Boxb mediate BALB/c mice corneal inflammation through a TLR4/MyD88-dependent signaling pathway in Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis.
ABSTRACT: AIM:To investigate whether high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) Boxb exacerbates BALB/c mice corneal immune responses and inflammatory through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling pathway in Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) keratitis. METHODS:The mice corneas were pretreated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), Boxb before A. fumigatus infection. The abdominal cavity extracted macrophages were pretreated with PBS, Boxb, TLR4 inhibitor (CLI-095), Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) separately before A. fumigatus hyphae stimulation. HMGB1 was detected in normal and infected mice corneas and macrophages by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the TLR4, MyD88, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were detected by Western blot and PCR. RESULTS:In BALB/c mice corneas, the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, IL-1?, TNF-? were increased after A. fumigatus infection. While pretreatment with Boxb significantly increased the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, MyD88, IL-1?, TNF-? compared with PBS control after infection. In BALB/c mice abdominal cavity extracted macrophages, pretreatment with Boxb increased the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, MyD88, IL-1?, TNF-?, while pretreatment with CLI-095 and Boxb significantly decreased the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, MyD88, IL-1?, TNF-?. CONCLUSION:In A. fumigatus keratitis, Boxb play a pro-inflammatory role in corneal anti-fungi immune response through the HMGB1-TLR4-MyD88 signal pathway.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the inflammatory amplification effect of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) keratitis and the relationship between lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) and HMGB1 in keratitis immune responses. METHODS:Phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and Boxb were injected into BALB/c mice subconjunctivally before the corneas were infected with A. fumigatus. RAW264.7 macrophages and neutrophils were pretreated with PBS and Boxb to determine the HMGB1 inflammatory amplification effects. Abdominal cavity extracted macrophages were pretreated with Boxb and Poly (I) (a LOX-1 inhibitor) before A. fumigatus hyphae stimulation to prove the the relationship between the two molecules. LOX-1, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and IL-10 were assessed by polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. RESULTS:Pretreatment with Boxb exacerbated corneal inflammation. In macrophages and neutrophils, A. fumigatus induced LOX-1, IL-1?, TNF-? and MIP-2 expression in Boxb group was higher than those in PBS group. Poly (I) treatments before infection alleviated the proinflammatory effects of Boxb in abdominal cavity extracted macrophages. Pretreatment with Boxb did not influence Dectin-1 mRNA levels in macrophages and neutrophils. CONCLUSION:In fungal keratitis, HMGB1 is a proinflammatory factor in the first line of immune response. HMGB1 mainly stimulates neutrophils and macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines during the immune response. LOX-1 participates in HMGB1 induced inflammatory exacerbation in A. fumigatus keratitis.
Project description:AIM:To determine the roles of high-mobility group box1 (HMGB1) in pro-inflammation, host immune response and its potential target for treatment in Aspergillus fumigatus (A.fumigatus) keratitis. METHODS:Expression of HMGB1 was tested in C57BL/6 normal and infected corneas. Dual immunostaining tested co-expression of HMGB1 with TLR4 or LOX-1. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with Box A or PBS and then infected. Clinical scores, polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, and MPO assay were used to assess the disease response. Flow cytometry were used to test the effect of Box A on reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression after A.fumigatus stimulation in polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMN). C57BL/6 peritoneal macrophages were pretreated with Box B before A.fumigatus stimulation, and MIP-2, IL-1?, TNF-?, HMGB1 and LOX-1 were measured. Macrophages were pretreated with Box B or Box B combined with Poly(I) (an inhibitor of LOX-1) before stimulating with A.fumigatus, and MIP-2, IL-1?, TNF-?, LOX-1, p38-MAPK, p-p38-MAPK were measured. RESULTS:HMGB1 levels were elevated in C57BL/6 mice after infection. HMGB1 co-expressed with TLR4, and LOX-1 in infiltrated cells. Box A vs PBS treated C57BL/6 mice had lower clinical scores and down-regulated corneal HMGB1, MIP-2, IL-1? expression and neutrophil influx. Box B treatment amplified expression of MIP-2, IL-1?, TNF-?, HMGB1 and LOX-1 that induced by A.fumigatus in macrophage. Compared to the treatment of Box B only, the protein expression of IL-1?, TNF-? showed inhibition of Box B combined with Poly(I), which also reduced the A.fumigatus-evoked protein level of LOX-1 and phosphorylation level of p38-MAPK. The production of A.fumigatus-stimulated ROS was significantly declined after Box A pretreatment in PMN. CONCLUSION:Blocking HMGB1 reduces the disease response in C57BL/6 mice. HMGB1 can amplify the host immune response through p38-MAPK, and is a target for treatment of A.fumigatus keratitis.
