.4), respectively. After a mean (SD) follow-up of 2.2 (1.4) years, 105 (22%) of SCD or MCI patients showed clinical progression. Compared to patients without OH, those with DPOH had an increased risk of progression; hazard ratio (95% CI) was 1.7 (1.1-2.7), and those with EOH did not; 0.8 (0.3-1.9). CONCLUSION:Compared to SCD, prevalence of OH was higher in MCI and highest in dementia, particularly in VaD and DLB. DPOH, more likely associated with autonomic dysfunction, is a risk factor for incident MCI or dementia.
Project description:Reliable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers enabling identification of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and its pathologic subtypes are lacking.Unbiased high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics was applied on CSF of FTD patients with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, FTD-TDP, n = 12) or tau pathology (FTD-tau, n = 8), and individuals with subjective memory complaints (SMC, n = 10). Validation was performed by applying enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or enzymatic assays, when available, in a larger cohort (FTLD-TDP, n = 21, FTLD-tau, n = 10, SMC, n = 23) and in Alzheimer's disease (n = 20), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 20), and vascular dementia (VaD, n = 18).Of 1914 identified CSF proteins, 56 proteins were differentially regulated (fold change >1.2, P < .05) between the different patient groups: either between the two pathologic subtypes (10 proteins), or between at least one of these FTD subtypes and SMC (47 proteins). We confirmed the differential expression of YKL-40 by ELISA in a partly independent cohort. Furthermore, enzyme activity of catalase was decreased in FTD subtypes compared with SMC. Further validation in a larger cohort showed that the level of YKL-40 was twofold increased in both FTD pathologic subtypes compared with SMC and that the levels in FTLD-tau were higher compared to Alzheimer's dementia (AD), DLB, and VaD patients. Clinical validation furthermore showed that the catalase enzyme activity was decreased in the FTD subtypes compared to SMC, AD and DLB.We identified promising CSF biomarkers for both FTD differential diagnosis and pathologic subtyping. YKL-40 and catalase enzyme activity should be validated further in similar pathology defined patient cohorts for their use for FTD diagnosis or treatment development.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Two methods of non-invasive brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have demonstrable positive effects on cognition and can ameliorate neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression. Less is known about the efficacy of these approaches in common neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we evaluate the effects of TMS and tDCS upon cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms in the major dementias, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), as well as the potential pre-dementia states of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: PubMed (until 7 February 2014) and PsycINFO (from 1967 to January Week 3 2014) databases were searched in a semi-systematic manner in order to identify relevant treatment studies. A total of 762 studies were identified and 32 studies (18 in the dementias and 14 in PD populations) were included. RESULTS: No studies were identified in patients with PDD, FTD or VaD. Of the dementias, 13 studies were conducted in patients with AD, one in DLB, and four in MCI. A total of 16 of the 18 studies showed improvements in at least one cognitive or neuropsychiatric outcome measure. Cognitive or neuropsychiatric improvements were observed in 12 of the 14 studies conducted in patients with PD. CONCLUSIONS: Both TMS and tDCS may have potential as interventions for the treatment of symptoms associated with dementia and PD. These results are promising; however, available data were limited, particularly within VaD, PDD and FTD, and major challenges exist in order to maximise the efficacy and clinical utility of both techniques. In particular, stimulation parameters vary considerably between studies and are likely to subsequently impact upon treatment efficacy.
Project description:To explore the effect of APOE polymorphisms on patients with cognitive impairments in The Chinese Han population.A total of 1027 cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 cases with vascular dementia (VaD), 28 cases with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 54 cases with semantic dementia (SD), 44 cases with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 583 cases with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 32 cases with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND) were recruited consecutively from memory disorders clinics in Huashan Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. The 1149 cognitively normal controls were recruited from the community epidemiologic investigations. The APOE genotypes were determined using the TaqMan assay.The distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of APOE differed significantly between control and AD or MCI, with ?4 increasing the risk of AD and MCI in a dose-dependent pattern and ?2 decreasing the risk of AD, but not the risk of MCI. As for VaD, significant differences in the APOE genotype distribution were found compared with the controls. E4/4 increased the risk of VaD and ?4 increased the risk of VCIND in women. The allele distribution differed between bvFTD and controls, but genotype and allele frequencies of APOE did not affect the risk of bvFTD, SD, and DLB.In The Chinese Han population, APOE ?4 increased the risk of AD and MCI in a dose-dependent manner and ?2 decreased the risk of AD as reported previously. APOE ?4 might increase risk in VaD and female patients with VCIND, but no effects of APOE on bvFTD, DLB, and SD were found.
Project description:Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are more prone to seizures and myoclonus, but relative risk of these symptoms among other dementia types is unknown.To determine incidence of seizures and myoclonus in the three most common neurodegenerative dementias: AD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).Our institution's medical records were reviewed for new-onset unprovoked seizures and myoclonus in patients meeting criteria for AD (n?=?1,320), DLB (n?=?178), and FTD (n?=?348). Cumulative probabilities of developing seizures and myoclonus were compared between diagnostic groups, whereas age-stratified incidence rates were determined relative to control populations.The cumulative probability of developing seizures after disease onset was 11.5% overall, highest in AD (13.4%) and DLB (14.7%) and lowest in FTD (3.0%). The cumulative probability of developing myoclonus was 42.1% overall, highest in DLB (58.1%). The seizure incidence rates, relative to control populations, were nearly 10-fold in AD and DLB, and 6-fold in FTD. Relative seizure rates increased with earlier age-at-onset in AD (age <50, 127-fold; 50-69, 21-fold; 70+, 2-fold) and FTD (age <50, 53-fold; 50-69, 9-fold), and relative myoclonus rates increased with earlier age-at-onset in all groups. Seizures began an average of 3.9 years after the onset of cognitive or motor decline, and myoclonus began 5.4 years after onset.Seizures and myoclonus occur with greater incidence in patients with AD, DLB, and FTD than in the general population, but rates vary with diagnosis, suggesting varied pathomechanisms of network hyperexcitability. Patients often experience these symptoms early in disease, suggesting hyperexcitability could be an important target for interventions.
Project description:Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common subtype of dementia, followed by Vascular Dementia (VaD), and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have received a lot of attention as the novel biomarkers for dementia. Here, using serum miRNA expression of 1,601 Japanese individuals, we investigated potential miRNA bio- markers and constructed risk prediction models, based on a supervised principal component analysis (PCA) logistic regression method, according to the subtype of dementia. The final risk prediction model achieved a high accuracy of 0.873 on a validation cohort in AD, when using 78 miRNAs: Accuracy = 0.836 with 86 miRNAs in VaD; Accuracy = 0.825 with 110 miRNAs in DLB. To our knowledge, this is the first report applying miRNA-based risk pre- diction models to a dementia prospective cohort. Our study demonstrates our models to be effective in prospective disease risk prediction; and with further improvement may contribute to practical clinical use in dementia. Overall design: 1,601 serum samples (1,021 AD cases, 91 VaD cases, 169 DLB cases, 32 Mild Cognitive Impairment: MCI, and 288 NC).