Project description:AIM:To explore the effects of lectin-like ox-LDL receptor (LOX-1) on innate immunity against Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus ) in mice cornea. METHODS:The mRNA levels of LOX-1 were tested in normal and A. fumigatus infected corneas of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. The expression of LOX-1, pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, CXCL1 and IL-6, anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) were tested with treatment with LOX-1 neutralizing antibody or control IgG in A. fumigatus infected corneas of C57BL/6. Macrophages and neutrophils were extracted from susceptible C57BL/6 mice, and pretreated with LOX-1 neutralizing antibody or IgG, then stimulated with A. fumigatus. The mRNA levels of LOX-1, TNF-?, CXCL1, IL-6, IL-10 and MMP9 were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:The expression of LOX-1 was significantly increased in C57BL/6 mice corneas after A. fumigatus infection compared with BABL/c mice. After treatment with LOX-1 neutralizing antibody, the expression of LOX-1, TNF-?, CXCL1, IL-6, MMP9 and IL-10 in C57BL/6 corneas were significantly decreased compared with treatment with control IgG; the expression of LOX-1, CXCL1, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly decreased in macrophages, while TNF-? and MMP9 expressions had no change; LOX-1, TNF-?, CXCL1, IL-6, MMP9 and IL-10 expressions were significantly decreased in neutrophils. CONCLUSION:The expression of LOX-1 can affect the expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in fungal infected corneas, macrophages and neutrophils of C57BL/6. LOX-1 inhibition rebalances the inflammatory response of fungal keratitis in mice.
Project description:Purpose:To determine the role of autophagy in the innate immune response to fungal keratitis (FK) caused by Aspergillus fumigatus infection. Methods:Corneal samples obtained from patients and mice with FK were visualized via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Autophagy-related proteins LC3B-II, Beclin-1, LAMP-1, and p62 in A. fumigatus-infected corneas of C57BL/6 mice were tested by Western blot. After treatment with autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA), chloroquine (CQ), or inducer rapamycin, autophagy-related proteins were detected by Western blot. Corneas were photographed with slit lamp microscopy and pathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) were assessed by immunofluorescent staining and observed under TEM. The levels of CXCL-1, IL-1?, HMGB1, IL-18, TNF-?, and IL-10 were tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The quantification of fungal loads was detected and photographed. Results:The accumulation of autophagosomes in corneas of patients and mice with FK was observed with TEM. The expression of LC3B-II, Beclin-1, and LAMP-1 was elevated in corneas after fungal infection, whereas p62 was reduced. Treatment with 3-MA or CQ upregulated clinical scores, pathological changes, and the expression of CXCL-1, IL-1?, HMGB1, IL-18, and TNF-? except IL-10. The morphology of PMNs was changed and PMN recruitment was increased in mice corneas treated with 3-MA or CQ, whereas rapamycin reduced the inflammatory response to keratitis. These results were statistically significant. Conclusions:A. fumigatus infection increases the expression of autophagy in corneas. Autophagy plays an anti-inflammatory role in the innate immune response to A. fumigatus keratitis.
Project description:AIMS:To investigate whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) preconditioning could alleviate the inflammation caused by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by reducing HMGB1-TLR4-MyD88-NF-?B signaling. METHODS:Seventy rats were randomly assigned into five groups: sham group, myocardial I/R group (I/R), DEX+I/R group (DEX), DEX+yohimbine+I/R group (DEX/YOH), and yohimbine+I/R group (YOH). Animals were subjected to 30 min of ischemia induced by occluding the left anterior descending artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size and histological scores were evaluated. The levels of IL-6 and TNF-? in serum and myocardium were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and expression of HMGB1, TLR4, MyD88, I?B and NF-?B in the myocardial I/R area were determined with Western blot and immunocytochemistry. RESULTS:Myocardial infarct sizes, histological scores, levels of circulating and myocardial IL-6 and TNF-?, the expression of HMGB1, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-?B, and the degradation of I?B were significantly increased in the I/R group compared with the sham group (P<0.01). DEX preconditioning significantly reduced the myocardial infarct size and histological scores (P<0.01 vs. I/R group). Similarly, the serum and myocardial levels of IL-6 and TNF-?, the expression of HMGB1, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-?B, and the degradation of I?B were significantly reduced in the DEX group (P<0.01 vs. I/R group). These effects were partly reversed by yohimbine, a selective ?2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, while yohimbine alone had no significant effect on any of the above indicators. CONCLUSION:DEX preconditioning reduces myocardial I/R injury in part by attenuating inflammation, which may be attributed to the downregulation of the HMGB1-TLR4-MyD88-NF-?B signaling pathway mediated by the ?2-adrenergic receptor activation.
Project description:To investigate the inhibitory effects and mechanism of high mobility group box (HMGB)1 A-box in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal inflammation.Overexpression of HMGB1 A-box in human intestinal epithelial cell lines (SW480 cells) was achieved using the plasmid pEGFP-N1. HMGB1 A-box-overexpressing SW480 cells were stimulated with LPS and co-culturing with human monocyte-like cell lines (THP-1 cells) using a Transwell system, compared with another HMGB1 inhibitor ethyl pyruvate (EP). The mRNA and protein levels of HMGB1/toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling pathways [including HMGB1, TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor88 (MYD88), Phosphorylated Nuclear Factor κB (pNF-κB) p65] in the stimulated cells were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The levels of the proinflammatory mediators [including HMGB1, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] in the supernatants of the stimulated cells were determined by ELISA.EP downregulated the mRNA and protein levels of HMGB1, inhibited the TLR4 signaling pathways (TLR4, MYD88 and pNF-κB p65) and reduced the secretion of proinflammatory mediators (HMGB1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in the SW480 and THP-1 cells activated by LPS but not in the unstimulated cells. Activated by LPS, the overexpression of HMGB1 A-box in the SW480 cells also inhibited the HMGB1/TLR4 signaling pathways and reduced the secretion of these proinflammatory mediators in the THP-1 cells but not in the transfected and unstimulated cells.HMGB1 A-box, not only EP, can reduce LPS-induced intestinal inflammation through inhibition of the HMGB1/TLR4 signaling pathways.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the anti-inflammatory role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) ketatitis. METHODS:Expression of VIP was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 and BALB/c normal and A. fumigatus infected corneas. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with recombinant (r) VIP, while BALB/c mice were pretreated with VIP antagonist, and then infected with A. fumigatus. Clinical score was recorded. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1), and neutrophil infiltration were tested by PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. RESULTS:VIP mRNA expression in BALB/c cornea was higher than C57BL/6 cornea at 1 and 3d post infection (p.i.). rVIP treatment of C57BL/6 mice showed alleviated disease and down-regulated expression of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), while IL-10 expression was up-regulated. Neutrophil infiltration and TLR4, IL-17 expression were decreased after rVIP treatment, while LOX-1 expression was up-regulated in C57BL/6. VIP antagonist pretreatment showed increased disease and higher IL-1?, TNF-?, TLR4, IL-17 and MPO levels, while IL-10 and LOX-1 levels were down-regulated in BALB/c mice. CONCLUSION:rVIP alleviate disease response of C57BL/6 mice. VIP antagonist resulted in worsened disease of BALB/c mice. VIP proposed anti-inflammatory role in A. fumigatus keratitis.
Project description:We performed studies to determine the role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary inflammation. After mice were exposed to five cigarettes four times a day for 3 d, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and TLR4-mediated signaling were significantly up-regulated, and HMGB1 had translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in lung epithelial cells and then been released into the extracellular lung space. On CS exposure, inflammatory cell recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine production were significantly increased in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage, and these effects depended on the TLR4 signaling pathway. HMGB1 inhibition decreased the CS-induced inflammatory response, whereas treatment with exogenous HMGB1 aggravated the damage and increased the phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and I?B? in the lungs of wild-type mice but not in TLR4-knockout mice. Blockade of TLR4 action or TLR4 knockout significantly inhibited HMGB1-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cells and lung tissues. In addition, a MyD88 deficiency inhibited JNK, p38, and I?B? phosphorylation, and this effect was associated with the suppressed production of TNF-? and IL-1? in MTE cells and lung tissues in response to CS stimulation. Thus HMGB1 activates the NF-?B and JNK/p38 pathways through TLR4/MyD88-dependent signaling and induces an inflammatory response in lungs exposed to CS.
Project description:Aspergillus species are a major worldwide cause of corneal ulcers, resulting in visual impairment and blindness in immunocompetent individuals. To enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of Aspergillus keratitis, we developed a murine model in which red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing A. fumigatus (Af293.1RFP) conidia are injected into the corneal stroma, and disease progression and fungal survival are tracked over time. Using Mafia mice in which c-fms expressing macrophages and dendritic cells can be induced to undergo apoptosis, we demonstrated that the presence of resident corneal macrophages is essential for production of IL-1beta and CXCL1/KC, and for recruitment of neutrophils and mononuclear cells into the corneal stroma. We found that beta-glucan was highly expressed on germinating conidia and hyphae in the cornea stroma, and that both Dectin-1 and phospho-Syk were up-regulated in infected corneas. Additionally, we show that infected Dectin-1(-/-) corneas have impaired IL-1beta and CXCL1/KC production, resulting in diminished cellular infiltration and fungal clearance compared with control mice, especially during infection with clinical isolates expressing high beta-glucan. In contrast to Dectin 1(-/-) mice, cellular infiltration into infected TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-), and MD-2(-/-) mice corneas was unimpaired, indicating no role for these receptors in cell recruitment; however, fungal killing was significantly reduced in TLR4(-/-) mice, but not TLR2(-/-) or MD-2(-/-) mice. We also found that TRIF(-/-) and TIRAP(-/-) mice exhibited no fungal-killing defects, but that MyD88(-/-) and IL-1R1(-/-) mice were unable to regulate fungal growth. In conclusion, these data are consistent with a model in which beta-glucan on A.fumigatus germinating conidia activates Dectin-1 on corneal macrophages to produce IL-1beta, and CXCL1, which together with IL-1R1/MyD88-dependent activation, results in recruitment of neutrophils to the corneal stroma and TLR4-dependent fungal killing.
Project description:Previously we reported that corneal epithelial barrier function against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was MyD88-dependent. Here, we explored contributions of MyD88-dependent receptors using vital mouse eyes and confocal imaging. Uninjured IL-1R (-/-) or TLR4 (-/-) corneas, but not TLR2 (-/-), TLR5 (-/-), TLR7 (-/-), or TLR9 (-/-), were more susceptible to P. aeruginosa adhesion than wild-type (3.8-fold, 3.6-fold respectively). Bacteria adherent to the corneas of IL-1R (-/-) or TLR5 (-/-) mice penetrated beyond the epithelial surface only if the cornea was superficially-injured. Bone marrow chimeras showed that bone marrow-derived cells contributed to IL-1R-dependent barrier function. In vivo, but not ex vivo, stromal CD11c+?cells responded to bacterial challenge even when corneas were uninjured. These cells extended processes toward the epithelial surface, and co-localized with adherent bacteria in superficially-injured corneas. While CD11c+ cell depletion reduced IL-6, IL-1?, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL10 transcriptional responses to bacteria, and increased susceptibility to bacterial adhesion (>3-fold), the epithelium remained resistant to bacterial penetration. IL-1R (-/-) corneas also showed down-regulation of IL-6 and CXCL1 genes with and without bacterial challenge. These data show complex roles for TLR4, TLR5, IL-1R and CD11c+ cells in constitutive epithelial barrier function against P. aeruginosa, with details dependent upon in vivo conditions.